Finchley is an area of north London, England, in the London Borough of Barnet. Finchley is on ground,11 km north of Charing Cross. It formed an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, becoming a borough in 1933. It is predominantly a suburb, with three town centres, North Finchley, East Finchley and Finchley Church End. Finchley probably means Finchs clearing or finches clearing in late Anglo-Saxon, Finchley is not recorded in Domesday Book, but by the 11th century its lands were held by the Bishop of London. In the early period the area was sparsely populated woodland, whose inhabitants supplied pigs. Extensive cultivation began about the time of the Norman Conquest, by the 15th and 16th centuries the woods on the eastern side of the parish had been cleared to form Finchley Common. The medieval Great North Road, which ran through the common, was notorious for highwaymen until the early 19th century, St Mary-at-Finchley Church is first recorded in the 1270s. Near the northern gate to the Bishop of Londons park, the hamlet of East End, the Edgware and London Railway reached Finchley in 1867.
It ran from Finsbury Park via Finchley to Edgware, the branch from Finchley to High Barnet opened in 1872. In 1905 tram services were established in Finchley, and extended shortly afterwards to Barnet and they were eventually replaced by trolleybuses. In 1933, the Underground New Works Programme, 1935-1940 to electrify the lines through Finchley, much of the work was carried out and East Finchley station was rebuilt, but the project was halted by the second world war. All passenger services from Finchley to Edgware ended in September 1939, Underground trains began running from central London to High Barnet in 1940, and to Mill Hill East, to reach the army barracks, in 1941. From around 1547 Finchley had a vestry, which became a local board in 1878, an urban district council in 1895. The area is now part of the London Borough of Barnet, from 1959 to 1992 the Finchley constituency was represented in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. Finchley is now included in the new constituency of Finchley and Golders Green, in February 2010, the Green Party held its spring party conference at the artsdepot in North Finchley.
Finchley is on a plateau,90 metres above sea level 11 km north of Charing Cross and 6 km south of Barnet, to the west is the Dollis valley formed by Dollis Brook the natural western boundary of Finchley. Mutton Brook forms the boundary, joining the Dollis Brook to become the River Brent
Order of Australia
Before the establishment of the order, Australian citizens received British honours. The Queen of Australia is Sovereign Head of the Order, while the Governor-General is Principal Companion/Dame/Knight, the Governor-Generals Official Secretary is Secretary of the Order. The order is divided into a general and a military division, honorary awards at all levels may be made to deserving non-citizens – these awards are made additional to the quotas. The badge of the Order of Australia is a convex disc representing the Golden Wattle flower, at the centre is a ring, representing the sea, with the word Australia below two branches of golden wattle. The whole disc is topped by the Crown of St Edward, the AC badge is decorated with citrines, blue enamelled ring and enamelled crown. The AO badge is similar, without the citrines, for the AM badge only the crown is enamelled, and the OAM badge is plain. The AK/AD badge is similar to that of the AC badge, the star for knights and dames is a convex golden disc decorated with citrines, with a blue royally crowned inner disc bearing an image of the coat of arms of Australia.
The ribbon of the order is blue with a stripe of golden wattle flower designs. AKs, male ACs and AOs wear their badges on a necklet, women usually wear their badges on a bow on the left shoulder, although they may wear the same insignia as males, if so desired. The orders insignia were designed by Stuart Devlin, the Order currently consists of four levels and the medal, in both general and military divisions. Since 2015, the level has been discontinued. Awards of Knight and Dame of the Order have been made in the division only. Military Division – Not awarded in the military division. There was a quota of four per year, excluding honorary appointments, the Knight- and Damehoods were conferred between 1976 and 1983, and again from 2014 till 2015. Although this level is not awarded anymore, several knight and dames of the Order are still alive, Companion General Division – Eminent achievement and merit of the highest degree in service to Australia or to humanity at large. Military Division – Eminent service in duties of great responsibility.
Excluding honorary appointments, until 2003, no more than 25 Companions were appointed in any calendar year, in 2003 this was increased to 30. This was increased in 2016 to 35, Officer General Division – Distinguished service of a high degree to Australia or to humanity at large. Military Division – Distinguished service in responsible positions. Prior to 2003, the quota was 100 Officers appointed in any calendar year, in 2003 this was increased to 125. This was increased in 2016 to 140, Member General Division – Service in a particular locality or field of activity or to a particular group. Military Division – Exceptional service or performance of duty
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Paakantyi are an Australian Aboriginal tribal group of the Darling River basin in Far West New South Wales, Australia. They lived in the country from the river, around the Paroo River. In the nineteenth century they were reduced by disease and they ended up working for the immigrants who had invaded their lands. Pictures were taken by Frederic Bonney at Momba Station in the 1870s which have provided a sympathetic, unusually Bonney records their names and his reverence for their integrity. The name of the language refers to the Paaka, with the suffix -ntyi, the name Paakantyi therefore simply means the River People. Etymologically the suffix -kali has been attributed as meaning people, and is incorporated in numerous group names in the nearby area, the major work on the Paakantyi language has been that of linguist Luise Hercus
St Anne's College, Oxford
St Annes College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Formerly a womens college, it has been coeducational since 1979, the college is known for its progressive outlook, its academic strength in both the humanities and the sciences, its mix of architecture, and its library – the largest college library in Oxford. In October 2016 it was announced that former Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner Helen King had been elected to the position of Principal upon her retirement from the police and she will take up her appointment in April 2017, succeeding Tim Gardam. The 2013–14 annual review valued the colleges endowment at £37 million, in 1942, it became the St Annes Society, and received a university charter to be founded as a women-only college in 1952. While it remains a myth that it is built on land donated by St Johns College. The annual magazine for alumni of the college is known as The Ship, when it was still known as the Society for Home Students, the college had its first common room in Ship Street, located in central Oxford.
Its grounds are bounded by Woodstock Road and Banbury Road to the west and east respectively and they extend as far south as 48 Woodstock Road on the west, and 27 Banbury Road on the east side. These grounds house all of the administrative and academic buildings, undergraduate accommodation, as well as the hall. St Annes can accommodate undergraduates for three years of study, undergraduates at St Annes are housed in 14 Victorian houses owned by the college and six purpose-built accommodation blocks. The Victorian houses include 1 –10 Bevington Road, 58/60 Woodstock Road and these houses contain the college bar, teaching rooms, college gym, and a laundrette. The Hartland House, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, was the first purpose-built college building and it now houses the Library, the junior and senior common rooms, and administrative offices. The Ruth Deech Building, completed in 2005, is the most recent college building and it houses extensive conference facilities on the lower ground floor, in addition to the new College Lodge on the upper ground floor, and 113 en-suite student rooms.
The new library and academic centre, scheduled for completion in 2016, is on the site of the former Founders Gatehouse, the Claire Palley Building, completed in 1992 and named after former Principal Claire Palley, was the first accommodation block to have en-suite rooms. It houses the Mary Ogilvie Lecture Theatre, Trenaman House, built in 1995, holds student rooms as well as communal college facilities on the ground floor and, since 2008, the St Annes Coffee Shop. It was named after Nancy Trenaman, the sixth Principal of the college, the Dining Hall, built in 1959, is amongst the largest in Oxford with a capacity of 300. Three meals are served daily in hall apart from on weekends when only brunch is served and it is used for college collections and, on occasion, college bops. The Eleanor Plumer House houses the Middle Common Room, and attached facilities including a study room and kitchen. Four additional Victorian houses hold teaching rooms, seminar rooms, music practice rooms, the Robert Saunders House, built in 1996, provides 80 rooms for post-graduate students in Summertown, an area in the north of Oxford
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
European study of the region formerly known as the Orient had primarily religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. Learning from Arabic medicine and philosophy, and the Greek translations from Arabic, was an important factor in the Middle Ages. Linguistic knowledge preceded a wider study of cultures and history, and as Europe began to encroach upon the region, from the late 18th century archaeology became a link from the discipline to a wide European public, as treasures brought back filled new European museums. In the last century, scholars from the region itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline, the classical world had initimate knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbours, but very imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East, including the Seres. However, there was substantial direct Roman trade with India in the Imperial period, the rise of Islam and Muslim conquests in the 7th century established a sharp opposition, or even a sense of polarity, between medieval European Christendom and the medieval Islamic world.
During the Middle Ages and Jews were considered the enemies of Christendom. The earliest translation of the Quran into Latin was completed in 1143, although little use was made of it until it was printed in 1543, gerard of Cremona and others based themselves in Al-Andaluz to take advantage of the Arabic libraries and scholars there. Later, with the Christian Reconquista in full progress, such contacts became rarer in Spain, chairs of Hebrew and Aramaic were briefly established at Oxford, and four other universities following the Council of Vienne. There was vague but increasing knowledge of the civilizations in China and India. From the Age of Exploration, European interest in mapping Asia, University Oriental studies became systematic during the Renaissance, with the linguistic and religious aspects initially continuing to dominate. There was a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed, a landmark was the publication in Spain in 1514 of the first Polyglot Bible, containing the complete existing texts in Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to Greek and Latin.
At Cambridge University there has been a Regius Professor of Hebrew since 1540, Oxford followed for Hebrew in 1546. The University of Salamanca had Professors of Oriental Languages from at least the 1570s, Study of the Far East was pioneered by missionaries, especially Matteo Ricci and others in the Jesuit China missions, and missionary motives were to remain important, at least in linguistic studies. The end of the saw the beginnings in the great increase in study of the archaeology of the period. Egyptology led the way, and as many other ancient cultures, provided the linguists with new material for decipherment. Some of these occurred in the context of Franco–British rivalry for control of India. Liberal economists, such as James Mill, denigrated Eastern civilizations as static, karl Marx, himself of Jewish origin, characterized the Asiatic mode of production as unchanging, because of the economic narrowness of village economies and the States role in production. Oriental despotism was generally regarded in Europe as a factor in the relative failure of progress of Eastern societies
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third-oldest university in Australia, the University is associated with five Nobel laureates and 104 Rhodes scholars. It is a member of the Group of Eight and the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the University is a member of the Sandstone universities, which mostly consist of Colonial-era Universities within Australia. The University of Adelaide is composed of five faculties, with each containing constituent schools, the University of Adelaide is widely regarded as one of Australias leading Universities, and it has considerably impacted the public life of South Australia. Many of the states leading businesspeople, medical professionals and it has a sixth campus, the Ngee Ann – Adelaide Education Centre, in Singapore. The university operates several associated and independent research institutes and groups and these include the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, the Hanson Institute for Medical Research, and the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute.
SAHMRI is based at the health and biomedical precinct on North Terrace, the University of Adelaide was established on 6 November 1874 after a £20,000 donation by grazier and copper miner Walter Watson Hughes, along with support and donations from Thomas Elder. The first Chancellor was Sir Richard Hanson and the first vice-chancellor was Dr Augustus Short, the first degree offered was the Bachelor of Arts and the university started teaching in March 1876. John Davidson was the first Hughes professor of English literature and mental and moral philosophy, the University has a long history of championing the rights of women in higher education. Its first female graduate was Edith Emily Dornwell, who was the first person in Australia to receive the degree of Bachelor of Science, the university graduated Australias first female surgeon Laura Fowler. Ruby Davy was the first Australian woman to receive a doctorate in music, the University was the first to elect a woman to a University Council in Australia, Helen Mayo.
On 2 July 2010, the University officially implemented its Smoke-Free Policy, security have the right to eject people smoking within the University buildings and fine people smoking in the gardens or walkways. Also, It is the first higher institution in South Australia to institute a smoke-free policy. The main campus of the University is on North Terrace, the vast majority of students and staff of the University are based at the North Terrace campus, where the majority of courses are taught and schools are based. The central administration of the University and the library, the Barr Smith Library, are both located on this campus. Bonython Hall, the Mitchell Building, the Elder Hall, the Napier building, bonython Hall is one of the many historic and heritage listed buildings located at the North Terrace campus. Others include the Mitchell Building, Elder Hall, and the Reading Room of the Barr Smith Library, in 2016, the university commenced work on a $1 billion, 20-year Masterplan for its three campuses.
At North Terrace, the Schulz building will be repurposed as a residential college, with accommodation