A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers texts are published across a range of media, skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term. Some writers work from an oral tradition, Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas, some writers may use images or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words, as well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write, why they write, and comment on the work of other writers. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be either in advance.
Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work, Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium, for example, a writers work may be read privately or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, the writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, biography, or journalism. The genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted, novel to film, poem to play, Writers may begin their career in one genre and change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature, many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of detail in the work both tend to be debated.
Some writers write both fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, translator, poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one. To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of techniques such as alliteration. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes, Shakespeares famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts, the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, and the Royal Hungarian Honved, with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being. It existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918, all of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k. u. k. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new uniform color. The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. Nevertheless, the general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers, especially Italy, soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902.
The most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia, despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 255,000, this was significantly less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0. 29% of its population, the 1889 army law was not revised until 1912, which allowed for an increase in annual conscriptions. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics, in 1896, out of 1000 officers,791 were Roman Catholics,86 Protestants,84 Jews,39 Greek-Orthodox, and one Uniate.
Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, while the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about 5%, Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers, following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who generally regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség. Despite increases throughout the 1850s and 1860s, in the half of the century Austria-Hungary was still spending less on its army than were other major European powers. Attempts to increase the intake of recruits were proposed but repeatedly blocked by officials in Budapest until an agreement was reached in 1912. In the emerging field of aviation, Austria-Hungary lagged behind other European states
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film and television. The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής, literally one who answers, the actors interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys. The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term.
Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the 1950–1960s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor – I can play anything. The U. K. performers union Equity has no policy on the use of actor or actress, an Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the. subject divides the profession. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. However, player remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a group or company, such as the American Players. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as players, prior to Thespis act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, and in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called Thespians, the exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play.
Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans, as the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies, from the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Gherdëina is a valley in Northern Italy, in the Dolomites of South Tyrol. It is best known as a skiing, rock climbing, the valleys main river is the Derjon. The three municipalities in Gherdëina are Urtijëi, Sëlva, and Santa Cristina, they were served by the Fërata de Gherdëina from 1916 until 1960, Gherdëina is one of five valleys with a majority of Ladin speakers. The form of the Ladin language spoken in this valley is called Gardenese in Italian, Grödnerisch in German, the woodcarving industry has flourished in Gherdëina since the 17th century. Since the 19th century and altars carved in the area have been shipped to Catholic churches throughout the world, in the 18th century, besides religious statuettes, the production of woodcarved figurines of genre art was widespread in the valley. Among them statuettes of beggars generally in pairs, four seasons, in the 19th and 20th century, carving of wooden toys was such a widespread occupation in all Gardenese families that Amelia Edwards called Urtijëi the capital of Toyland.
One of the valleys best-known products is the peg wooden doll which was all over Europe. In one of her many trips Margaret Warner Morley went to Europe to Gherdëina where she was inspired to write the novel Donkey John of the toy valley, the Parish Church of Urtijëi displays a rich collection of statues carved by local artists in the last two centuries. The Museum Gherdëina in Urtijëi owns a collection of historical wooden toys. The valley hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships in 1970, Gherdëina is home to the Saslong Classic, a mens World Cup downhill race that has been held almost every year since 1969. Since 2002, the downhill has been paired with a super G race, the Saslong course is considered one of the five classic mens downhill races, along with Garmisch-Partenkirchens Kandahar, Kitzbühels Hahnenkamm, Wengens Lauberhorn, and Val dIseres Criterium. It is well known for the Camel Humps, a series of three small jumps which racers must negotiate in quick succession, two men have managed to win the Saslong title four times in a career, Austrian Franz Klammer and Italys Kristian Ghedina.
If super G wins are included, two men have matched that feat, Peter Müller of Switzerland and Austrian Michael Walchhofer. A womens slalom and parallel slalom were held in 1975. Gherdëina is part of the Sella Ronda alpine ski touring circuit, the Gardena Spring Trophy is an annual international figure skating competition held every spring in the Valley. Gherdëina has a Serie A ice hockey team, the HC Gherdëina, carolina Kostner is a figure skater and cousin of Isolde Kostner, the ski-champion. Giorgio Moroder record producer, performer and DJ Woodcarved beggars Amelia Edwards, a midsummer ramble in the Dolomites. Donkey John of the toy valley
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled. The timed runs are combined to calculate the final score, all three types were adapted from boys delivery sleds and toboggans. Competition naturally followed, and to protect the class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz. It has hosted the sport during two Olympics and is still in use today, International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation, known as FIBT from the French Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing. National competitions are governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation. Although sledding on snow or ice had been popular in northern countries. It developed from two crestas attached together with a board and with a steering mechanism attached to the front cresta, the name of the sport appeared when competitors adopted the technique of bobbing back and forth inside the sled to increase its speed.
This had both short- and long-term outcomes, in the term the guests began to scheme about and invent steering means for the sleds, which became the luge, bobsleighs. Long term, after a couple of years of happy pedestrian peril. Still in operation as of 2014, this has served as a host track during two Winter Olympics, as one of the few natural weather tracks in the world, it does not use artificial refrigeration. The first informal races took place on snow-covered roads, formal competitions started in 1884 at St. Moritz. Its not known how much the original track evolved in the years as the three sports matured and stabilized. The first club formed in 1897, and the first purpose-built track solely for bobsleds opened in 1902 outside of St Moritz, over the years, bobsleigh tracks evolved from straight runs to twisting and turning tracks. The original wooden sleds gave way to streamlined fiberglass and metal ones, the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation was founded in 1923. Mens four-man bobsleigh appeared in the first ever Winter Olympic Games in 1924, though not included in the 1960 Winter Olympics, bobsleigh has featured in every Winter Olympics since.
Womens bobsleigh competition began in the US in 1983 with two races in Lake Placid, New York, one held in February and the second held during the World Cup races in March 1983. Womens two-woman bobsleigh made its Olympic debut at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, Bobsleigh is contested at American and World Cup championships. Germany and Switzerland have proven the most successful bobsleighing nations measured by overall success in European, World Cup, since the 1990s Germans have dominated in international competition, having won more medals than any other nation
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol and it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck, the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called North Tyrol and the area is called East Tyrol. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Salzburg in the east and Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria, in the south, it borders with South Tyrol. East Tyrol shares its borders with the state of Carinthia to the east. The states territory is located entirely within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass, the highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria, in ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum.
From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes, when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363, in 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck. The Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500, South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleons defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814, Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867. After World War I, these became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955, the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, and especially for its medicine.
Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Kitzbühel, the 14 largest towns in Tyrol are, Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C, Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Roman Empire, the Via Claudia Augusta. From there roads branched along the River Inn, the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today
South Tyrol, known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres and its capital is the city of Bolzano. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy, South Tyrol is the term most commonly used in English for the province, and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol, Alto Adige, one of the Italian names for the province, is used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and it was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol. The official name of the today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol.
German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung and Landeshauptmann. The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side, with the rise of Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, the regime favored immigration from other Italian regions. The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945, after the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority, alcide De Gasperi, Italys prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region, in a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives, the South Tyrolean question became an international issue. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, the issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified
Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951. The post-nominal letters for the order are OMRI, investiture takes place biannually on 2 June, anniversary of the foundation of the Republic and on 27 December, anniversary of the promulgation of the Italian Constitution. However, those awards on Presidential motu proprio, related to termination of service or granted to foreigners may be made at any time, except in exceptional circumstances, no one can be awarded for the first time a rank higher than Knight. The minimum age requirement is normally 35
Patriotism is an attachment to a homeland. This attachment can be viewed in terms of different features relating to ones own homeland, including ethnic and it encompasses a set of concepts closely related to those of nationalism. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism, the abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century. The general notion of virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church. It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in schools since their patrie was heaven. One of the most influential proponents of this notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Enlightenment thinkers criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism, in 1774, Samuel Johnson published The Patriot, a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, there is no direct evidence to contradict the widely held belief that Johnsons famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself.
Patriotism is the will of the members of a country to support the country, Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion. This is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces. Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies largely on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. Wellman calls this position patriotist rather than nationalist to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups, marxists have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that The working men have no country, the same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, who is in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth. On the other hand and Maoists are usually in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country.
Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism, the results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, since 1981, the World Values Survey explores peoples national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer for high income residents of a country to the question Are you proud to be. Charles Blatberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics, Putting Practice First, craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational. in Ethnicity and Minority Rights, Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires