British invasions of the River Plate
The British invasions of the River Plate were a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata that were located around the Río de la Plata in South America — in present-day Argentina and Uruguay. The invasions took place between 1806 and 1807, as part of the Napoleonic Wars, when Spain was an ally of Napoleonic France; the invasions occurred in two phases. A detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days in 1806 before being expelled. In 1807, a second force stormed and occupied Montevideo, remaining for several months, a third force made a second attempt to take Buenos Aires. After several days of street fighting against the local militia and Spanish colonial army, in which half of the British forces were killed or wounded, the British were forced to withdraw; the social effects of the invasions are among the causes of the May Revolution. The criollos, who had so far been denied important positions, could get political strength through military roles.
The successful resistance with little help from Spain fostered the desire for self-determination. An open cabildo and the Royal Audience of Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte and designated instead the French popular hero Santiago de Liniers, a unprecedented action: before that, the viceroy was only subject to the King of Spain himself, no one from the colonies had authority over him. Pedro de Mendoza founded the Ciudad de Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre on 2 February 1536 as a Spanish settlement; the site was abandoned in 1541, but re-established in 1580 by Juan de Garay with the name Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Ayre, the city became one of the largest in the Americas. A Portuguese colony was founded nearby at Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. To deter Portuguese expansion, the Spanish founded Montevideo in 1726, Colonia was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, one year after the creation of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the forerunner of modern Argentina.
The South Sea Company was granted trading concessions in South America in the time of Queen Anne, under the Treaty of Utrecht. The British had long harboured ambitions in South America, considering the estuary of the Río de la Plata as the most favourable location for a British colony; the Napoleonic Wars played a key role in the Rio de la Plata conflict and since the beginning of the conquest of the Americas, England had been interested in the riches of the region. The Peace of Basel in 1795 ended the war between France. In 1796, by the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain joined France in its war with Britain, thus giving Britain cause for military action against Spanish colonies. In 1805 Britain judged it the right moment after the defeat of the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar; this battle forced Spain to reduce to a minimum its naval communications with its American colonies. Buenos Aires had been neglected by Spain, which sent most of its ships to the more economically important city of Lima.
The last time a significant Spanish military force had arrived in Buenos Aires had been in 1784. There were six Anglo-Spanish Wars from 1702 to 1783, most of which lasted for several years and Britain had long harboured interests in taking control of the region from the Spanish before the invasions. Back in 1711, John Pullen stated that the Río de la Plata was the best place in the world for making a British colony, his proposal included Santa Fe and Asunción, would have generated an agricultural area with Buenos Aires as the main port. Admiral Vernon declared the benefit of opening markets in those areas in 1741. By 1780 the British government approved a project of colonel William Fullarton to take the Americas with attacks from both the Atlantic and the Pacific; this project was cancelled. In 1789 the war between Britain and Spain seemed imminent after the Nootka Crisis; the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda took the opportunity to appear before prime Minister William Pitt with his proposal to emancipate the New World territories under Portuguese and Spanish rule and turn them into a great independent empire governed by a descendant of the Incas.
The plan presented in London requested the assistance of the United Kingdom and the United States to militarily occupy the major South American cities, ensuring that the people would greet the British cordially and would be rushing to organize sovereign governments. In return for this help, Britain would receive the benefits of unrestricted trade and usufruct of the Isthmus of Panama, in order to build a channel for the passage of ships. Pitt began to organize the expedition; the Nootka Convention in 1790 ended hostilities, the Miranda mission was canceled. Nicholas Vansittart made a new proposal in 1796: the plan was to take Buenos Aires move to Chile and attack from there the Spanish stronghold of El Callao in Peru; this proposal was canceled the following year, but was improved by Thomas Maitland in 1800 as the Maitland Plan. The new plan was to seize control of Buenos Aires with 4,000 soldiers and 1,500 cavalry, move to Mendoza, prepare a military expedition to cross the Andes and conquer Chile.
From there, the British would move from sea to seize Peru and Quito. All these proposals were discussed in 1804 by William Pitt, Lord Henry Melville, Francisco de Miranda and Sir Home Riggs Popham. Popham did not believe a complete military occupation of South America was practical but argued for taking control of key locations to allow the main objective, to open new markets for the British economy. Although there was consensus for weakening Spa
A swamp is a wetland, forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes; some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more termed a bog, fen, or muskeg; the water of a swamp may be brackish water or seawater. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Congo. A marsh is a wetland composed of grasses and reeds found near the fringes of lakes and streams, serving as a transitional area between land and aquatic ecosystems. A swamp is a wetland composed of shrubs found along large rivers and lake shores. Swamps are characterized by slow-moving to stagnant waters.
Many adjoin rivers or lakes. Swamps are features of areas with low topographic relief. Humans have drained swamps to provide additional land for agriculture and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects and similar animals. Many swamps have undergone intensive logging, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and canals; these ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or to open water. Large areas of swamp were therefore degraded. Louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors. Europe has lost nearly half its wetlands. New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years. Ecologists recognise that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, wildlife habitat. In many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread.
The simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees. Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a low property value compared to fields, prairies, or woodlands, they have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot be utilized for human activities, other than hunting and trapping. Farmers, for example drained swamps next to their fields so as to gain more land usable for planting crops. Many societies now realize that swamps are critically important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life, that they are breeding grounds for a wide variety of species. Indeed, floodplain swamps are important in fish production. Government environmental agencies are taking steps to protect and preserve swamps and other wetlands. In Europe, major effort is being invested in the restoration of swamp forests along rivers. Conservationists work to preserve swamps such as those in northwest Indiana in the United States Midwest that were preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.
The problem of invasive species has been put into greater light such as in places like the Everglades. Swamps can be found on all continents except Antarctica; the largest swamp in the world is the Amazon River floodplain, significant for its large number of fish and tree species. The Sudd and the Okavango Delta are Africa's best known marshland areas; the Bangweulu Floodplains make up Africa's largest swamp. The Tigris-Euphrates river system is a large swamp and river system in southern Iraq, traditionally inhabited in part by the Marsh Arabs. In Asia, tropical peat swamps are located in mainland East Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, peatlands are found in low altitude coastal and sub-coastal areas and extend inland for distance more than 100 km along river valleys and across watersheds, they are to be found on the coasts of East Sumatra, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Peninsular Malaya, Sarawak, Southeast Thailand, the Philippines. Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatland. Of the total 440,000 km2 tropical peat swamp, about 210,000 km2 are located in Indonesia.
The Vasyugan Swamp is a large swamp in the western Siberia area of the Russian Federation. This is one of the largest swamps in the world; the Atchafalaya Swamp at the lower end of the Mississippi River is the largest swamp in the United States. It is an important example of southern cypress swamp but it has been altered by logging and levee construction. Other famous swamps in the United States are the forested portions of the Everglades, Okefenokee Swamp, Barley Barber Swamp, Great Cypress Swamp and the Great Dismal Swamp; the Okefenokee is located in extreme southeastern Georgia and extends into northeastern Florida. The Great Cypress Swamp is in Delaware but extends into Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Point Lookout State Park on the southern tip of Maryland contains a large amount of swamps and marshes; the Great Dismal Swamp lies in extreme southeastern Virginia and extreme northeastern North Carolina. Both are National Wildlife Refuges. Another swamp area, Reelfoot Lake of extreme western Tennessee and Kentucky, was created by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Caddo Lake, the Great Dismal and Reelfoot are swamps. Swamps are called bayous in the southeastern United States in the Gulf Coast region; the worl
A chargé d'affaires shortened to chargé and sometimes to charge-D, is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador. The term is French for "charged with matters". A female diplomat may be designated a chargée d'affaires, following French declension. A chargé enjoys the same immunities as a regular ambassador. However, chargés d'affaires are outranked by ambassadors and have lower precedence at formal diplomatic events. In most cases, a diplomat would only serve as a chargé d'affaires on a temporary basis in the absence of the ambassador. In unusual situations, a chargé d'affaires may be appointed for an indefinite period, in cases where disputes between the two countries make it impossible or undesirable to send agents of a higher diplomatic rank. Chargés d'affaires ad interim are those who temporarily head a diplomatic mission in the absence of the accredited head of that mission, it is usual to appoint a counsellor or secretary of delegation to be chargé d'affaires ad interim, he is presented to the foreign minister of the receiving state by the former head of mission before he leaves his post.
Chargés d'affaires ad interim are not themselves deemed to be formally accredited, as they do not possess diplomatic credentials. Chargés d'affaires en pied are appointed to be permanent heads of mission, in cases where the two countries lack ambassadorial-level relations, they are appointed by letters of credence from the foreign minister of the sending state to the foreign minister of the receiving state. Chargés d'affaires en pied have precedence over chargés d'affaires ad interim, but are outranked by ambassadors, they are sometimes referred en titre. In certain cases, a chargé d'affaires may be appointed for long periods, such as when a mission is headed by a non-resident ambassador, accredited to multiple countries. In addition, a mission may be downgraded from an ambassadorial to a chargé d'affaires level to show displeasure, yet avoid taking the serious step of breaking diplomatic relations. For example, Saudi Arabia and Thailand have not exchanged ambassadors since 1989, due to the still-unresolved Blue Diamond Affair.
When diplomatic recognition is extended to a new government, a chargé will be sent to establish diplomatic representation. However, if a timely exchange of ambassadors does not take place, this may result in a prolonged period of chargé-level relations. For example, the United Kingdom recognized the People's Republic of China in 1950 and posted a chargé d'affaires in the new capital of Beijing. However, China was unwilling to exchange ambassadors until the United Kingdom withdrew its consulate from Taipei. Sino-British relations were not upgraded to the ambassadorial level until 1972. Since a chargé d'affaires presents his or her credentials to the foreign minister rather than the head of state, the appointment of a chargé may avoid a politically sensitive meeting that would imply approval or recognition of that head of state or government; the receiving country may decline to receive an ambassador, but still maintain diplomatic relations by accepting a chargé. For example, the Republic of Cyprus appoints a number of chargés d'affaires en pied to its embassies abroad.
In modern use, chargés d'affaires do not differ from ambassadors, envoys or ministers resident. They represent their nation, apart from rank and precedence, enjoy the same privileges and immunities as other diplomatic agents. However, there have been rare historical circumstances in which a diplomatic post, formally ranking as chargé d'affaires, was in fact employed in a more significant colonial role, as held by a resident. Thus, in Annam-Tonkin, the first French chargé d'affaires at Huế, the local ruler's capital, since 1875. In French usage, chargé d'affaires may be used outside diplomacy either as a specific position, or in general terms to indicate an individual with some more or less temporary responsibility for a specific area of activity. Chargé d'affaires follows French usage: chargé d'affaires is singular, chargés d'affaires for plural; the "d'affaires" is always in the plural form, should be lowercase if Chargé is capitalized. Following the French declension, chargée d'affaires may be seen.
For temporary chargés, ad interim may or may not be added depending on the context, but is always lower case. Ambassador Attaché Head of mission
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign city state, before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, north Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city.
Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis and Unilever; the city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016; the Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls.
It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes; the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn, 100 kilometres away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C. The coldest are December and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C. Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214; the Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a
Governor of the Falkland Islands
The Governor of the Falkland Islands is the representative of the British Crown in the Falkland Islands, acting "in Her Majesty's name and on Her Majesty's behalf" as the islands' de facto head of state in the absence of the British monarch. The role and powers of the Governor are set out in Chapter II of the Falkland Islands Constitution; the Governor in office resides at Government House. The history of the leadership on the islands is related to the history of the Falkland Islands themselves; the first settlement on the islands was at Port St. Louis and was led by Louis Antoine de Bougainville, the Administrator of the French settlement which started in 1764 and ended three years later; the first leader of a British settlement was John McBride, Captain of HMS Jason, in 1766 at Port Egmont. The French settlement of Port St. Louis was transferred to the Spanish in 1767 and renamed Puerto Soledad, the first Spanish Military Administrator being Felipe Ruíz Puente; the British chose to withdraw from many overseas settlements in 1776 due to the pressure of the American War of Independence.
The Spanish settlement ended in 1811 as a result of the Peninsular war. In 1829 Luis Vernet was proclaimed Military and Civil Commander of Puerto Luis by the United Provinces of South America, which elicited a protest from the British Government. In 1831, Vernet seized three US vessels and imprisoned their crews for contravening his regulations on sealing, prompting a raid by the USS Lexington. In response, the United Kingdom sent a task force to reassert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in 1833; the Falklands were settled by people from Wales and Scotland. The first Governor of the Falklands was Richard Clement Moody, governor from 1841 to 1848. Moody founded Stanley and Moody Brook is named after him. There was a British government on the islands until 1982 when the Falklands were invaded and occupied by Argentina for 74 days. During this time, the British Governor was expelled and Brigadier General Mario Menéndez was appointed'Military Governor of the Malvinas, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands' by the Argentine military junta.
Following the Argentine surrender at the end of the Falklands War, the British Governor returned and it was decided that the Government of the Falkland Islands should be modernised. In 1985 the Constitution of the Falklands came into force which reduced the power of the Governor, making the office more accountable to the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands and creating in law a new post of Chief Executive, to which many powers of the Governor were delegated. In 2009 a new constitution was established which further defined the role and powers of the Governor; the Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of her Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs in the United Kingdom. The appointment is made by a Royal Commission under the royal sign-manual. Under the Constitution, executive authority of the Falkland Islands is vested in the Queen, her authority is exercised on her behalf by the Governor; the Governor only executes executive power on the advice of the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands, which consists of three elected members of the Legislative Assembly, the Chief Executive and the Director of Finance.
In addition, the Attorney General and the Commander of the British Forces in the South Atlantic attend council meetings by invitation, although they cannot vote in the Council meetings. The Governor acts as the Presiding Officer of the Executive Council. Acting on the advice of the Executive Council, the Governor has the power to call a meeting of the Executive Council, dissolve the Legislative Assembly and call a general election by proclamation, recall a dissolve Assembly, give Royal Assent to laws passed by the Legislative Assembly, disallow or reintroduce a law passed by the Legislative Assembly; the Governor appoints the members and can remove members of the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy after consulting Legislative Assembly. On the advice of the Advisory Committee, the Governor may grant pardons to anyone convicted of any offence, as well as commute or remit any sentence of any person convicted on the islands. In most cases, the Governor must consult with the Executive Council, accept its advice.
There are exceptions however, set out in the constitution, when the Governor is permitted to not consult the Council and go against its advice, but in this eventuality, the Governor is required to inform the Secretary of State in the UK of the reasons for this action, in the case of blocking laws passed by the Legislative Assembly, the Secretary of State must give prior authorisation. Under section 67 of the constitution, the Governor may go against the advice of the Council if, in his or her judgement, it would be right to do so in the interests of good governance or if such advice would affect external affairs, internal security, administration of justice, appointments to the public service, the discipline and removal from office of public officers, the management of the public service. In all these instances the members of the Executive Council can appeal to the Secretary of State; the Governor is responsible for the defence and internal security of the Falklands, though the Governor is constitutionally obliged to consult with the Commander of the British Forces on such matters.
If the office of Governor becomes vaca
Port Louis, Falkland Islands
Port Louis is a settlement on northeastern East Falkland. It was established by Louis de Bougainville in 1764 as the first French settlement on the islands, but was transferred to Spain in 1767 and renamed Puerto Soledad; the settlement has seen several name changes. The original French settlers named the settlement Port Saint Louis, changed to Puerto Soledad upon the Spanish take over. Vernet reverted to a Spanish version of the original name when he formed his settlement, Puerto Luis; the British renamed the settlement Anson's Harbour for a while before reverting once more to the original French name, Port Louis. For a time, the town became the Spanish capital of the islands, which were claimed by Spain and administered from Montevideo as a naval outpost; the Spanish removed the governor in 1806 abandoned the settlement in 1811. In October 1820, following damage to his ship Heroína in a storm, Colonel David Jewett was forced to put into the islands to shelter in Puerto Soledad; this was the culmination of a disastrous eight-month voyage that saw a mutiny and most of his crew disabled by scurvy and other diseases.
While in harbour, there was another attempt at mutiny by the crew who wished to return to Buenos Aires. With many of his crew disabled by scurvy, Jewett sought the assistance of the British Antarctic explorer James Weddell in preparing his ship for sea once more. On 6 November 1820, Jewett raised the flag of the United Provinces of the River Plate at Port Louis. Weddell witnessed the ceremony. After resting in the islands and repairing his ship, Jewett returned to Buenos Aires. In 1823, the United Provinces of the River Plate granted fishing rights to Jorge Pacheco and the Hamburg-born merchant Luis Vernet; the partnership of Pacheco and Vernet did not last, with Vernet forming a new company in 1825. An expedition in 1826 proved to be a failure. In 1828, the United Provinces of the River Plate granted Vernet all of East Falkland together with exclusive fishing and sealing rights. Included in the grant was a clause that provided a colony was established within three years, it would be exempt from taxes.
Settling in the former Spanish capital of Puerto Soledad, Vernet reverted to the use of its original name Puerto Luis. By 1831, the colony was well established and advertising for new colonists, although the Lexington's report suggests that the conditions on the islands were quite miserable; the colony was archaic, the Argentine government hoped that Vernet's appointment would bolster the economic and political status of the colony, given his extensive business operations. Vernet was well aware of British claims to the islands. Prior to both the 1826 and 1828 expedition, he approached the British consulate with the grant of the United Provinces of the River Plate and obtained their stamp. While visiting the consulate, he expressed the wish that if the British returned they would take his colony under their protection. Vernet provided written reports on the suitability of the Islands for the British Government. Vernet used Puerto Soledad/Puerto Luis as a seal hunting base; the United Provinces of the River Plate granted him a monopoly in the islands and he curbed sealing by others.
Vernet seized the American ship Harriet for breaking the restrictions on seal hunting. Property on board the ship was seized and the captain was returned to Buenos Aires to stand trial. Vernet returned for the trial; the American Consul in the United Provinces of the River Plate protested the actions by Vernet, stating that the United States did not recognise its sovereignty in the Falklands. The consul dispatched the warship USS Lexington to Puerto Luis to retake the confiscated property, as well as the Superior and Breakwater, seized; the Lexington destroyed the guns and powder of Puerto Luis in 1832, an act condoned by the American ambassador in Buenos Aires, who declared the Falkland Islands to be res nullius. Forty settlers took the opportunity to leave on board the Lexington, leaving twenty-four behind. Amid the turmoil, the British took over the settlement in 1833. In March/April that year, Charles Darwin visited from HMS Beagle, he commented that: After the possession of these miserable islands had been contested by France and England, they were left uninhabited.
The government of Buenos Aires sold them to a private individual, but used them, as old Spain had done before, for a penal settlement. England seized them; the Englishman, left in charge of the flag was murdered. A British officer was next sent, unsupported by any power: and when we arrived, we found him in charge of a population, of which rather more than half were runaway rebels and murderers. Admiral George Grey conducted a survey of the islands in 1836, his view was a little more positive. In November 1846 he wrote: Today the weather was beautiful and Port Louis or Solidad seen to advantage as soon as I had finished my breakfast I landed in company with the Governor to inspect the state of his little Colony, situated overlooking a small basin or inner harbour, the principal house of, that inhabited by Lieut. Smith and among the miserable huts by which it is surrounded looks respectable by comparison, it is white-washed, has a flag staff before it and looks like a preventative station on the coast of Northumberland.
After they transferred the administration to Stanley in 1845, it became the quiet sheep farming settlement it is today, known for its nineteenth century houses, waterfowl and wa
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a