Dudh Koshi is a river in eastern Nepal. It is the highest river in terms of elevation, the Kosi River, or Sapt Koshi, drains eastern Nepal. It is known as Sapt Koshi because of the seven rivers which join together in east-central Nepal to form this river. The main rivers forming the Koshi system are – the Sun Koshi, the Indravati River, the Bhote Koshi, the Dudh Koshi, the Arun River, Barun River, and Tamor River. The Dudh Kosi river originates from the areas of Mt Everest. The combined river flows through the Chatra Gorge in a direction to emerge from the hills. The river drains the Mount Everest massif, the highest peak in the world and it begins just east of Gokyo Lakes and flows south to Namche Bazaar. Continuing south, the Dudh Koshi exits Sagarmatha National Park and passes to the west of Lukla, the Lamding Khola joins the Dudh Koshi to the southwest of Surkya and continues its southerly course to Harkapur, where it joins the Sun Kosi. The river is characteristic of white water and normally cannot be used for watersports.
The descent is over 5% and there are rapids that reach WW VI difficulty, in addition, the river often changes — big stones getting moved around by natural forces etc. Flowing down from Mount Everest, the river is believed to be the highest navigable whitewater, as such, it came to attention of teams participating in the world cup since Austrian paddlers made a world record descending from 3200 m altitude in France. Czechoslovak sportsmen agreed to take up the challenge, a team of sixteen men, fourteen Czechs and two Slovaks, had been gathered and on January 4,1973 they set on the journey from Děhylov by cars. For the last part from Lukla to Pheriche,110 porters were hired to carry the boats, the actual river trip began on April 1 near Pheriche at 4243 mamsl and ran for 126 km down to Sun Kosi. The paddlers used both covered tandem canoes of Vertex brand and solo kayaks, all made of fiberglass, the expedition returned home safely in August the same year. Three years later, in 1976, there was a British expedition of seven kayakers under the leadership of Mike Jones and they used 4 metres long fiberglass slalom-style kayaks specially designed by Pyranha Canoes with extra buyonancy and reinforcement.
The expedition is notable for taking place in September to avoid ice and they paddled at approximately 5300 mamsl on one of the lakes at the Khumbu Glacier. But the high water flow had its downside — many parts were too dangerous and had to be omitted and it is unclear which parts of the river were skipped, but the descent is generally considered incomplete. The next year, HTV documentary movie Dudh Kosi, Relentless River of Everest has been released which is a source of common misconception that this was the first trip on the river
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has the Earths highest peaks, including the highest, the Himalayas include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres in elevation. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 metres tall. The Himalayas are spread across five countries, India, China, the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Some of the major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia, many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate and its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river.
Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the bend of the Tsangpo river. The range varies in width from 400 kilometres in the west to 150 kilometres in the east, the name of the range derives from the Sanskrit Himā-laya, from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the Himalaya Mountains, usually shortened to the Himalayas, they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinsons poetry and Henry David Thoreaus essays. The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or The Land of Snow in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu, the flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice, the amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude and soil conditions combined with the high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant. The extremes of high altitude combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms, the unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climate change.
The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher elevations, the oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some species, especially rhododendron, apple. The highest known tree species in the Himalayas is Juniperus tibetica located at 4,900 metres in Southeastern Tibet, the Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant
Kodari is a border crossing from Nepal into the Tibet Autonomous Region. Kodari is in Sindhupalchok District, Bagmati Zone, the other side is the town Zhangmu, Dram or Khasa, situated in Nyalam County, Shigatse Prefecture of the Tibet. In ancient times, it was the point of a trans-Himalayan caravan route. Newar traders headed north from Kodari and after crossing Kuti pass turned east to continue their journey across the Tibetan Plateau to Lhasa, the construction of the 115 kilometres Kathmandu-Kodari Road during the 1963-67 period. It was named Araniko Highway in Nepal and China National Highway 318 beyond, as of 2011, Nepal is planning to expand it to six metalled lanes. China started building a railway in 2008 connecting Lhasa with Zhangmu on the Nepal-China border and it is an extension of the 1,956 kilometres Qinghai-Tibet Railway. In 2012, China signed agreement with Nepal to make one of six ports of entries between Nepal and China. The 2015 earthquakes essentially closed the route due to landslides and boulders coming down, damaging roads in Nepal.
There was an evacuation and people have been slow to come back, as of mid-2016, the crossing is still closed. Kodari is located at an altitude of 2,515 metres, Kodari is 114 kilometres from Kathmandu. The height gain is from 1,317 metres to 2,300 metres, on a clear day, the Himalayan chain is visible on both sides of the road. From Zhangmu to Nyalam, a distance of 33 kilometres the height gain is from 2,300 metres to 3,750 metres, before the earthquake, tourists traveling between Nepal and the Tibet make substantial use of this crossing, and there was substantial trans-border trade. Chinese trucks traveling on the Tibet-Nepal Friendship Highway offload goods at Zhangmu, Kodari travel guide from Wikivoyage Dram travel guide from Wikivoyage
De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, and is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Forces 98th Flying Training Squadron. Development of the began in 1964, with the first flight on May 20,1965. The availability of the 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop in the early 1960s made the concept of a more feasible. The first six aircraft produced were designated Series 1, indicating that they were prototype aircraft, the initial production run consisted of Series 100 aircraft, serial numbers seven to 115 inclusive. In 1968, Series 200 production began with serial number 116, all Series 1,100, and 200 aircraft and their variants were fitted with the 550-shaft-horsepower PT6A-20 engines. In 1969, the Series 300 was introduced, beginning with serial number 231, both aircraft performance and payload were improved by fitting more powerful PT6A-27 engines. This was a 680 hp engine that was flat-rated to 620 hp for use in the Series 300 Twin Otter.
The Series 300 proved to be the most successful variant by far, with 614 Series 300 aircraft, on February 24,2006, Viking purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft. The ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to new aircraft. On July 17,2006, at the Farnborough Air Show, on April 2,2007, Viking announced that with 27 orders and options in hand, it was restarting production of the Twin Otter, equipped with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines. As of November 2007,40 firm orders and 10 options had been taken, zimex Aviation of Switzerland received the first new production aircraft, serial number 845, in July 2010. By mid-2014, Viking had built 55 new aircraft at its Calgary facility, the production rate as of summer 2014 was about 24 aircraft per year. In April 2015, Viking announced a reduction of the rate to 18 aircraft per year. On June 17,2015, Viking further announced a partnership with a Chinese firm, the group will purchase 50 aircraft and become the exclusive representatives for new Series 400 Twin Otters in China.
Twin Otters could be delivered directly from the factory with floats, skis, or tricycle landing gear fittings, making them adaptable bush planes for remote, areas including Canada and the United States, had much of the demand. Many Twin Otters still serve in the far north, but they can be found in Africa, Asia and their versatility and maneuverability have made them popular in areas with difficult flying environments such as Papua New Guinea. In Norway, the Twin Otter paved the way for the network of short-field airports, the Twin Otter showed outstanding reliability, and remained in service until 2000 on certain routes. Widerøe of Norway was, at one time, the worlds largest operator of Twin Otters, during one period of its tenure in Norway, the Twin Otter fleet achieved over 96,000 cycles per year
It stretches approximately 1,000 kilometres north to south and 2,500 kilometres east to west. Sometimes termed the Third Pole, the Tibetan Plateau contains the headwaters of the basins of most of the streams in surrounding regions. Its tens of thousands of glaciers and other geographical and ecological features serve as a water tower storing water, the impact of global warming on the Tibetan Plateau is of intense scientific interest. The Tibetan Plateau is surrounded by mountain ranges. In the west the curve of the rugged Karakoram range of northern Kashmir embraces the plateau, the Indus River originates in the western Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar. The Tibetan Plateau is bounded in the north by an escarpment where the altitude drops from around 5,000 metres to 1,500 metres over a horizontal distance of less than 150 kilometres. Along the escarpment is a range of mountains, in the west the Kunlun Mountains separate the plateau from the Tarim Basin. About halfway across the Tarim the bounding range becomes the Altyn-Tagh, in the V formed by this split is the western part of the Qaidam Basin.
The Altyn-Tagh ends near the Dangjin pass on the Dunhuang-Golmud road, to the west are short ranges called the Danghe, Yema and Tulai Nanshans. The easternmost range is the Qilian Mountains, the line of mountains continues east of the plateau as the Qin Mountains which separate the Ordos Region from Sichuan. North of the runs the Gansu or Hexi Corridor which was the main silk-road route from China proper to the West. The plateau is an arid steppe interspersed with mountain ranges. Annual precipitation ranges from 100 to 300 millimetres and falls mainly as hail, the southern and eastern edges of the steppe have grasslands which can sustainably support populations of nomadic herdsmen, although frost occurs for six months of the year. Permafrost occurs over parts of the plateau. Proceeding to the north and northwest, the plateau becomes progressively higher and drier, here the average altitude exceeds 5,000 metres and winter temperatures can drop to −40 °C. The geological history of the Tibetan Plateau is closely related to that of the Himalayan mountain range, the Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock.
Their formation is a result of a collision or orogeny along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The collision began in the Upper Cretaceous period about 70 million years ago, since these sediments were light, they crumpled into mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor
Nyalam is a small Tibetan town near the Nepal border. It is the county seat of Nyalam County in Shigatse Prefecture It is 35 km from Zhangmu town in the same county, Nyalam is situated at 3,750 metres above sea level. Once a town of stone buildings and tin roofs, Nyalam was known as Tsongdu and was part of the historical Tsang Province of Tibet before the annexation by China. Nepalese trans-himalayan traders called it Kuti and The Gate of Hell because the old trail down to the Nepalese border was so treacherous, today Nyalam is a fast-growing little town made of concrete buildings located on the Friendship Highway between Lhasa and the Nepal border. South of Nyalam the road drops abruptly through the gorge of the Matsang Tsangpo or Sun Kosi as it is known in Nepal, the town is about 40 km from the Nepalese border and 150 km from Kathmandu. China National Highway 318 Friendship Highway Milarepas Cave Dowman, the Power-places of Central Tibet, The Pilgrims Guide, pp. 73–79. Nyalam and Zhangmu photos More Nyalam and Zhangmu photos
Solukhumbu District, a part of the Province No. 1, is one of the districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. As the name suggests, it consists of the subregions Solu, the district, with Salleri as its headquarters, covers an area of 3,312 km² and had a population 107,686 in 2001 and 105,886 in 2011. Mount Everest is in the part of this district, within Sagarmatha National Park. Indigenous ethnic Kulung and hill Caste Chhetri are the groups living in the mid-hills. There is a hiking trail known as the Solukhumbu Trail. Solukhumbu District is a name in mountain tourism. The main attraction is Mount Everest, UNESCO has listed the Sagarmatha National Park as a World Heritage site. Sherpa culture and Tengboche Monastery are unique to this district, the Khumjung village is famous for Sherpa culture. Gokyo valley and Khumbu valley are the major Himalayan valleys famous among the adventure and nature seekers and this district is well known for adventure holidays
A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
Kathmandu is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the largest Himalayan state in Asia. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region, the city stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as Nepal Proper and has been the home of Newar culture. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985, today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008, and is part of the Bagmati Zone in Nepalese administrative geography. Kathmandu has been the center of Nepals history, culture and it has a multiethnic population within a Hindu and Buddhist majority. Religious and cultural festivities form a part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu. Tourism is an important part of the economy as the city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, there are seven casinos in the city.
In 2013, Kathmandu was ranked third among the top ten upcoming travel destinations in the world by TripAdvisor, historic areas of Kathmandu were devastated by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood by the citys educated residents, the city of Kathmandu is named after Kasthamandap temple, that stood in Durbar Square. In Sanskrit, Kāṣṭha means wood and Maṇḍap means covered shelter and this temple, known as Maru Satal in the Newar language, was built in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The two-story structure was entirely of wood, and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree. The structure collapsed during the earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, the city is called Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap in a vow that Buddhist priests still recite to this day. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap, during medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur.
This name is derived from two Sanskrit words – Kānti and pur, Kānti is a word that stands for beauty and is mostly associated with light and pur means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as City of light, among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, and Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa
The Bhote Koshi is the upper river course of the Sun Kosi, known as Poiqu in Tibet. It is part of the Koshi River system in Nepal, a western tributary of the upper Dudh Koshi is called Bhote Koshi. The headwaters of Poiqu and Bhote-Sun Koshi River are located at the Zhangzangbo Glacier in Tibet, the river flows out of the Lumi Chimi lake. When entering Nepal, it is called Bhote Koshi, further downstream, from the village of Bahrabise onwards, it is called Sun Koshi. In July 1981, an ice avalanche caused a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in the moraine-dammed Zhangzangbu-Cho Lake in the headwaters of the Bhote Koshi. The ensuing debris flow destroyed bridges, and sections of both the Arniko and the Nepal–China highways, Nepali, भोटे कोशी, Chinese, 波特科西, pinyin, Bōtè Kēxī In Nepali language, the word bhoṭe or bhoṭiyā means Tibetan, and the word kosi means river. The Bhote Kosi is used for rafting and kayaking. It is the steepest river rafted in Nepal, with a gradient of 15 m per km, bungee jumping or swinging over the Bhote Kosi has been described as the ‘ultimate experience’.
The river carves a steep and direct drop at the top that gradually eases to more placid streams, the rapids are class IV-V at high flow, and III at lower levels. The river is steep and continuous with one leading into another