Bartolomé Mitre Martínez was an Argentine statesman, military figure, author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868. Mitre was born in Buenos Aires to a Greek family named Mitropoulos; as a liberal, he was an opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was forced into exile. He worked as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay as a supporter of General Fructuoso Rivera, who named Mitre Lieutenant Colonel of the Uruguayan Army in 1846. Mitre lived in Bolivia and Chile, in the latter country, he collaborated with legal scholar and fellow Argentine exile Juan Bautista Alberdi in the latter's periodical, El Comercio of Valparaíso. Mitre returned to Argentina after the defeat of Rosas at the 1852 Battle of Caseros, he was a leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires Province against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system in the Revolution of 11 September 1852, was appointed to important posts in the provincial government after the Province seceded from the Confederation. The civil war of 1859, after the revolt of Buenos Aires against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system, resulted in Mitre's defeat by Urquiza at the Battle of Cepeda, in 1860.
Issues of customs revenue sharing were settled, Buenos Aires reentered the Argentine Confederation. Victorious at the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Mitre obtained important concessions from the national army, notably the amendment of the Constitution to provide for indirect elections through an electoral college. In October 1862, Mitre was elected president of the republic, national political unity was achieved. During the Paraguayan War, Mitre was named the head of the allied forces. Mitre was the founder of La Nación, one of South America's leading newspapers, in 1870, his opposition to Autonomist Party nominee Adolfo Alsina, whom he viewed as a veiled Buenos Aires separatist, led Mitre to run for the presidency again, though the seasoned Alsina outmaneuvered him by fielding Nicolás Avellaneda, a moderate lawyer from remote Tucuman Province where the independence of Argentina had been declared in 1816. The electoral college met on 12 April 1874, awarded Mitre only three provinces, including Buenos Aires.
Mitre took up arms again. Hoping to prevent Avellaneda's 12 October inaugural, he mutineered a gunboat. Following the 1890 Revolution of the Park, he broke with the conservative National Autonomist Party and co-founded the Civic Union with reformist Leandro Alem. Mitre's desire to maintain an understanding with the ruling PAN led to the Civic Union's schism in 1891, upon which Mitre founded the National Civic Union, Alem, the Radical Civic Union, he dedicated much of his time in years to writing. According to some of his critics, as a historian Mitre took several questionable actions ignoring key documents and events on purpose in his writings; this caused his student Adolfo Saldías to distance himself from him, for future revisionist historians such as José María Rosa to question the validity of his work altogether. He wrote poetry and fiction, translated Dante's La divina commedia into Spanish, he was an active freemason, the grandfather of poet, Margarita Abella Caprile. On his death in 1906, he was interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
19 January 2006 marked the centenary of Mitre's death. Mitre ranks as an important South-American historiographer, he wrote the best accounts of South America's wars of independence and published many works, amongst which are: Historia de Belgrano y de la independencia argentina Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana Rimas Ulrich Schmidl, primer historiador del Rio de la Plata There is an abridged translation of the Historia de San Martín, entitled The Emancipation of South America by W. Pilling. Mitre's speeches were collected as Arengas. J. J. Biedma, El Teniente General Bartolomé Mitre, in Bartolomé Mitre, volume iii. William H. Katra, The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverría, Sarmiento, Mitre. Works by Bartolomé Mitre at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bartolomé Mitre at Internet Archive Works by Bartolomé Mitre at LibriVox
Julio Argentino Roca
Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz was an army general who served as 8th President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and 13th from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. Roca is the most important representatives of the Generation of'80 and is known for directing the "Conquest of the Desert", a series of military campaigns against the indigenous peoples of Patagonia. During his two terms as president, many important changes occurred major infrastructure projects of railroads and port facilities. Roca's main foreign policy concern was to set the limits with Chile, which had never been determined with precision. Roca took advantage of the fact that year of 1881, Chile was fighting the War of the Pacific against Bolivia and Peru, so for Chile it was strategically important not to have a second military front. Argentina gained territory by treaty with Chile. Roca was born in the northwestern city of San Miguel de Tucumán in 1843 into a prominent local family, he graduated from the National College in Entre Ríos.
Before he was 15, Roca joined the army of the Argentine Confederation, on 19 March 1858. While still an adolescent, he went to fight as a junior artillery officer in the struggle between Buenos Aires and the interior provinces, first on the side of the provinces and on behalf of the capital, he fought in the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay between 1865 and 1870. Roca rose to the rank of colonel serving in the war to suppress the revolt of Ricardo López Jordán in Entre Ríos. President Nicolás Avellaneda promoted him to General after his victory over rebel general José M. Arredondo in the battle of Santa Rosa, leading the loyalist forces. Roca saw the army "as an agent of national unification," and his experience in the army "broadened his understanding of Argentina and the provincial upper class." In 1878, during Avellaneda's presidency, he became Minister of War and it was his task to prepare a campaign that would bring an end to the "frontier problem" after the failure of the plan of Adolfo Alsina.
A number of indigenous groups defended their traditional territories and assaulted non-indigenous frontier settlements, taking horses and cattle, capturing women and children, who were enslaved or offered as brides to the warriors. Roca's approach to dealing with the Indian communities of the Pampas, was different from Alsina's, who had ordered the construction of a ditch and a defensive line of small fortresses across the Province of Buenos Aires. Roca saw no way to end native attacks but by putting under effective government control all land up to the Río Negro in a campaign that would "extinguish, subdue or expel" the Indians who lived there. "He began the campaign against the Ranqueles", which resulted in the "transfer of 35% of national territory from the Indians to local caudillos. This land conquest would strengthen Argentina's strategic position against Chile, he devised a "tentacle" move, with waves of 6,000 men cavalry units stemming coordinately from Mendoza, Córdoba, Santa Fé and Buenos Aires in July 1878 and April 1879 with an official toll of nearly 1,313 Native Americans killed and 15,000 taken as prisoners, is credited with the liberation of several hundred European hostages.
In mid-1879, after the death of Alsina, the most prestigious leader of the National Autonomous Party was General Roca, proposed as a candidate by Cordoba's governor Miguel Celman, in Buenos Aires by the doctor Eduardo Wilde. The April 11 elections for president, which came a sweeping victory for the voters of Roca, except in Buenos Aires and Corrientes. On June 13 the Electoral College met and elected President General Roca and Vice President Francisco Bernabé Madero, but in Buenos Aires it was brewing a revolution against the triumph of Roca. Four days the fighting began, which ended on June 25 with an agreement between the province and the nation. Shortly before the presidential inauguration Roca was passed in Congress federalization of Buenos Aires. Under his mandate the so-called "laicist laws" were passed, which nationalized a series of functions that were under the control of the Church, he created the so-called Registro Civil, an index of all births and marriages. President Roca made primary education free of charge by nationalizing education institutions run by the Church.
This led to a break in relations with the Vatican. Roca presided over an era of rapid economic development fueled by large scale European immigration, railway construction, booming agricultural exports. In May 1886 Roca was the subject of a failed assassination attempt. Roca himself had put forward Juárez Celman as his successor, his brother-in-law. However, Celman distanced himself from Roca. Celman's government was tarnished by the Baring crisis and corruption allegations. Roca did not participate in the 1890 revolution attempt against Celman, instigated by Leandro N. Alem and Bartolomé Mitre. However, he was pleased in the resulting weakness of Miguel Juárez Celman. After his first presidency Roca remained important politically, becoming a senator and Minister of the Interior under Carlos Pellegrini. After President Luis Sáenz Peña resigned in January 1895, José Evaristo Uriburu took over the presidenc
Carmen de Patagones
Carmen de Patagones is the southernmost city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located 937 km southwest from the city of Buenos Aires, on the north bank of the Río Negro, near the Atlantic Ocean, opposite Viedma, capital of the province of Río Negro; the city is the capital of the Patagones Partido, the only administrative division of Buenos Aires Province that lies within Patagonia. The town was founded in 1779 by Francisco de Viedma, an explorer leading a Spanish expedition commissioned with colonizing Patagonia's shores. In the 19th century, Carmen de Patagones had a fort, after the May Revolution of 1810, it became a prison for royalists. During the Cisplatine War, the town became a naval base, since the main Argentine safe harbour, the estuary of the Río de la Plata, had been blocked by Brazilian ships; the Brazilian troops attempted to take Carmen de Patagones, but they were repelled by armed residents on 7 March 1827. The city maintains two imperial Brazilian flags captured during the battle in the central cathedral on the site of the original fort where the battle took place.
The town and its twin city, became the focus of attention in 1986, when President Raúl Alfonsín announced the Patagonia Project, which envisaged the transfer of the nation's capital to a new federal district encompassing the two towns at the mouth of the Río Negro. Approved by the Congress in 1987, the plan was rescinded when Alfonsín's successor, President Carlos Menem, disbanded Entecap, the commission overseeing the project, in 1989. Carmen de Patagones school shooting Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Carmen de Patagones, la fiesta del 7 de marzo
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres; the southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst the Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, it was under brief British rule in 1807. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of Mercosur and ALADI, Latin America’s leading trade blocs, a position that entailed comparisons to the role of Brussels in Europe; the 2017 Mercer's report on quality of life, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, a rank the city has held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in the continent and 9th highest income earner among major cities. In 2019, it has a projected GDP of $47.7 billion, with a per capita of $27,542.
In 2018, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in Latin America and 84th in the world. Montevideo hosted every match during the first FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", "a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture", Montevideo ranked eighth in Latin America on the 2013 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was regarded as the fifth most gay-friendly metropolis in the world, first in Latin America, it is higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is the financial and cultural hub of a larger metropolitan area, with a population of around 2 million. There are several explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the "video" part. Monte vide eu is the most widespread belief but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of dialects.
The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo. Monte Vidi: This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes, who wrote, "Tuesday of the said we were on the straits of Cape Santa María, from where the coast runs east to west, the terrain is sandy, at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document that mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but it does not contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu." Monte-VI-D-E-O: According to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of history, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart, so that the mount/hill is the VI mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from east to west.
With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro. Monte Ovidio, a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin, stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi. Ovidio was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century. Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.
This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were known as Guanches or Canarians. There was one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues. A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo shortened to Montevideo; the census counted fifty families of Galician and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous people Guaraní, as well as Black African slaves of Bantu origin.
A few years after its foundation, Montevideo became the main city of the region north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Uruguay River, competing with Buenos Aires for dominance i
Isla de los Estados
Isla de los Estados is an Argentine island that lies 29 kilometres off the eastern extremity of the Argentine portion of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the Le Maire Strait. It was named after the Netherlands States-General, its original Dutch name was identical to that of the New York borough of Staten Island; the island is administratively part of the Argentinian province of Tierra del Fuego, of the department and city of Ushuaia. It has been declared an "Ecological and Tourist Provincial Reserve", with access limited to tours from Ushuaia; the only settlement is the Puerto Parry Naval Station, located in a deep and narrow fjord on the northern coast of the island. The naval station, established in 1978, is manned by a team of four marines on a 45-day rotation, they monitor environmental conservation and ship movements, provide emergency assistance. Prior to European arrival, the islands were visited by the Haush who inhabited the Mitre Peninsula; the first European to discover the island was the Spanish naval captain Francisco de Hoces, when in 1526 the ship San Lesmes, from the Spanish expedition of Loaísa, separated from the rest in a storm, being displaced to the south parallel 55, becoming the discoverer of the great island east of Tierra del Fuego, which would be called the Island of the States or Staten Island.
A century after the Spaniards, the Dutch explorers Jacob le Maire and Willem Schouten passed the island on 25 December 1615, naming it Staten Landt. Le Maire and Schouten sailed their ship, through a route south of the Straits of Magellan, a route now called the Le Maire Strait. To his left Le Maire noted the land mass. Dutch captain Hendrik Brouwer recorded sighting the island in 1643. No Europeans are known to have settled on the island for more than 200 years. In 1862 Argentine pilot Luis Piedrabuena established a shelter near Port Cook, built a small seal oil extraction facility on the island. On New Year's Day, 1775, Captain James Cook named what is now "Puerto Año Nuevo", "New Years Island". Seal hunters established a short-lived factory there, but abandoned it after Duke of York wrecked there on 11 September 1787 while bringing supplies; the island is referenced in Richard Henry Dana Jr.'s book "Two Years Before the Mast" as the first land they see after leaving San Diego. He describes the land as "... bare and girt with rocks and ice, with here and there, between rocks and broken hillocks, a little stunted vegetation of shrubs..."
More than twenty years the San Juan del Salvamento Lighthouse was inaugurated on May 25, 1884, by Comodoro Augusto Lasserre. It operated until September 1900; the lighthouse, better known as Faro del fin del mundo, is said to have inspired Jules Verne's novel The Lighthouse at the End of the World. A military prison was based on the island from 1899 to 1902, it had to be moved to Tierra del Fuego after being compromised by the strong winds. The island is 65 kilometres long east-west, 15 kilometres wide, with an area of 534 square kilometres; the island is indented by bays. Its highest point is 823 metres, is considered to be the last prominence of the Andes mountain range, it receives around 2,000 millimetres of rain per year. The island is surrounded by minor islands and rocks, the largest being Observatorio island 6.5 kilometres north, with an area of 4 square kilometres. At the eastern end of the island is Cape St John, a landmark for ships sailing around the island in order to avoid the currents and tides of the Le Maire Strait to the west.
The island has a cold and humid climate and is characterized by rapid and unpredictable changes in the weather from day to day. Under the Köppen climate classification, despite the vegetation, it would be classified as a mild tundra climate, a cold climate with a mean temperature in the warmest month below 10 °C with abundant precipitation year-round; the climate of the island is influenced by the subpolar low pressure system which develops around the Antarctic Circle and the surrounding oceans. Being located between the semi–permanent high pressure cell and the subpolar low, the island is exposed to westerlies throughout the year. Temperatures are low year round but without extreme minimum temperatures; the mean temperature in summer is 8.3 °C with mean extremes of 16.2 °C and 3.0 °C while in winter, the mean temperature is 3.3 °C with mean extremes of 7.7 °C and −4 °C. Mean temperatures are lower in Tierra del Fuego but due to the moderating influence of the ocean, extreme minimum temperatures are higher than in Tierra del Fuego.
Coastal areas have average temperatures above 0 °C in the coldest month while higher altitude locations may average below 0 °C. Though no reliable records are available, it is estimated that the island averages around 2,000 mm of precipitation per year. However, owing to its relief, precipitation is variable across the island. In the eastern parts of the island, it averages 1,400 mm based on 4 years of data. Precipitation occurs o
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Giacomo Bove was an Italian explorer. He sailed with Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld on the first voyage through the north-east passage, explored Tierra del Fuego and the Congo River. Giacomo Bove was born in Maranzana, Piedmont, on 23 April 1852 to Francesco Bove and Antonia Garbarino, he was the eldest of five brothers. His family made wine for sale, he went to primary school in Maranzana and in Acqui Terme, before being admitted to the Naval Academy in Genoa. He graduated with honors, was able to serve as a midshipman on the scientific expedition of the Governolo to the Far East; the Governolo mission mapped the coast of Borneo, performed hydrological surveys, studied the ethnography of the local people. The Governolo visited Malaya, the Philippines and Japan. Apart from its scientific goals, Italy was interested in opening up trade with Japan, emerging from a long period of isolation, if possible to obtain silk worms to replace those of northern Italy, devastated by disease. On 24 September 1876 Bove was promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant.
In April 1877 he was sent to the Strait of Messina on the Washington to study ocean currents. In 1878 Lieutenant Giacomo Bove was chosen to participate in the Vega expedition of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld to search for the north-east passage. Bove represented Italy on the expedition, acted as sailing master, he was in charge of the chronometers and made the astronomical observations needed to fix the ship's position. The steamer Vega left Karlskrona on 22 June 1878, picking up Nordenskiöld on 17 July at Tromsø. Vega crossed the Barents sea, accompanied by three cargo vessels sailed along the northern coast of Russia, arriving at Dikson on 6 August 1878. Leaving two of the cargo ships to sail inland from that port to collect cargoes of grain, the Vega and Lena skirted the coast to the mouth of the Lena River, where the Lena left on 28 August 1878 to sail up the river to Yakutsk; the Vega continued onward, but was forced by worsening conditions to anchor on 28 September 1878 in Kolyuchinskaya Bay, only 130 miles from the Bering Strait.
The Vega was icebound until 18 July 1879, but used the time to undertake scientific research and to study the ethnography of the local Chukchi people. The crew built shelters from blocks of ice, from which the scientists made magnetic and meteorological observations. Nordenskiöld records an account by Lieutenant Bove of a trip he made accompanied by the hunter Johnson on New Year's Day to check the condition of the ice towards the sea. I left the vessel on the forenoon of 1st January and reached the open water after four hours' steady walking; the deep loose snow made walking fatiguing, three rows of torosses contributed to this in consequence of the snow-covered cracks, which crossed the ice-sheet in their neighborhood. One of the torosses was ten meters high; the size of the blocks of ice, which were here heaped on each other, showed how powerful the forces were that had formed the torosses. These ice ramparts now afford a much-needed protection to the Vega's winter haven. After leaving the winter stopping point, the ship steamed south via the Bering Strait, Chukotka peninsula, St. Lawrence Island and Commander Islands to Japan homeward via China, Singapore and the Suez Canal.
The Vega reached Naples on 4 February 1880 continued on to Stockholm. The round trip had covered a distance of 22,189 miles. On his return to Europe, Bove was made a Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog by King Christian IX of Denmark, his home town of Maranzana gave him a gold medal and on 20 June 1880 he was appointed a Lieutenant of the Italian Royal Navy. Bove devoted his efforts to organizing an expedition to the Antarctic to continue the scientific observations, made by the English navigator James Clark Ross, he wanted staying as far south as possible. Bove's idea was endorsed by Cristoforo Negri, President of the Italian Geographic Society, but the newly formed Italian state was not able to afford the cost. Bove visited Argentina, where he made contact with Dr. Estanislao Zeballos of the Argentine Geographic Institute. Zeballos was interested in his plans and raised the interest of the authorities in the "Argentine Austral Expedition". A commission was established to find funding. General Julio Argentino Roca, President of Argentina, assigned the corvettes Uruguay and Cabo de Horno to the expedition.
Where Bove had wanted to stop at Tierra del Fuego explore the coast of Graham Land, circumnavigate Antarctica and return north to Cape Town, the modified plan for the Expedicion Austral Argentina had exploration of the coasts of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados as its main goal. The first stage was to survey the region of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego to improve navigation and find areas with good potential for fishery, the second stage was to explore Graham Land to the south, if possible. On 7 June 1881 Bove married a widow. Three months on 3 September 1881 he sailed for Argentina in the Europe. Bove's group left Buenos Aires on 17 December 1881 in the corvette Cabo de Hornos commanded by Luis Piedrabuena. On this trip Decio Vinciguerra was both zoologist and botanist, but in fact Carlos Luigi Spegazzini from Buenos Aires handled the botanical work; the geologist Domenico Lovisato and the hydrologist Giovanni Roncagli made up the scientific party. The expedition stopped at Puerto Santa Cruz, reached Port Roca on the north of the Isla de los Estados on 8 February 1882.
By 10 April the Cabo de Hornos was in Possession Bay. Bove became impatient with the co