Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its derives from the River Sheaf. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 569,700, Sheffield is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000, in the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Known as the Steel City, many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffields gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007, the economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber. The city is in the foothills of the Pennines, and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin. 61% of Sheffields entire area is space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period. The earliest evidence of occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes and it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield. Gradually, Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira, a Celtic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, however, date from the half of the first millennium. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, after the Norman conquest, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, from 1570 to 1584, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders, centre-back, sweeper, full-back, the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations, a centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, tackling, intercepting passes, contesting headers, with the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defenders goal, during normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions, in the modern game, most teams employ two or three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper. The 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, and 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs, the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who sweeps up the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents. Because of this, it is referred to as libero. For example, the system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s. The more modern libero possesses the qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack. This variation on the position requires great pace and fitness, while rarely seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack, some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles. If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery, in modern football, its usage has been fairly restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a highly respected. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greeces manager, Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greeces sweeper to great success, as Greece surprisingly became European champions. The full-backs take up the wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all times
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
Sheffield Wednesday Football Club is a professional association football club based in Sheffield, England. The team competes in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Formed as an offshoot of The Wednesday Cricket Club in 1867, in 1868 they won the Cromwell Cup, only the second tournament of its kind, and in 1877 they won the inaugural Sheffield Challenge Cup, the oldest county cup in England. They were founding members and inaugural champions of the Football Alliance in 1889, in 1992 they became founder members of the Premier League. The club has spent most of its history in English footballs top flight. The Owls, as they are nicknamed, have won four league titles, Wednesday have also competed in UEFA cup competitions on four occasions, reaching the quarter-finals of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1963. Since 1899 the club has played its matches at Hillsborough stadium. Although no contemporary evidence has found to support the claim. Nevertheless, an 1842 article in Bells Life magazine states the club was founded as far back as 1816, the club was so named because it was on Wednesdays that the founding members had their day off work. They were initially based at the New Ground in Darnall, and often went by the name of Darnall Wednesday, in 1855 they were one of six clubs that helped build Bramall Lane, and held a wicket there for many years. The proposal proved very popular, with over 60 members signing up for the new team on the first night and they played their first match against The Mechanics on 19 October the same year, winning by three goals and four rouges to nil. On 1 February 1868, Wednesday played their first competitive match as they entered the Cromwell Cup. A week after their semi-final, they went on to win the cup, beating the Garrick club in the final after extra time, a key figure during the formative years of the football club was Charles Clegg, who joined the Wednesday in 1867. His relationship with the club lasted for the rest of his life and he also became president and chairman of the Football Association, and was known as the Napoleon of Football. In 1876 Wednesday acquired Scot James Lang, although he was not employed by the club, he was given a job by a member of the Sheffield Wednesday board that had no formal duties. He is now acknowledged as the first professional player in England. With Lang in their team the club became one of the strongest in the region. In 1880 the club entered the FA Cup for the first time, but although they had had Lang on their books a decade earlier, the club officially remained staunchly amateur, and this stance almost cost the club its very existence
Chesterfield Football Club /ˈtʃɛstərfiːld/ is a professional association football club based in the town of Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England. The team compete in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was a member of the Football League Third Division North in 1921–22 and has remained in the Football League since that time. While they have never played in the top flight, they rose to the second twice in the 1930s. Chesterfield play their games at the 10,504 capacity Proact Stadium. Chesterfields most notable recent successes came in the 1990s, when they won the Division Three playoff final at Wembley in 1995, in May 2011, Chesterfield secured the League Two title but were relegated from League One the following season. In 2011, Dave Allen was given ownership of the club. The 2011/12 season saw Chesterfield secure the Football League Trophy with a 2–0 victory over Swindon Town, a return to Wembley for the final of the Football League trophy was secured in 2014, with Chesterfield finishing runners-up after losing 3–1 to Peterborough United. In 2014, Chesterfield were crowned champions of League Two for a fourth time. Potentially five or more teams have been called Chesterfield Football club at different times, a second Chesterfield F. C. was formally created as an offshoot of Chesterfield Cricket Club in October 1867. The cricket and football clubs moved to the Recreation Ground at Saltergate in 1871, however, a souring of the relationship between the two led to the closure of the football club in 1881, when it found itself homeless. Three years later, in 1884, an entity called Chesterfield Football Club was formed. It drew in players from the club and both Chesterfield Livingstone and Chesterfield Spital, though records show Spital continued as a separate club. After changing its name to Chesterfield Town, the club turned professional in 1891, for the 1892–93 season, the club wore an extraordinary playing strip of all dark blue with the Union Jack emblazoned across the front of the shirt. Chesterfield joined the Midland League in 1896, and successfully applied for a place in the Second Division of the Football League at the start of the 1899–1900 season, finishing seventh. After finishing bottom of the League three years in a row, the failed to gain re-election to the League in 1909. It lasted only two years before its management and players were suspended by the FA for illegal payments and the shut down. The current Chesterfield F. C was formed on 24 April 1919 by Chesterfield Borough Council, in 1921–22, Chesterfield F. C. became a founder member of the new Football League Third Division North
Rushden & Diamonds F.C.
Rushden & Diamonds Football Club was an association football club based in Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire, England. It was formed by a merger of Rushden Town and Irthlingborough Diamonds in 1992, the club played in the Conference National following a short spell in the Football League at the start of the 2000s. Nicknamed The Diamonds, the played at Nene Park. The clubs main rivals were county neighbours Kettering Town, Rushden and Diamonds was formed on 21 April 1992 by a merger of Rushden Town and Irthlingborough Diamonds. The move was the brainchild of Max Griggs, on 22 August 1992, Ollie Kearns scored the first league goal in the clubs history, against Bilston Town in the Southern League Midland Division. The clubs first few seasons were remarkable for the success the team enjoyed, the following year they won the division, winning promotion to the Southern League Premier Division, and two years later the Diamonds were again promoted as champions. The team had gained promotion to the Football Conference after just four years as a club and it was within this period that the club had achieved their best success in the FA Cup, getting to the 3rd Round twice. In 1998–99, the Diamonds held Leeds United to a famous 0–0 draw at Nene Park, after taking a shock early lead at Elland Road in the replay, they went on to lose 3–1. In the following campaign, the club were rewarded with a 3rd Round draw away to Sheffield United, the Diamonds secured a 1–1 draw at Bramall Lane, to force a replay. In the return fixture, the match went to penalties following a 1–1 deadlock after extra-time, in the shootout however, it was the Blades who finally edged the Diamonds out 6–5 to go through. In their first season in new surroundings, the Diamonds reached the Division Three Play-Off Final, after overcoming Rochdale 4–3 on aggregate over the two-legged Semi-Final, the club lost to Cheltenham Town in the final, 3–1 at the Millennium Stadium. In 2003, they won the division, pipping Hartlepool United to the Division Three championship on the last day of the season – their third title in eight seasons. The 2003–04 season in Division Two proved to be one of difficulty for Rushden & Diamonds. Despite a promising start, a run of bad results over the winter period saw the club slip down the table. Barry Hunter took over as caretaker player-manager but they were relegated in 22nd place after losing their last three games of the season, ernie Tippett was confirmed as permanent manager for the start of the 2004–05 season. Hunters contract was not renewed over the summer, the seasons following the Diamonds return to the Football Conference were marred by instability on and off the pitch. Keith Cousins took over the club in November 2006 and resigned in 2011 and he was replaced by Liam Beasant and Gary Calder, the latter of whom himself quit the club just weeks after taking over. Meanwhile, five managers took control of the team at different times, during their first three seasons back in Englands fifth division the Diamonds failed to finish in the top ten
Northampton Town F.C.
Northampton Town Football Club /nɔːrˈθæmptən ˈtaʊn/ is a professional association football club based in the town of Northampton, Northamptonshire, England. The team play in League One, the tier of English football. They hold the record for the shortest time taken to be promoted from the tier to the top tier. Northampton were formed in 1897, after meetings between the town’s schoolteachers and local solicitor A. J. They play their games at the 7,724 capacity all-seater Sixfields Stadium, having moved in 1994 from the County Ground which they shared with the owners. The club’s main rivals are Peterborough United, a rivalry which has endured since the 1960s, other recent rivals include Rushden & Diamonds and Oxford United. The clubs colours have traditionally been claret and white, the club nickname is The Cobblers, a reference to the towns historical shoe-making industry. In 1919–20, the first season after the war, Town conceded a club record 103 goals, nonetheless, the club was allowed to join the Football League for the following season, in Division Three. 1922–23 saw the club become a company and 8,000 shares were released at £1. The season produced a record crowd of 18,123 against Plymouth on Boxing day, 1923–24 started with the club raising £5,000 to build a stand with a players tunnel underneath and also improved terracing in the Hotel End. The following season saw the formation of the supporters club, in 1925 the clubs first foreign transfer took place as William Shaw was signed from Barcelona. A new ground record was set for the F. A, Cup third-round replay with Sunderland,21,148 turned up to see the Cobblers lose 3–0. However, disaster occurred at the County Ground during December 1929, only one stand was saved although this was charred. The source of the fire was thought to be in the dressing room. By August 1930, the stands were rebuilt, in 1932–33, the club created history when brothers Fred and Albert Dawes both scored in an 8–0 win over Newport County. The latter finished the season scoring 32 league goals and even scored all four in a 4–0 win over the Netherlands national football team while the club was on tour. Cup fifth round was reached for the first time courtesy of a round win away to Huddersfield Town who. The Cobblers lost to Preston North End 4–0 at Deepdale, setting a new record of 40,180
Orlando City SC
Orlando City SC is an American professional soccer club based in Orlando, Florida that competes as a member of the Eastern Conference in Major League Soccer. Orlando City SC began play in 2015 as a team of the league. The team is the first MLS franchise located in the state of Florida since the Miami Fusion, on October 25,2010, Phil Rawlins and his investor group of Orlando City Soccer Club, announced their intentions of joining Major League Soccer within the next 3 to 5 years. On February 28,2011, Orlando City announced it met with commissioner Don Garber, topics covered included the demographics of the Orlando marketplace, the local corporate and fan support for soccer, and developing a roadmap for a future MLS franchise in Orlando. Garber visited Orlando to meet with city and county officials and he stated, Its not a matter of if, but when, when addressing Orlandos chances of joining MLS. On August 31,2012, Rawlins told the Orlando Business Journal the team could get the Major League Soccer approval as early as fall 2013, Rawlins said to make that happen, the league had asked the team to explore building a 22, 000-seat soccer-specific stadium. They didnt say we had to have a stadium built before we could join, on November 19,2013, Orlando City SC was announced as the leagues twenty-first franchise. On May 13,2014, the team unveiled its new logo, on June 9,2014, Orlando City SC announced a partnership with Benfica. As part of that partnership, Orlando City signed two players from the S. L, Benfica Juniors U-19 developmental team – Estrela and Rafael Ramos – to MLS contracts on August 7,2014. On June 30,2014 the team signed former Brazil international Kaká as their first Designated Player after his release from AC Milan, on November 21,2014, Adrian Heath signed a contract extension committing him to the club through to the end of the 2017 MLS season. As an expansion team, Orlando had first pick in the 2015 MLS SuperDraft, choosing Canadian forward Cyle Larin, formerly of the Connecticut Huskies. The team hosted their first MLS game at the Citrus Bowl on March 8,2015, against fellow expansion team New York City FC, Kaká scored the clubs first goal in extra time to earn a 1–1 draw. In the following game, they defeated Houston Dynamo 1–0, on the road, on March 21, Orlando conceded a goal late in second half stoppage time by Octavio Rivero of Vancouver Whitecaps FC for their first defeat. Orlando City finished 7th in the Eastern Conference, 14th overall falling short from clinching a birth into the MLS Cup Playoffs, Larin scored 17 goals across the season, breaking Damani Ralphs record of 13 for an MLS rookie and earning the MLS Rookie of the Year Award. In April 2013, the City of Orlando purchased downtown land for $8.2 million to be used towards the construction of a $110 million MLS soccer stadium. However, in May, the Florida House of Representatives failed to vote on a bill that had passed the Senate that would have provided up to $30 million in funds towards the stadium project. Rawlins responded by expressing his intent to find funding and keep seeking MLS expansion. The mechanism to allow for the tax rebate for the MLS team was ultimately passed on April 25,2014
Orlando City B
Orlando City B is a United Soccer League club that began play in 2016. Owned by Orlando City SC based in Orlando, Florida, OCB plays its games at the Orlando City Stadium. On June 30,2015, Orlando City SC announced that they would operate a USL club starting in 2016 in the Central Florida area, the team would be their USL affiliate, and Orlando City and Louisville City had negotiated a long-term formal partnership to replace their affiliation arrangement. Orlando City also announced that Anthony Pulis would coach the new team, Pulis was a player for Orlando City SCs USL club from 2011–14 and is the son of Tony Pulis, currently the manager of English Premier League side West Bromwich Albion F. C. On August 11,2015, Arizona United announced that Rob Valentino would retire from playing and that he would be an assistant coach for Orlandos new USL team. On October 15,2015, the club was introduced as Orlando City B. In addition, OCB announced its first three signings, defenders Mikey Ambrose and Kyle Callan-McFadden and midfielder Tony Rocha. On December 17, Lewis Neal was signed to Orlando City B to provide leadership, on August 12,2016, in a game against New York Red Bulls II, Orlando City B participated in the first competitive match in North America to employ Video Assistant Referee technology. Tim Holt, Orlandos vice president of development, said that they would be looking for a stadium in Central Florida in order to facilitate the training of emerging players with the MLS team, Holt was the president of USL until May 2015. Eastern Florida State Colleges stadium was visited by team personnel as a possible location, said plan was approved and the Titan Sports Complex at ECSC will be OCBs official home venue for the 2016 season. As of October 17,2016 Includes USL Regular season, USL Play-offs and Lamar Hunt U. S. Open Cup As of March 31,2017 Orlando City B USL