Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina is a city and municipality in the western part of the province of Toledo, which in turn is part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha, Spain. It is the second-largest population center in Castile-La Mancha, its population of 83,303 makes it the fourth largest town in the region of Castilla-La Mancha, after Albacete and Toledo. The city is settled along the river Tagus at a broad bank. There are two islands in the center of the city called Chamelo Island; the city is surrounded by two ranges of mountains, in the north the Sierra de San Vicente, in the south Montes de Toledo. The city is divided in two by the river Tagus; the northern part is the more populated. Talavera has a transition climate between the harsher continentalized mediterranean climate of the central table land and the mild-winter mediterranean climate of nearby Extremadura. Overall the climate is warmer than Madrid; the area is fertile with Mediterranean forests, olive trees and cork forests. The city is internationally known for its ceramics, which Philip II of Spain used as tiled revetments in many of his works, such as the monastery of El Escorial.
The nickname of Talavera de la Reina is'The City of Pottery'. Mexico's famous Talavera pottery was named after the city. There are remnants of prehistoric cultures in the area; the village was founded by the Celts as a ford of the Tagus. The first mention of the city occurs in Livy's description of a battle between the Romans and the Carpetanoi, a Celtiberian tribe. After the Roman conquest of Hispania, it was known as Caesarobriga, one of many Celtic toponyms preserved in Roman Hispania, with a name connoting "fortified", extended to many non-fortified rowns: "Caesarburg". Caesarobriga served as an important center for agriculture and ceramics in the 3rd and 4th centuries BCE During the Visigothic period, Talavera reverted to a variant of its Celtiberian name: Elbora or Ebora, its modern name is derived from the Muslim rendering of this Visigothic name. The city was conquered by Muslim forces in 713 and conquered by Christian forces under Alfonso VI of Castile in 1083. Talavera de la Reina was founded at the confluence of the rivers Tagus.
This area of great ecological wealth was the settlement of Celtic people who built the most ancient ruins of the area. During the time of the Roman Empire the name of the city was Caesarobriga. In 182 BCE Quintus Fulvius Flaccus conquered the city, establishing it as part of the Roman province of Lusitania as a city that would pay a stipend, as the capital of an extended area included in the legal convent of the city of Emerita Augusta; the leader Viriato, in his war against the Romans, lived in this territory between 145 and 139 BCE. In this period Talavera de la Reina was a rich city with commercial exchange. Christianity came early to the city, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Visigoths established in the city. Talavera was known as or. In the year 602, King Liuva II made a present to the city: the sculpture of the Virgin Mary, from to the present day the symbol of the Christians in Talavera de la Reina, the substitute for the goddess Ceres. In honour of the goddess Ceres, Talaverian Romans celebrated the spring festival called Mondas, still celebrated for the Virgin Mary.
The Muslims conquered Talavera in 712. They built a castle in Talavera, they brought the use of fountains, water mills and new products brought from Africa and Asia. The fertile soil produced quality vegetables and grass for animal feed; the markets gained new strength, the population, a mixture of Christians and Jews, lived in harmony for some centuries. Medina Al Talavayra took part in different wars between the kingdoms of Spain, becoming allied with Córdoba and Badajoz. Talavera was the capital of an ephemeral taifa. After the city was reconquered in the 11th Century by Alfonso VI, it was an important trade center in medieval Spain. King Sancho IV gave the royal privilege to hold two royal markets each year. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Talavera achieved great recognition, thanks to its pottery. Wonderful pieces of pottery and Talavera tiles are found in the main museums of the world and in the most luxurious palaces all over Europe. Talaverian people participated in the conquest of America, like Francisco de Aguirre, Juan de Orellana and Jofrén de Loaisa.
Other important Talaverian people were Hernando de Talavera, Isabella I of Castile's confessor, the Admiral Francisco Verdugo. The beginning of the 16th century saw the release of the most important theater work in Spanish literature, The Tragicomedy of Calixto and Melibea, or Celestina, written by the Talaverian mayor Fernando de Rojas. During this century the city lived in a golden age of arts and culture, its main exponent is the father of Spanish History, Juan de Mariana, who wrote several books about history and politics, and, important for French revolutionary theories. Upon the death of King Charles II in November 1700, two powerful nations fought for the Spanish Crown. Talavera supported Philip V's French faction, the winner. In 1750 the king founded the Royal Seeds Factories in Talavera, 4,000 people worked there; the war of independence against Napoleon's army had great consequences for Talavera. On July 27 and July 28, 1809 the Battle of Talavera took place between the Anglo-Spanish army and the French
Rafael Sánchez Guerra
Rafael Sánchez-Guerra was President of Real Madrid between 1935 and 1936. His presidency coincided with the Spanish Civil War and Sánchez-Guerra was a prominent Republican, refusing to flee Madrid as it was about to fall into the hands of Francisco Franco, he was captured, imprisoned by supporters of Franco before escaping to Paris where he became a prominent member of the government-in-exile. During the war itself, Sánchez-Guerra had little active involvement in the daily management of Real Madrid, acting with non official presidents Juan José Vallejo and Antonio Ortega, running things on his behalf
Real Madrid CF
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol referred to as Real Madrid, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid. Founded on 6 March 1902 as the Madrid Football Club, the club has traditionally worn a white home kit since inception; the word real is Spanish for "royal" and was bestowed to the club by King Alfonso XIII in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem. The team has played its home matches in the 81,044-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in downtown Madrid since 1947. Unlike most European sporting entities, Real Madrid's members have owned and operated the club throughout its history; the club was estimated to be worth €3.47 billion in 2018, it was the highest-earning football club in the world, with an annual revenue of €750.9 million in 2018. The club is one of the most supported teams in the world. Real Madrid is one of three founding members of La Liga that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, along with Athletic Bilbao and Barcelona.
The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably El Clásico with Barcelona and El Derbi with Atlético Madrid. Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s, winning five consecutive European Cups and reaching the final seven times; this success was replicated in the league, where the club won five times in the space of seven years. This team, which consisted of players such as Alfredo Di Stéfano, Ferenc Puskás, Francisco Gento, Raymond Kopa, is considered by some in the sport to be the greatest team of all time. In domestic football, the club has won 64 trophies. In European and worldwide competitions, the club has won a record 26 trophies. In international football, they have achieved a record seven club world championships. Real Madrid was recognised as the FIFA Club of the 20th Century on 11 December 2000, received the FIFA Centennial Order of Merit on 20 May 2004; the club was awarded Best European Club of the 20th Century by the IFFHS on 11 May 2010.
In June 2017, the team succeeded in becoming the first club to win back to back Champions Leagues made it three in a row in May 2018, extending their lead atop the UEFA club rankings. Real Madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to Madrid by the academics and students of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, which included several Cambridge and Oxford University graduates, they founded Sky Football in 1897 known as La Sociedad as it was the only one based in Madrid, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. In 1900, conflict between members caused some of them to leave and create a new club, Nueva Sociedad de Football, to distinguish themselves from Sky Football. Among the dissenters were Julián Palacios, recognized as the first Real Madrid president, Juan Padrós and Carlos Padrós, the latter two being brothers and future presidents of Real Madrid. In 1901 this new club was renamed as Madrid Football Club. Following a restructuring in 1902, Sky was renamed as "New Foot-Ball Club".
On 6 March 1902, after a new Board presided by Juan Padrós had been elected, Madrid Football Club was founded. Three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final; the club became one of the founding sides of the Royal Spanish Football Federation on 4 January 1909, when club president Adolfo Meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the Spanish FA. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de O'Donnell in 1912. In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real to the club. In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded. Real Madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season and retained the title the following year, becoming the first team to win the championship twice. On 14 April 1931, the arrival of the Second Spanish Republic caused the club to lose the title Real and went back to being named Madrid Football Club.
Football continued during the Second World War, on 13 June 1943 Madrid beat Barcelona 11–1 in the second leg of a semi-final of the Copa del Generalísimo, the Copa del Rey having been renamed in honour of General Franco. It has been suggested Barcelona players were intimidated by police, including by the director of state security who "allegedly told the team that some of them were only playing because of the regime's generosity in permitting them to remain in the country." The Barcelona chairman, Enrique Piñeyro, was assaulted by Madrid fans. However, none of these allegations have been proven and FIFA and UEFA still consider the result as legitimate. According to Spanish journalist and writer, Juan Carlos Pasamontes, Barcelona player Josep Valle denied that the Spanish security forces came before the match. Instead, at the end of the first half, Barcelona coach Juan José Nogués and all of his players were angry with the hard-style of play Real Madrid was using and with the aggressiveness of the home crowd.
When they refused to take the field, the Superior Chief of Police of Madrid appeared, identified himself, ordered the team to take the field. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945. Under his presidency, the club, its stadium Santiago Bernabéu and its training facilities Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt after the Spa
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t