The Luisenstadt Canal, or Luisenstädtischer Kanal, is a 2.3-kilometre-long former canal in Berlin, Germany. It is named after the Luisenstadt district and ran through today's districts of Kreuzberg and Mitte, linking the Landwehr Canal with the Spree River, serving a central canal basin known as the Engelbecken or Angel's Pool; the canal is named after Queen Louise, the wife of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. The canal was designed by Peter Joseph Lenné based on earlier plans by Johann Carl Ludwig Schmid and was built between 1848 and 1852. Besides its water transport and land drainage roles, it was conceived as a design element in the development of the surrounding area, was designed as a decorative strip, flanked by quays lined with neoclassical buildings; the canal never achieved significant boat traffic, due to low flow levels its water became stagnant. Between 1926 and 1932, the canal was filled in and transformed by the landscape gardener Erwin Barth into a sunken garden, with ground level at about the old water level.
The Engelbecken was retained as an ornamental pool with the addition of fountains. During and after the Second World War, parts of the gardens were badly damaged, sections of the sunken gardens in-filled with rubble. In 1961 the Berlin Wall was constructed along the northern part of the route of the former canal. Since 1991, many of the destroyed gardens have been reconstructed, restored to the design of 1928. Legiendamm Leuschnerdamm
Tettje Clay-Jolles was one of the first female Dutch physicists. She studied the variation of atmospheric radiation with geographic latitude with her husband Jacob Clay. Clay-Jolles was born in 1881 in Assen, Netherlands to Eva Dina Halbertsma and Maurits Aernout Diedrick Jolles, she was the only girl to attend the local secondary school, passing both the alpha and beta series exams at the end of her studies there. These exams tested her knowledge of science, respectively. After secondary school, Clay-Jolles attended the University of Groningen, she commuted each day from Assen by train until 1903 when she transferred to the University of Leiden. She was one of the few women. There she began her doctoral research on low-temperature physics under Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, she worked on her thesis until December 1908 when she left her studies to devote herself to her family. Clay-Jolles met and fell in love with Jacob Clay, another of Kamerlingh Onnes's students, in 1908 the two were married; that year she left school to focus on her family.
She spent the next twelve years raising the couple's three children. In 1920 the family moved to Bandung, Java when Jacob Clay was hired as a professor of physics at the Institute of Technology. In Java, Clay-Jolles returned to research, working as an assistant in a laboratory researching vacuum pumps. During this time she edited and typed all of her husband's publications. In 1921 she was hired to edit a series of lectures by Nobel laureate Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Clay-Jolles worked with her husband during the 1920s studying cosmic rays, radiation in the ultraviolet solar spectrum, the intensity of atmospheric radiation; the two discovered. They did this by comparing the ultraviolet light at their location in Java to the ultraviolet light at the Batavia Observatory. Clay-Jolles published their findings in 1933 in the East Indian scientific journal, Natuurkundig Tijdshrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië; that year Clay-Jones and her husband published an article in the Proceedings of the Amsterdam Academy of Sciences entitled "Measurements of Ultraviolet Sunlight in the Tropics."
In 1929 the family moved to Amsterdam where Clay-Jones died in 1972
Lieutenant General Themba Nkabinde is a South African Army General Officer serving as Chief Human Resources. He joined Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1977 and he left South Africa for training in Angola. From 1991 to 1992 he was the deputy military attache in Tanzania and completed a senior command and staff course in India. In 1994 he integrated into the SANDF and served as the senior staff officer Africa under the director operations at Chief of Joint Operations and as the deputy chief director Army Force Structure, he became the commanding officer of the Infantry Formation on 1 April 2003. He handed over command as General Officer Commanding, South African Army Infantry Formation on 2 March 2012 to Maj Gen Lindile Yam. |}