Mathias-Marie Duval was a French professor of anatomy and histology born in Grasse. He was the son of botanist Joseph Duval-Jouve, he studied medicine in Paris, served as prosector in Strassburg. In 1873 he became agrégé, subsequently becoming director of the anthropological laboratory at the École des Hautes Etudes and an anatomy professor at the École Supérieur des Beaux-Arts. In 1885 he replaced Charles-Philippe Robin as professor of histology at the medical faculty in Paris. In 1892 he became a member of the Académie de Médecine, he was a member of the International Society for the History of Medicine. Duval is remembered for research involving placental development in mice and rats, was the first to identify trophoblast invasion in rodents. With Austrian-American gynecologist Walter Schiller, Schiller Duval bodies are named, which are structures found in endodermal sinus tumors. Sur la structure et usages de la rétine. Thesis for agrégé- 1873 Manuel du microscopie. 1873, second edition- 1877.
Précis de technique microscopique et histologique, ou introduction pratique à l’anatomie générale.. Paris, J.-B. Baillière et fils, 1878. 315 pages. Précis de l'anatomie à l'usage des artistes, 1881. Leçons sur la physiologie du système nerveux, 1883. Le placenta des rongeurs. Journal de l'anatomie et de la physiologie normales et pathologiques de l'homme et des animaux, Paris, 1891, 27: 24–73, 344–395, 513–612. Le placenta des rongeurs. Paris, Felix Alcan, 1892. Précis d'histologie, Paris, 1897, 1900. Histoire d'anatomie plastique: les maîtres, les livres et les échorchès. Paris: Picard & Kann, 1898. A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière Mathias-Marie Duval @ Who Named It
Camillo Golgi was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system. He studied medicine at the University of Pavia between 1860 and 1868 under the tutelage of Cesare Lombroso. Inspired by pathologist Giulio Bizzozero, he pursued research in nervous system, his discovery of a staining technique called black reaction in 1873 was a major breakthrough in neuroscience. Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex, he is recognized as biologist of his time. Golgi and the Spanish biologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal were jointly given the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906 "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system". Camillo Golgi was born in July 1843 in the province of Brescia, Italy; the village is now named Corteno Golgi in his honour. His father Allessandro Golgi was a physician and district medical officer from Pavia.
In 1860, he entered the University of Pavia to study medicine, earned his medical degree in 1865. He did an internship at the San Matteo Hospital. During his internship he worked as a civil physician in the Italian Army, as assistant surgeon at the Novara Hospital. At the same time he was involved in the medical team for investigating cholera epidemic in villages around Pavia. In 1867, he resumed his academic study under the supervision of Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso was a renowned scientist in medical psychology such as genius and criminality. Inspired by Lombroso, Golgi wrote a thesis on the etiology of mental disorders, from which he obtained his M. D. in 1868. He became more interested in experimental medicine, started attending the Institute of General Pathology headed by Giulio Bizzozero. Three years his junior, Bizzozero was an eloquent teacher and experimenter, who specialised in histology of the nervous system and the properties of bone marrow; the most important research publications of Golgi were directly or indirectly influenced by Bizzozero.
The two became so close. By 1872, Golgi was an established clinician and histopathologist. He, had no opportunity as a tenured professor in Pavia to pursue teaching and research in neurology. Financial pressure prompted him to join the Hospital of the Chronically Ill in Abbiategrasso, near Milan, as Chief Medical Officer in 1872. To continue research, he set up a simple laboratory on his own in a refurbished hospital kitchen, it was there that he started making his most notable discoveries, his major achievement was the development of staining technique for nerve tissue called the black reaction. He published his major works between 1875 and 1885 in the journal Rivista sperimentale di Freniatria e di medicina legale. In 1875, he joined the faculty of histology at the University of Pavia. In 1879, he was appointed Chair of Anatomy at the University of Siena, but the next year, he returned to the University of Pavia as full Professor of histology. From 1879 he became Professor of General Pathology as well as Honorary Chief at the San Matteo Hospital.
He served as Rector of the University of Pavia twice, first between 1893 and 1896, second between 1901 and 1909. During the First World War, he directed the military hospital Collegio Borrmeo at Pavia, he retired in 1918 and continued to research in his private laboratory till 1923. He died on 21 January 1926. Golgi and his wife Lina Aletti had no children, they adopted Golgi's niece Carolina. Golgi was irreligious in his life and became an agnostic atheist. One of his former students attempted an unsuccessful deathbed conversion on him. Central nervous system was difficult to study during Golgi's time because the cells were hard to identify; the available tissue staining techniques were useless for studying nervous tissue. While working as chief medical officer at the Hospital of the Chronically Ill, he experimented with metal impregnation of nervous tissue, using silver. In the early 1873, he discovered a method of staining nervous tissue that would stain a limited number of cells at random in their entirety.
He first treated the tissue with potassium dichromate to harden it, with silver nitrate. Under microscope, the outline of the neuron became distinct from cells; the silver chromate precipitate, as a reaction product, only selective stains some cellular components randomly, sparing other cell parts. The silver chromate particles create a stark black deposit on the soma as well as on the axon and all dendrites, providing an exceedingly clear and well-contrasted picture of neuron against a yellow background; this makes it easier to trace the structure of the nerve cells in the brain for the first time. Since cells are selective stained in black, he called the process la reazione nera, but today it is called Golgi's method or the Golgi stain. On 16 February 1873, he wrote to his friend Niccolò Manfredi: I am delighted that I have found a new reaction to demonstrate to the blind, the structure of the interstitial stroma of the cerebral cortex, his discovery was published in the Gazzeta Medica Italiani on 2 August 1873.
In 1871, a German anatomist Joseph von Gerlach postulated
Louis-Antoine Ranvier was a French physician, pathologist and histologist, who discovered the nodes of Ranvier spaced discontinuities of the myelin sheath, occurring at varying intervals along the length of a nerve fiber. Ranvier was born and studied medicine at Lyon, graduating in 1865, he founded a small private research laboratory with Victor André Cornil, together they offered a course in histology to medical students. They wrote together an influential textbook on histopathology. In 1867, Ranvier worked as an assistant to Claude Bernard. In 1875, he was appointed to its chair of general anatomy. In 1878, Ranvier discovered the nodes. Other anatomical structures bearing his name are the Merkel-Ranvier cells, melanocyte-like cells in the basal layer of the epidermis that contain catecholamine granules. In 1897, he founded the scientific journal Archives d'anatomie microscopique with Edouard-Gérard Balbiani; some of his most noted students were Ferdinand-Jean Darier, Justin Marie Jolly, Joaquín Albarrán, Luis Simarro Lacabra and Fredrik Georg Gade.
He retired in 1900 to his estate in Thélys and died at Vendranges in 1922. Ranvier, Louis-Antoine and Victor André Cornil. 1869. Manuel d'histologie pathologique. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1875-1882. Traité technique d'histologie. Paris: F. Savy Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1878. Leçons sur l'histologie du système nerveux, par M. L. Ranvier, recueillies par M. Ed. Weber. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1880. Leçons d'anatomie générale sur le système musculaire, par L. Ranvier, recueillies par M. J. Renaut. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine. 1885. Exposé des titres et des travaux de M. L. Ranvier. Paris Ranvier, Louis-Antoine at The Virtual Laboratory
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology", his work influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses". Born in Paris, Charcot taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years, his reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, revered, Duchenne de Boulogne."He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children and Jean-Baptiste, who became a doctor and a famous polar explorer".
He was accused of being an atheist. Charcot's primary focus was neurology, he was the first to describe multiple sclerosis. Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclérose en plaques; the three signs of multiple sclerosis now known as Charcot's triad 1 are nystagmus, intention tremor, telegraphic speech, though these are not unique to MS. Charcot observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly", he was the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception. He researched the functions of different parts of the brain and the role of arteries in cerebral hemorrhage. Charcot was among the first to describe Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; the announcement was made with Pierre Marie of France and Howard Henry Tooth of England. The disease is sometimes called peroneal muscular atrophy.
Charcot's studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of Parkinson's disease. Among other advances he made the distinction between rigidity and bradykinesia, he led the disease named paralysis agitans to be renamed after James Parkinson. He noted apparent variations on PD, such as Parkinson's disease with hyperextension. Charcot received the first European professional chair of clinical diseases for the nervous system in 1882. Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime, he believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease. Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with "hystero-epilepsy".
He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism "developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in'animal magnetism' and'mesmerization'", revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis, his study of hysteria "attract both scientific and social notoriety". Bogousslavsky and Veyrunes write:Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria... For the members of the Salpêtrière School, susceptibility to hypnotism was synonymous with disease, i.e. hysteria, although they recognized... that grand hypnotisme should be differentiated from petit hypnotisme, which corresponded to the hypnosis of ordinary people. Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria, he taught that due to this prejudice these "cases went unrecognised by distinguished doctors" and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers.
Charcot's analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas. The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time. Bernheim argued that the hypnosis and hysteria phenomena that Charcot had famously demonstrated were in fact due to suggestion. However, Charcot himself had had longstanding concerns about the use of hypnosis in treatment and about its effect on patients, he was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism. Charcot thought of art as a crucial tool of the clinicoanatomic method, he used photos and drawings, many made in his classes and conferences. He drew outside the neurology domain, as a personal hobby.
Like Duchenne, he is considered a key figure in the incorporation of photography to the study
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including sensation & perception, cognition, motivation, emotion. Experimental psychology emerged as a modern academic discipline in the 19th century when Wilhelm Wundt introduced a mathematical and experimental approach to the field. Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in Germany. Other experimental psychologists, including Hermann Ebbinghaus and Edward Titchener, included introspection among their experimental methods. Charles Bell was a British physiologist, whose main contribution was research involving the nervous system, he wrote a pamphlet summarizing his research on rabbits. His research concluded that sensory nerves enter at the posterior roots of the spinal cord and motor nerves emerge from the anterior roots of the spinal cord. Eleven years a French physiologist Francois Magendie published the same findings without being aware of Bell’s research.
Due to Bell not publishing his research, the discovery was called the Bell-Magendie law. Bell's discovery disproved the belief that nerves transmitted either spirits. Weber was a German physician, credited with being one of the founders of experimental psychology, his main interests were the sense of touch and kinesthesis. His most memorable contribution is the suggestion that judgments of sensory differences are relative and not absolute; this relativity is expressed in "Weber's Law," which suggests that the just-noticeable difference, or jnd is a constant proportion of the ongoing stimulus level. Weber's Law is stated as an equation: Δ I I = k, where I is the original intensity of stimulation, Δ I is the addition to it required for the difference to be perceived, k is a constant. Thus, for k to remain constant, Δ I must rise as I increases. Weber’s law is considered the first quantitative law in the history of psychology. Fechner published in 1860 what is considered to be the first work of experimental psychology, "Elemente der Psychophysik."
Some historians date the beginning of experimental psychology from the publication of "Elemente." Weber was not a psychologist, it was Fechner who realized the importance of Weber’s research to psychology. Fechner was profoundly interested in establishing a scientific study of the mind-body relationship, which became known as psychophysics. Much of Fechner's research focused on the measurement of psychophysical thresholds and just-noticeable differences, he invented the psychophysical method of limits, the method of constant stimuli, the method of adjustment, which are still in use. Oswald Külpe is the main founder of the Würzburg School in Germany, he was a pupil of Wilhelm Wundt for about twelve years. Unlike Wundt, Külpe believed. In 1883 he wrote Grundriss der Psychologie, which had scientific facts and no mention of thought; the lack of thought in his book is odd because the Würzburg School put a lot of emphasis on mental set and imageless thought. The work of the Würzburg School was a milestone in the development of experimental psychology.
The School was founded by a group of psychologists led by Oswald Külpe, it provided an alternative to the structuralism of Edward Titchener and Wilhelm Wundt. Those in the School focused on mental operations such as mental set and imageless thought. Mental set affects problem solving without the awareness of the individual. According to Külpe, imageless thought consists of pure mental acts that do not involve mental images. An example of mental set was provided by William Bryan, an American student working in Külpe’s laboratory. Bryan presented subjects with cards; the subjects were told to attend to the syllables, in consequence they did not remember the colors of the nonsense syllables. Such results made people question the validity of introspection as a research tool, led to a decline of voluntarism and structuralism; the work of the Würzburg School influenced many Gestalt psychologists, including Max Wertheimer. Experimental psychology was introduced into the United States by George Trumbull Ladd, who founded Yale University's psychological laboratory in 1879.
In 1887, Ladd published Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook that extensively discussed experimental psychology. Between Ladd's founding of the Yale Laboratory and his textbook, the center of experimental psychology in the US shifted to Johns Hopkins University, where George Hall and Charles Sanders Peirce were extending and qualifying Wundt's work. With his student Joseph Jastrow, Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights. Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the 1800s; the Peirce–Jastrow experiments were conducted as part of Peirce's pragmatic program to understand human perception. While Peirce was making advance
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev