Adidas AG is a multinational corporation and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, the second largest in the world, after Nike, it is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade golf company, Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company and 8.33% of German football club Bayern Munich. Adidas' revenue for 2016 was listed at €19.29 billion. The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U. S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. In 1949, following a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.
Adidas' logo is three stripes, used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in 1952 from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports, became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company"; the brand name is uncapitalized and is stylized with a lower case "a". Adidas was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In July 1924, his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory; the electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. In 1936, Dassler persuaded U.
S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his hand made spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes every year before World War II; the Dolbury factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in 1945 by US forces, but was spared when Dassler's wife, convinced the GIs that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes; the brothers split up in 1947 after relations between them had broken down, with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler rebranded Puma, Dassler forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August 1949. Although it is a popular urban myth that the name is an acronym for All Day I Dream About Sports, that phrase is a "backronym".
Puma SE and Adidas entered into a bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks"—people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore; the town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to pick out a pair of free Pumas; the two brothers were never reconciled and although both are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible. In 1948, the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years at the 1952 Summer Olympics, 1500 metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland.
At the 1960 Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the 100 meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment; the German won gold in Pumas, but laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both. In 1952, following the 1952 Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of 1600 euros. After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣1.6 billion, which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia, he hired Madonna for promotion. He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there.
In 1992, unable to pay the loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas, the bank subsequently
Purdue Boilermakers men's basketball
The Purdue Boilermakers basketball team is a college basketball program that competes in NCAA Division I and is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Purdue basketball has the most Big Ten Championships with 24; the Boilermakers have reached two NCAA Tournament Final Fours. The 1931–32 team was retroactively named the national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation and the Premo-Porretta Power Poll. Purdue has sent more than 30 players including two overall No. 1 picks in the NBA draft. Purdue shares a traditional rivalry with in-state foe Indiana University, leads the all times series 120–89 over them; the history of Purdue basketball dates back to 1896 with their first game against the Lafayette YMCA. In the 1902–03 season, head coach C. I. Freeman, in his only season, led them to an undefeated 8–0 record. Upon conclusion of the season, the university recognized the popularity of the sport and made it part of the Purdue University Athletic Association; the Boilermakers began play in the Big Ten Conference three years with its first championship coming in 1911 under the direction of Ralph Jones.
In 1917, Ward "Piggy" Lambert, a former basketball player at Wabash College, was named head coach of the Boilermakers. What followed was one of the most dominant eras of Purdue Basketball on the conference and national level. Under Lambert, Purdue became a front-runner in the development of the fast-paced game as it is today. In 28 seasons, Lambert mentored 16 All-Americans and 31 First Team All-Big Ten selections, which included the 1932 National Player of the Year John Wooden. Wooden was the first college player to be named a Consensus All-American three times. Lambert compiled a career record of 371 -- a. 709 winning percentage. His 228 wins in Big Ten play have been bested by only Indiana's Bob Knight and former Purdue head coach Gene Keady. Lambert won an unprecedented 11 Big Ten Championships, which Bobby Knight tied for most in conference history. In 1943, the Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively recognized Purdue as its national champion for 1932; the Premo-Porretta Power Poll recognized the Boilermakers as the 1932 national champion as well.
Ward Lambert announced his resignation on January 23, 1946. That same year and the year following, under new head coach Mel Taube, Purdue would win both meetings against coach John Wooden's Indiana State team. On February 24, 1947, three students were killed and 166 people were taken to hospitals after the 3,400-student section of the Purdue Fieldhouse collapsed during a game against Wisconsin. Center Paul Hoffman became the only Boiler to be named a First Team-All Big Ten selection four times in 1947. With third overall-picked teammate Ed "Bulbs" Ehlers, the two were the first players in the program's history to be selected in the NBA draft, while Paul Hoffman became the BAA's first player named Rookie of the Year in 1948. After Mel Taube's four-and-a-half seasons, Ray Eddy, a former player and teammate of Wooden's under Lambert, took over as head coach. During his 15-year tenure, he coached Terry Dischinger and Dave Schellhase, both Consensus All-Americans, Ernie Hall, the first Purdue junior college transfer and African-American player to wear a Boilermaker uniform.
In 1955, his team played one of the longest games in college basketball history, lasting six overtimes in a loss to Minnesota. Over the next few decades the Boilermakers would enjoy moderate success, culminating in 1969 when they won their first conference title in 29 years and advanced to the 1969 NCAA Finals game under head coach George King and led by All-American Rick Mount, where they would fall to former Purdue great, John Wooden, his UCLA Bruins squad. Former Los Angeles Lakers coach/general manager, Fred Schaus, who spent time as West Virginia's head coach, took over the program after George King stepped down to become the school's athletic director. Schaus led the Boilermakers to the 1974 NIT Championship, becoming the first Big Ten team to capture the NIT title. In the 1978–79 season, new head coach Lee Rose introduced Purdue basketball to a new approach with a slowed-down, controlled style of play. With All-American center Joe Barry Carroll, he led them to the 1979 NIT Finals and to a 1980 NCAA Final Four appearance.
In 1980, Gene Keady, the head coach of Western Kentucky and former assistant to Eddie Sutton with the Arkansas Razorbacks, was named the new head coach of the Boilermakers. Over the next 25 years, Keady led the Boilermakers to six Big Ten Championships and 17 NCAA Tournament appearances with two Elite Eights. Purdue received their highest Associated Press and Coaches Poll ranking in its program's history during the 1987–88 season, where they were ranked as high as 2nd in the nation. In 1991, Keady and assistant coach Frank Kendrick recruited Glenn Robinson, who became an All-American and Purdue's second-named National Player of the Year. A few years Purdue managed to recruit the program's first of many foreign players when they picked up Matt ten Dam from the Netherlands. In December 1997, Keady became Purdue's all-time winningest head coach, surpassing Lambert with his 372nd win, he became the second-winningest coach in Big Ten history behind Indiana's Bobby Knight, against whom Keady went 21–20 in head-to-head meetings.
Soon afterward, the playing surface at Mackey Arena was named Keady Court in his honor. Many of Keady's former assistant coaches and players throughout the years have gone on to enjoy success as head coaches. Included in the Gene Keady coaching tree is current Purdue head coach Matt Painter, former St. John's head coach Steve Lavin, Pittsburgh head coach Kevin Stallings, Kansas State head coach Bruce Weber, Wisconsin-Green Bay head coach Lin
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy as a symbol of an award to give an outstanding student some financial freedom. Others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO and various academic societies. While some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold. Before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. Before the establishment of standard military awards, e.g. the Medal of Honor, it was common practice to have a medal specially created to provide national recognition for a significant military or naval victory or accomplishment.
In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible. The commanding officer would receive his officers silver medals. Medals have been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the following metals: Gold Silver BronzeOccasionally, Platinum medals can be awarded; these metals designate the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods, the Silver Age, where youth lasted a hundred years, the Bronze Age, the era of heroes. The custom of awarding the sequence of gold and bronze medals for the first three highest achievers dates from at least the 18th century, with the National Association of Amateur Athletes in the United States awarding such medals as early as 1884; this standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given, not medals.
At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a gold medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, an olive wreath made of wild olive leaves from a sacred tree near the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. Herodotus describes a story that explains why there were only a few Greek men at the Battle of Thermopylae since "all other men were participating in the Olympic Games" and that the prize for the winner was "an olive-wreath"; when Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader: "Good heavens! What kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour". Hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal and the second-place finisher received a bronze medal.
In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller; the use of gold declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of solid gold were awarded at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92.5% silver, must contain a minimum of 6 grams of gold. All Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host. From 1928 through 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli of Greek goddess Nike with Rome's Colloseum in the background and text naming the host city. From the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheater for what were Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
For the 2008 Beijing Olympics medals had a diameter of 70mm and were 6mm thick, with the front displaying a winged figure of victory and the back showed a Beijing Olympics symbol surrounded by an inset jade circle. Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design; the silver and bronze medals have always borne the same designs. The award of a gold medal coupled with the award of silver and bronze medals to the next place finishers, has been adopted in other sports competitions and in other competitive fields, such as music and writing, as well as some competitive games. Bronze medals are awarded only to third place, but in some contests there is some variety, such as International barbershop music contests where bronze medals are awarded for third and fifth place. List of gold medal awards Medals: Going For Gold! - Minerals Council of Australia Royal Canadian Mint Interactive 3D Tour of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Medals
KK Cibona known as Cibona Zagreb, is a professional basketball club based in Zagreb, Croatia. The club competes in the ABA League. Cibona's history dates to late autumn of 1945 when Sloboda was founded as sports society of bank workers, craftsmen and clerks. On April 24, 1946 thanks to basketball enthusiast Branimir Volfer and his friends Ljubo Prosen and Joso Miloš, basketball section of Sloboda, predecessor of today's Cibona, is formed, its first game was against local rival Slavija on May 7, 1946. Sloboda did not last too long under that name as in November 1946 it merged with Tekstilac and Grafičar into Sportsko društvo Zagreb. Name changing continued through next four years. In late 1948 it was known as Vihor and in 1949 as Polet. In June 1950, the club changed name to Lokomotiva and that name is going to stick for next 25 years. Lokomotiva competed in Yugoslav top division since 1951, with only two years spent in second division. Lokomotiva's first major trophy came in 1969, when they won the Yugoslav Cup, led by legendary Hall of Famer Mirko Novosel.
Final game against AŠK Olimpija was played in Lokomotiva's new basketball hall "Kutija šibica". Led by phenomenal trio Većeslav Kavedžija, Nikola Plećaš and Milivoj Omašić, Lokomotiva won the game 78:77, their first European trophy came in 1972. Their opponent in finals was OKK Beograd and first game was played in Belgrade. OKK Beograd won the first game 83:71 but in a return match Lokomotiva, led by great Nikola Plećaš who scored 40 points, trashed the Belgrade side by 94–73. In November 1975, the basketball club split away from the Lokomotiva sports society and came under direct control of the municipal authorities of the city of Zagreb. Politicians such as Slavko Šajber became influential in the club during this period and set about getting the club some financial support. In that regard, the club's main sponsors became four SR Croatia-based food industry giants: Kraš, Badel and Voće; the club took the name Cibona, taken from the Latin cibus bonus. For the first trophy under the new name Cibona, they had to wait until 1980, when they won the Yugoslav Cup.
The Final match was played in Borovo, Cibona's opponent was mighty Bosna, led by Bogdan Tanjević on the bench, Mirza Delibašić on the court. But Cibona, led by impressive Andro Knego, managed to beat them 68:62; this trophy marked the beginning of Cibona's golden era, influenced by two great basketball players and Hall of Famers – Krešimir Ćosić and Dražen Petrović. Between 1980 and 1988, Cibona won 14 major trophies: 3 Yugoslav League championships, 7 Yugoslav Cups, 2 Euroleagues, 2 Cup Winners' Cups. At the beginning of the war in the Former Yugoslavia in 1991, the team was forced to emigrate in order to play their games, in an area with the minimum guarantees required by FIBA. For this reason, the club played in Spain for two years in Puerto Real. In independent Croatia Cibona became dominant force backed both politically and economically; the crisis of traditionally powerful Dalmatian clubs Split, Zadar and Šibenik came in hand and Cibona won 11 national titles in a row. They were regular Euroleague participant, reaching quarterfinals in 1996/97 and 1999/00.
Cibona's dominance in national championship was broken in 2003 when Split Croatia Osiguranje led by coach Petar Skansi, legendary Dino Rađa and revived talent Josip Sesar won the championship. Cibona was beaten in finals by Zadar season after. In 2005/06 and 2006/07 Cibona won championships beating Zadar in final series twice but shockingly missed the final series in 2007/08 after Split eliminated them in semifinal series. In 2001 regional basketball league called Adriatic League was formed and Cibona took part in it. After disappointing first and second season, Cibona hosted Final Four and reached final game in 2003/04 but was defeated on home court by FMP Reflex. Recent seasons have been a mixture of failure for Cibona. In national championship Cibona won four out of five recent league titles but this dominance is put on test by rise of large company backed Cedevita. In European competitions Cibona lost its Euroleague license for the 2011/12 season after competing in Euroleague since its formation.
During 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons Cibona failed to win any game. In regional ABA League Cibona had a great 2009/10 season. Cibona entered Final four held in Arena Zagreb as a top seeded team. After beating Union Olimpija in semifinals, Cibona faced Partizan in final game. Partizan won the title thanks to an off-the-glass three-pointer by Dušan Kecman from half-court at the buzzer, bringing the celebration of Cibona players and staff to an abrupt end; the final score was 75–74 and Cibona once again didn't manage to win a title at the home court. The next three seasons in regional league were disappointing for Cibona, finishing 12th, 7th and 11th. In the 2013–14 season, under head coach Slaven Rimac, Cibona won the ABA League championship, despite huge financial problems the club was facing; as a champion of the league, Cibona had direct spot in the Euroleague, but withdrew from it in order to stabilize financially. Crvena Zvezda, as third in the standings, t
Florida Gators men's basketball
The Florida Gators men's basketball team represents the University of Florida in the sport of basketball. The Gators compete in NCAA Division I's Southeastern Conference. Home games are played in the Exactech Arena at the Stephen C. O'Connell Center on the university's Gainesville, Florida campus; the University of Florida's first basketball team took the court in 1915, but success was scarce for many years. The program did not have an adequate gymnasium until the Florida Gymnasium in 1950, did not hire a full-time basketball coach until Norm Sloan in 1960, did not play in a modern arena until the O'Connell Center opened in 1980. Florida made its first postseason tournament appearance in the 1969 National Invitation Tournament and first appeared in the NCAA tournament in 1987, but consistent success was elusive, the Gators found themselves in the bottom half of the conference standings. Florida's basketball program found consistent success under head coach Billy Donovan, hired in 1996. In nineteen years as Florida's coach, Donovan led the program to seven of its eight Southeastern Conference regular season championships, all four SEC tournament championships, fourteen of twenty-two NCAA Tournament appearances, four out of five Final Four appearances, back-to-back national championships in 2006 and 2007.
Florida's head coach since 2015 has been Mike White, who has led the Gators to three NCAA Tournament bids in his first four seasons at the school. The college basketball season begins in early November, the non-conference portion of the schedule runs until the end of the calendar year; the Gators play in a cross-regional tournament or two, play a home or away game against another top program, complete in their annual game against in-state rival Florida State. The 18-game Southeastern Conference slate tips off during the first week of the new year; the schedule consists of a pair of home-and-home games against five SEC teams, plus a single game against each of the other eight SEC teams. The Gators did not have significant rivals in men's basketball. Since the 1990s, Florida has built rivalries with Kentucky and Tennessee as the Gators have become consistent contenders for the Southeastern Conference championship; the modern University of Florida was created in 1905, when the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, consolidating four predecessor institutions to form the "University of the State of Florida."
Ten years the university sponsored the first Florida Gators men's varsity basketball team that played its first season during the 1915–1916 school year under head coach C. J. McCoy, the head coach of the Florida Gators football team; the first Gators basketball team compiled a 5–1 record, but the following three seasons were canceled during and after World War I. The team was restarted for the 1919–20 season without a professional coach, though the Gators did have a new venue—the newly built University Gymnasium. Head coach William G. Kline, who coached the Florida Gators football team, led the Gators basketball team from 1920 to 1922. By the mid-1920s, the team and the university had outgrown the University Gymnasium, which had little spectator space; the larger wooden structure built directly adjacent to the University Gym in 1928 was known as "Building R", through it was called the "New Gym". The New Gym was intended to be a temporary home for the basketball team until funding was found for a more permanent structure.
However, funds soon became scarce with the coming of the Great Depression. Plans were made for a new basketball arena after World War II, the Gators moved into the Florida Gymnasium during the 1949–50 season. In December 1932, the University of Florida joined the Southeastern Conference as one of its thirteen charter members; the Gators spent most of the first half-century of SEC play in the bottom half of the standings. They only finished higher than fourth twice between 1932–33 and 1979–80. From the founding of the SEC until 1960, the head coach's slot was filled part-time by a coach from another Gator team, including head baseball coaches Brady Cowell, Ben Clemons and Sam McAllister, head football coach Josh Cody, football assistants Spurgeon Cherry and John Maurer. Cody had coached the Clemson and Vanderbilt basketball teams. None of them were able to build the Gators into consistent contenders in conference play. In hopes of breathing life into the program, Florida hired Norm Sloan as its first full-time head coach for the 1960–61 season.
He compiled a record of 85–63 in six seasons, including the Gators' first two wins over long-dominant Kentucky in SEC play. Sloan's Gators did not receive a postseason tournament invitation during his tenure, however. Nonetheless, according to Florida historian Norm Carlson, Sloan elevated the Gators basketball program from "an intramural program and built the grass roots." Sloan left Florida for North Carolina State, after the 1965 -- 66 season. Tommy Bartlett succeeded Sloan as head coach in 1966–67, his Gators experienced initial success during his first three seasons, finishing second and third in SEC play. His first team notched the school's first 20-win season. Led by center Neal Walk and forwa
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
The EuroLeague, known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for sponsorship reasons, is the top-tier European professional basketball club competition, organized by Euroleague Basketball since 2000. Introduced in 2000, the competition replaced the FIBA EuroLeague, run by FIBA since 1958; the FIBA European Champions Cup and the EuroLeague are considered to be the same competition, with the change of name being a re-branding. The EuroLeague is one of the most popular indoor sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 8,780 for league matches in the 2017–18 season; that was the fifth-highest of any professional indoor sports league in the world, the second-highest of any professional basketball league in the world, only behind the National Basketball Association. The EuroLeague title has been won by 21 different clubs, 13 of which have won the title more than once; the most successful club in the competition is Real Madrid, with ten titles. Real Madrid are the current champions, having defeated Fenerbahçe in the 2018 final.
The FIBA European Champions Cup was established by FIBA and it operated under its umbrella from 1958 until the summer of 2000, concluding with the 1999–00 season. That was. FIBA had never trademarked the "EuroLeague" name though it had used that name for the competition since 1996. Euroleague Basketball appropriated the name, since FIBA had no legal recourse to do anything about it, it was forced to find a new name for its championship series. Thus, the following 2000–2001 season started with two separate top European professional club basketball competitions: the FIBA SuproLeague and the brand new Euroleague 2000–01 season; the rift in European professional club basketball showed no signs of letting up. Top clubs were split between the two leagues: Panathinaikos, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, CSKA Moscow and Efes Pilsen stayed with FIBA, while Olympiacos, Kinder Bologna, Real Madrid Teka, FC Barcelona, Paf Wennington Bologna, Benetton Treviso, AEK and Tau Cerámica joined Euroleague Basketball. In May 2001, Europe had two continental champions, Maccabi of the FIBA SuproLeague and Kinder Bologna of the Euroleague.
The leaders of both organizations realized the need to come up with a unified competition. Although only a year old, Euroleague Basketball negotiated from a position of strength and dictated proceedings. FIBA had no choice but to agree to Euroleague Basketball's terms; as a result, European club competition was integrated under Euroleague Basketball's umbrella and teams that competed in the FIBA SuproLeague during the 2000–01 season joined it as well. In essence, the authority in European professional basketball was divided over club-country lines. FIBA stayed in charge of national team competitions, while Euroleague Basketball took over the European professional club competitions. From that point on, FIBA's Korać Cup and Saporta Cup competitions lasted only one more season before folding, when Euroleague Basketball launched the ULEB Cup, now known as the EuroCup. In November 2015, Euroleague Basketball and IMG agreed on 10-year joint venture. Both Euroleague Basketball and IMG will manage the commercial operation, the management of all global rights covering both media and marketing.
The deal was worth €630 million guaranteed over 10 years, with projected revenues reaching €900 million. On 26 July 2010, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball announced a €15 million strategic agreement to sponsor the top European basketball competition across the globe. According to the agreement, starting with the 2010–11 season, the top European competition would be named Turkish Airlines Euroleague Basketball; the EuroLeague Final Four would be named the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four, whereby the new league title would appear in all media accordingly. This title partnership was set to run for five seasons, with the option of extending it to an additional five. On 23 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball agreed to extend their partnership, up until 2020. FIBA era: FIBA European Champions Cup: FIBA European League: FIBA EuroLeague: FIBA SuproLeague: Euroleague Basketball era: Euroleague:. EuroLeague:.*There were two separate competitions during the 2000–01 season.
The SuproLeague, organized by FIBA, the Euroleague, organized by Euroleague Basketball. The EuroLeague operated under a tournament system, from its inaugural 1958 season, through the 2015–16 season. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, the current European Champions Cup title holders, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with either a single game final, or a 2-game aggregate score finals. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA European League: The champions of the European national domestic leagues, the current European League title holders, along with some of the other biggest teams from the most important national domestic leagues, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA EuroLeague: The champions of th