Bob Young (businessman)
Robert Young is a serial entrepreneur, best known for founding Red Hat Inc. the open source software company. He owns the franchise for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League and serves as self-styled Caretaker of the team, he was born in Hamilton, Canada. He attended Trinity College School in Ontario, he received a Bachelor of Arts from Victoria College at the University of Toronto. Prior to Red Hat, Young built a couple of computer rental and leasing businesses, including founding Vernon Computer Rentals in 1984. Descendants of Vernon are still operating under that name. After leaving Vernon, Young founded the ACC Corp Inc. in 1993. Marc Ewing and Young co-founded open-source software company Red Hat. Red Hat is now a member of the S&P 500 Index. Marc Ewing and Young's partnership started in 1994 when ACC acquired the Red Hat trademarks from Ewing. In early 1995, ACC changed its name to Red Hat Software, which has subsequently been shortened to Red Hat, Inc. Young served as Red Hat's CEO until 1999.
In 2002, Young founded Lulu.com, a print-on-demand, self-publishing company, served as CEO. In 2006, Young established a book prize for books that began as blogs, he launched the prize as a means to promote Lulu. Young served as CEO of PrecisionHawk, a commercial drone technology company, from 2015 to 2017. Prior to being named PrecisionHawk's CEO in 2015, he was an early investor in the company, he continues to serve on its board as Chairman. Young co-founded Linux Journal in 1994, in 2003, he purchased the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a Canadian Football League franchise. Young focuses his philanthropic efforts on access to advancement of knowledge. In 1999, he co-founded The Center for the Public Domain. Young has supported the Creative Commons, Public Knowledge.org, the Dictionary of Old English, Loran Scholarship Foundation, ibiblio.org, the NCSU eGames, among others. Center for the Public Domain Red Hat Linux Journal Lulu ibiblio
A photo book or photobook is a book in which photographs make a significant contribution to the overall content. A photo book is related to and often used as a coffee table book. Early photo-books are characterised by their use of photographic printing as part of their reprographic technology. Photographic prints were tipped-in rather than printed directly onto the same paper stock used for letterpress printed text. Many early titles were printed in small editions and were released as partworks to a network of well-informed and privileged readers. Few original examples of these books survive today, due to their vulnerability to light and damage caused by frequent handling. What is arguably the first photo book, Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions was created by Anna Atkins; the book was released as a partwork to assist the scientific community in the identification of marine specimens. The non-silver cyanotype printing process worked by pressing actual specimens in contact with light-sensitive paper.
The Pencil of Nature was produced by William Henry Fox Talbot, who had invented the Calotype photographic process in 1839. Although significant as the first negative/positive photography process, the Calotype was envisioned as a commercial prospect for the reproduction of images in books through mass publication. Anticipating commercial success, Fox Talbot established purpose-made printing premises in Reading to carry out the reproduction of his book; the Pencil of Nature was released in six parts between 1844 and 1846, to an promising list of private subscribers whose numbers dwindled, causing the premature termination of his project. Julia Margaret Cameron created the first photo book to illustrate a literary work; the 1874 edition of Tennyson's Idylls of the King contained twelve Cameron images, specially created, but reproduced as wood engravings. Cameron sought her own publisher, creating a new version of Idylls of the King, containing her original photographs as albumen prints, which came out in December of the same year.
Photographers such as Shinzō Fukuhara were producing photography books in the 1920s. The postwar years brought low-priced photography books, such as the many volumes of Iwanami Shashin Bunko magazine. From the 1950s onward, most Japanese photographers of note have had photo books published; the simplest Japanese translation of photo book is shashinshū, the shashinshū section of a typical Japanese bookstore displays books of photographs with various levels of documentary or artistic merit. They portray popular celebrities in a variety of settings and outfits. Many are of cheesecake models, or porn starlets. One of the best selling Japanese photobooks of all time, Santa Fe, a fine art nude photo book modelled by Rie Miyazawa and photographed by Kishin Shinoyama, sold 1.5 million copies in the early 1990s. Storing digital images in traditional photo albums means printed copies are inserted in the pages of an album. Companies allow users to create personalized photo books; the resulting book is printed on case bound.
Professional printing and binding services offer easy creation of photo books with professional layouts and individual layout capabilities. Because of the integrated design and order workflow, hardcover bound books with customized pictures and text can be produced cost-effectively. There are many photo book software companies who sell licensed solutions to photo labs and print houses so that their customers can create photo books with ease; these software solutions are available through apps. The development of digital cameras and the Internet allowed an enormous production and exchange of pictures, taken from different corners of the globe. There are many possibilities nowadays for users to share pictures. However, many people and institutions publish'photo books' on the web, by providing the community with a huge web database available for everybody. Parr and Gerry Badger; the Photobook: A History. London: Phaidon. Vol 2. 2006. ISBN 0-7148-4433-0 Heiting and Roland Jaeger: Autopsie. Deutschsprachige Fotobuecher 1918 bis 1945.
Band 1. The Huge List of International Photobook Publishers at Fotografia Magazine Asia Pacific Photobook Archive
Scribd is a digital library, e-book and audiobook subscription service that includes one million titles. Scribd hosts 60 million documents on its open publishing platform. Founded in 2007 by Trip Adler, Jared Friedman, Tikhon Bernstam, headquartered in San Francisco, the company is backed by Khosla Ventures, Y Combinator, Charles River Ventures, Redpoint Ventures. Scribd's e-book subscription service is available on Android and iOS smartphones and tablets, as well as the Kindle Fire and personal computers. Subscribers can access unlimited books a month from 1,000 publishers, including Bloomsbury, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Lonely Planet, Perseus Book Group, Simon & Schuster and Workman. Scribd has 80 million users, has been referred to as "the Netflix for books". Scribd began as a site to share documents. While at Harvard, Trip Adler was inspired to start Scribd after learning about the lengthy process required to publish academic papers, his father, a doctor at Stanford, was told it would take 18 months to have his medical research published.
Adler wanted to create a simple way to share written content online. He co-founded Scribd with Jared Friedman and attended the inaugural class of Y Combinator in the summer of 2006. There, Scribd received its initial $120,000 in seed funding and launched in a San Francisco apartment in March 2007. Scribd was called "the YouTube for documents", allowing anyone to self-publish on the site using its document reader; the document reader turns PDFs, Word documents, PowerPoints into Web documents that can be shared on any website that allows embeds. In its first year, Scribd grew to 23.5 million visitors as of November 2008. It ranked as one of the top 20 social media sites according to Comscore. In June 2009, Scribd launched the Scribd Store, enabling writers to upload and sell digital copies of their work online; that same month, the site partnered with Schuster to sell e-books on Scribd. The deal made digital editions of 5,000 titles available for purchase on Scribd, including books from bestselling authors like Stephen King, Dan Brown, Mary Higgins Clark.
In October 2009, Scribd launched its branded reader for media companies including The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, The Huffington Post, TechCrunch, MediaBistro. ProQuest began publishing dissertations and theses on Scribd in December 2009. In August 2010, many notable documents hosted on Scribd began to go viral, including the California Proposition 8 ruling, which received over 100,000 views in about 24 minutes, HP's lawsuit against Mark Hurd's move to Oracle. In October 2013, Scribd launched its unlimited subscription service for e-books; this gave users unlimited access to Scribd's library of digital books for a flat monthly fee. The company announced a partnership with HarperCollins which made the entire backlist of HarperCollins' catalog available on the subscription service. According to Chantal Restivo-Alessi, chief digital officer at HarperCollins, this marked the first time that the publisher has released such a large portion of its catalog. In March 2014, Scribd announced a deal with Lonely Planet, offering the travel publisher's entire library on its subscription service.
In May 2014, Scribd further increased its subscription offering with 10,000 titles from Simon & Schuster. These titles included works from authors such as: Ray Bradbury, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Ernest Hemingway, Walter Isaacson, Stephen King, Chuck Klosterman, David McCullough. Scribd added audiobooks to its subscription service in November 2014 and comic books in February 2015. In February 2016, it was announced that only titles from a rotating selection of the library would be available for unlimited reading, subscribers would have credits to read three books and one audiobook per month from the entire library. Scribd's unlimited service launched on February 6, 2018, includes access to an unlimited number of books and audiobooks, alongside unlimited access to news, magazines and sheet music, for a monthly subscription fee of US$8.99. However, under this unlimited service, Scribd will "occasionally limit the titles that able to access within a specific content library in a 30-day period." The previous credit system for books and audiobooks were removed.
In October 2018, Scribd announced a joint subscription to Scribd and The New York Times for $12.99 per month. In November 2014, Scribd added audiobooks to its subscription library. Wired noted that this was the first subscription service to offer unlimited access to audiobooks, "it represents a much larger shift in the way digital content is consumed over the net." In April 2015, the company expanded its audiobook catalog in a deal with Penguin Random House. This added 9,000 audiobooks to its platform including titles from authors like Lena Dunham, John Grisham, Gillian Flynn, George R. R. Martin. In February 2015, Scribd introduced comics to its subscription service; the company added 10,000 comics and graphic novels from publishers including Marvel, Boom! Studios, Dynamite, IDW, Valiant; these included series such as Guardians of the Galaxy, Daredevil, X-O Manowar, The Avengers. However, in December 2016, comics were eliminated from the service due to low demand. In February 2010, Scribd unveiled its first mobile plans for smartphones.
In April 2010 Scribd launched a new feature called "Readcast", which allows automatic sharing of documents on Facebook and Twitter. In April 2010, Scribd announced its integration of Facebook social plug-ins at the Facebook f8 Developer Conference. Scribd rolled out a redesign on September 13, 2010 to become, according to TechCrunch, "t
Cherie Priest is an American novelist and blogger living in Seattle, Washington. Priest is a Florida native, born in Tampa in 1975, she graduated from Forest Lake Academy, a Seventh-day Adventist boarding school in Apopka, Florida in 1993. She moved around quite a bit as a child of an Army father, living in many places such as Florida, Texas and Tennessee, she moved around until college. In 1998 she graduated with a B. A. from Southern Adventist University in Collegedale, in 2001 she left the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga with an M. A. in Rhetoric/Professional writing. Priest lived in Chattanooga, Tennessee for twelve years and it is there she both set her Eden Moore series and wrote the first two books. In May 2012, she and her husband Aric Annear moved back to Tennessee from Washington. In 2017, she returned to live in Seattle. Although Priest was baptized into the Seventh-day Adventist Church, she has no further contact with the church and claims no religious affiliation. In addition to her novels, Priest was a reviewer for the Bram Stoker Award-winning website Chiaroscuro and is a staff member of Subterranean Press.
She is a regular attendee and panelist at DragonCon and several other genre conventions around the country such as Penguicon and Steamcon. She is known for giving talks and writing articles about the hobby of urban exploration. In March 2006, she won the Lulu Blooker Prize for Fiction for Four and Twenty Blackbirds, becoming the first winner in that category, her 2006 short story "Wishbones" was part of the Aegri Somnia anthology by Apex Digest, nominated for a Bram Stoker Award. Her 2009 novel Boneshaker won a Pacific Northwest Booksellers Association Award The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America announced that Boneshaker made the final ballot for the 2009 Nebula Award for Best Novel. Boneshaker was a 2010 Hugo Award nominee in the Best Novel category. Boneshaker won the 2010 Locus Award in the Best Science Fiction Novel category. Maplecroft, 2014 Roc Books. ISBN 9780451466976. Chapelwood, 2015 Roc Books. ISBN 9780451466983. Four and Twenty Blackbirds, Original edition, 2003 Marietta Publishing.
ISBN 978-1-892669-22-3. Re-released in a revised, much expanded, edition, 2005 Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-1308-9. Issued in the United Kingdom, February 2012, Titan Books. ISBN 9780857687722 Wings to the Kingdom, October 2006, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-1309-6. Issued in the United Kingdom, May 2012 Titan Books. ISBN 9780857687739 Not Flesh Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-1310-2. Publishers Weekly described this book as "a bit talky" but as Cherie Priest's "most assured outing yet." Boneshaker, October 2009, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-1841-1. Clementine, July 2010, Subterranean Press. ISBN 978-1-59606-308-2. Dreadnought, September 2010, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-2578-5. Ganymede, September 2011, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-2946-2; the Inexplicables, November 2012, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-2947-9. Fiddlehead, November 2013, Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-3407-7 Jacaranda, January 2015, Subterranean Press. Bloodshot, January 2011, Bantam Spectra. ISBN 978-0-345-52060-9. Issued in the United Kingdom, July 2011 Titan Books ISBN 9780857686459 Hellbent, September 6, 2011, Bantam Spectra.
ISBN 978-0-345-52062-3). Issued in the United Kingdom, September 2011, Titan Books ISBN 9780857686466The Cheshire Red Reports concern a vampire thief called Raylene Pendle. Although she prefers to work alone, she acquires a group of misfits; these are a blind vampire and an ex-Navy Seal/Drag Queen. Bloodshot features the world of urban exploration; the Cheshire Red reports were only commissioned as a two book series. There is the possibility of a third book in this series provisionally entitled Sawbones if sufficient interest is expressed. Dreadful Skin, March 2007, Subterranean Press. ISBN 978-1-59606-080-7. Fathom, December 2008 Tor Books. ISBN 978-0-7653-1840-4; those Who Went Remain There Still, December 2008, Subterranean Press. ISBN 978-1-59606-179-8. I Am Princess X, May 2015, Arthur A. Levine Books. ISBN 978-0-545-62085-7. Brimstone, April 2017, Ace. ISBN 9781101990735; the Agony House, September 2018, Arthur A. Levine Books/Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-545-93429-9; the Toll, July 2019, Tor Books. ISBN 9780765378231'The Heavy', a short story.
Published in Apex Digest Issue #12, March 2008.'The Target Audience', a short story. Published in Noctem Aeternus January, 2008.'Following Piper', a short story. Published in Subterranean Digest issue #6.'Little Wards', a short story. Published in The Edge of Propinquity. June 2006'The Immigrant', a short story, part of Mythic #2, October 2006 Mythic Delirium Books. ISBN 978-0-8095-5756-1'Bad Sushi', a short story. Published in Apex Digest, Issue #10. Republished in "New Cthulu", ed. Paula Guran, November 2011.'Wishbones', a short story, part of Aegri Somnia. December 2006 Apex Digest. ISBN 978-0-9788676-2-1, ISBN 978-0-9788676-3-8'Tanglefoot', a short story, published online by Subterranean Press, 2009. First release of the Clockwork Century universe.'Hell’s Bells,' Grant’s Pass, Morrigan Books 2009'The Catastrophe Box', a short story Son of Retro Pulp Tales, Subterranean Press 2010'Reluctance', a short story, part of "The Mammoth Book of Steampunk", first published in the UK by Robinson, an imprint of Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2012'Steampunk Wardrobe Customizations for the Lazy, the Poor, or the Crafty,' Tor, October 2009'Steampunk for Beginners,' BookBrowse, October 2009'Growing up Poe,' Weird Tales, January 2009 Cherie Priest's Official Site Editorial Reviews on Amazon.com Reviews at Barnes & Noble Interview at Clarkesworld Magazine Cherie Priest at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Content delivery network
A content delivery network or content distribution network is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. The goal is to provide high availability and high performance by distributing the service spatially relative to end-users. CDNs serve a large portion of the Internet content today, including web objects, downloadable objects, live streaming media, on-demand streaming media, social media sites. CDNs are a layer in the internet ecosystem. Content owners such as media companies and e-commerce vendors pay CDN operators to deliver their content to their end users. In turn, a CDN pays ISPs, network operators for hosting its servers in their data centers. CDN is an umbrella term spanning different types of content delivery services: video streaming, software downloads and mobile content acceleration, licensed/managed CDN, transparent caching, services to measure CDN performance, load balancing, multi-CDN switching and analytics and cloud intelligence. CDN vendors may cross over into other industries like security, with DDoS protection and web application firewalls, WAN optimization.
CDN nodes are deployed in multiple locations over multiple backbones. Benefits include reducing bandwidth costs, improving page load times, or increasing global availability of content; the number of nodes and servers making up a CDN varies, depending on the architecture, some reaching thousands of nodes with tens of thousands of servers on many remote points of presence. Others have a small number of geographical PoPs. Requests for content are algorithmically directed to nodes that are optimal in some way; when optimizing for performance, locations that are best for serving content to the user may be chosen. This may be measured by choosing locations that are the fewest hops, the least number of network seconds away from the requesting client, or the highest availability in terms of server performance, so as to optimize delivery across local networks; when optimizing for cost, locations that are least expensive may be chosen instead. In an optimal scenario, these two goals tend to align, as edge servers that are close to the end-user at the edge of the network may have an advantage in performance or cost.
Most CDN providers will provide their services over a varying, set of PoPs, depending on the coverage desired, such as United States, International or Global, Asia-Pacific, etc. These sets of PoPs can be called "edges", "edge nodes" or "edge networks" as they would be the closest edge of CDN assets to the end user; the CDN's Edge Network grows outward from the origins through further acquisitions of co-locations facilities and servers. The Internet was designed according to the end-to-end principle; this principle keeps the core network simple and moves the intelligence as much as possible to the network end-points: the hosts and clients. As a result, the core network is specialized and optimized to only forward data packets. Content Delivery Networks augment the end-to-end transport network by distributing on it a variety of intelligent applications employing techniques designed to optimize content delivery; the resulting integrated overlay uses web caching, server-load balancing, request routing, content services.
These techniques are described below. Web caches store popular content on servers; these shared network appliances reduce bandwidth requirements, reduce server load, improve the client response times for content stored in the cache. Web caches are populated based on requests from users or based on preloaded content disseminated from content servers. Server-load balancing uses one or more techniques including service-based or hardware-based, i.e. layer 4–7 switches known as a web switch, content switch, or multilayer switch to share traffic among a number of servers or web caches. Here the switch is assigned a single virtual IP address. Traffic arriving at the switch is directed to one of the real web servers attached to the switch; this has the advantage of balancing load, increasing total capacity, improving scalability, providing increased reliability by redistributing the load of a failed web server and providing server health checks. A content cluster or service node can be formed using a layer 4–7 switch to balance load across a number of servers or a number of web caches within the network.
Request routing directs client requests to the content source best able to serve the request. This may involve directing a client request to the service node, closest to the client, or to the one with the most capacity. A variety of algorithms are used to route the request; these include Global Server Load Balancing, DNS-based request routing, Dynamic metafile generation, HTML rewriting, anycasting. Proximity—choosing the closest service node—is estimated using a variety of techniques including reactive probing, proactive probing, connection monitoring. CDNs use a variety of methods of content delivery including, but not limited to, manual asset copying, active web caches, global hardware load balancers. Several protocol suites are designed to provide access to a wide variety of content services distributed throughout a content network; the Internet Content Adaptation Protocol was developed in the late 1990s to provide an open standard for connecting application servers. A more defined and robust solution is provided by the Open Pluggable Edge Services protocol.
The News & Observer
The News & Observer is an American regional daily newspaper that serves the greater Triangle area based in Raleigh, North Carolina. The paper is the second largest in the state; the paper has been awarded three Pulitzer Prizes. The paper was one of the first in the world to launch an online version of the publication, Nando.net in 1994. The News & Observer traces its roots to The Sentinel, founded by the Rev. William E. Pell in 1865'to help expose corruption in state politics" during the Reconstruction Era. paper's struggles to stay relevant and make money led to new ownership in 1868. With the new owner The Sentinel began to cover the Democrats' push to retake the North Carolina Legislature, along with the impeachment of Gov. William W. Holden in 1871; the Sentinel went bankrupt a little over ten years. The owners of the newly founded Raleigh Observer, Peter M. Hale and William L. Saunders, bought the now-bankrupt paper, ending its publication and focusing on the Raleigh Observer. After about ten years the paper ran out of money, so the two owners sold to the owner of the Raleigh News, Samuel A. Ashe.
Ashe combined the two papers under the new banner The News & Observer in September 1880, making it the sole daily paper in Raleigh. Ashe ran the company until 1894, focusing on politics and the Democratic party. Ashe used connections within the Democratic Party to get an upper leg on upcoming stories; this model worked well for the paper until Ashe lost favor in the Democratic caucus, leading the paper to fall on hard financial times for the fourth time in its history. In 1894 the paper was sold at auction, this time to a Washington, North Carolina native, a strong Democratic supporter. Josephus Daniels, with help from Julian S. Carr and other friends, bought the paper. Daniels refocused the News and Observer to combat rampant corruption and other problems he saw within the state. Put differently by Daniels himself, "The News and Observer was relied upon to carry the Democratic message and to be the militant voice of White Supremacy, it did not fail in what was expected, sometimes going to extremes in its partisanship."
Daniels believed that "the greatest folly and crime" in U. S. history was giving negros the vote. In the Findings of the Wilmington Race Riot Commission, Daniels is the only name mentioned as a cause of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898, According to historian Helen Edmonds, the paper "led in a campaign of prejudice, vilification, misrepresentation, exaggeration to influence the emotions of the whites against the Negro." The result was the only successful coup d'état in American history, the overthrow of an elected government by force. In 1900 he used the paper to support soon-to-be Governor Charles B. Aycock, another white supremacist, during his bid for the office, he used the paper to advocate female suffrage, workers' compensation, state industrialization, better roads and crop rotation. Daniels used the News and Observer to persuade North Carolina citizens to support the disenfranchisement of blacks in the 1910s and 1920s. Daniels renounced the racist policies of the 1910s News and Observer.
In 2006, on occasion of the release of the report of the 1898 Wilmington Race Riot Commission, the newspaper offered "an apology for the acts of someone we continue to salute in a different context…and for the misdeeds of the paper as an institution." The newspaper published a 16-page special report on the events of 1898. Daniels continued to run the paper until his death in the mid-1940s. After his death his four sons assumed management of the company. All four sons contributed to the operation of the paper, but Jonathan Daniels, editor from 1933 to 1941 and from 1948 until 1964, kept the paper in the direction of appealing for school desegregation and a reduction in race related discrimination, it was under Jonathan's leadership that The News and Observer bought out the Raleigh Times and moved to a building on South McDowell St. in downtown Raleigh, where they stayed until the building was sold in 2015. On September 3, 1934, The News and Observer began a column about state politics called "Under the Dome", which started on the back page, moved to the front and now runs in the local section.
In 1968, the Daniels family hired Claude Sitton, a correspondent for The New York Times and an editor there. Serving as the editorial director of the paper, he promoted The News & Observer as a government watchdog and moved the news of the paper away from the personal and partisan stances it had taken under Josephus Daniels. However, its editorials were still aligned with the Democratic Party. A year the Mini Page children's supplement was created and published. Today, it is one of America's most used children's newspaper supplements. In 1971, Sitton became the editor and the paper began buying and publishing smaller local newspapers, starting with The Island Packet in Hilton Head, South Carolina and The Cary News in Cary, North Carolina. On March 16, 1980, a welder's torch started a fire and burned through newsprint threaded through the press, injuring three and causing millions in damage. In 1987, the staffs of The News & Observer and The Raleigh Times merged, on November 30, 1989, the last edition of The Raleigh Times was published.
In 1988, The News & Observer endorsed its first Republican candidate for statewide election, showing a distancing from Democratic partisanship. Throughout the early 1990s, The News & Observer divested itself of various local newspapers in South Carolina and the North Carolina mountains, by Sept
Apple Books is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices. It was announced, under the name iBooks, in conjunction with the iPad on January 27, 2010, was released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in mid-2010, as part of the iOS 4 update. IBooks was not pre-loaded onto iOS devices, but users could install it free of charge from the iTunes App Store. With the release of iOS 8, it became an integrated app. On June 10, 2013, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Craig Federighi announced that iBooks would be provided with OS X Mavericks in fall 2013. Prior to iOS 12 and macOS Mojave, the application was named iBooks, it receives EPUB content from the iBooks Store, but users can add their own EPUB and PDF files via data synchronization with iTunes. Additionally, the files can be downloaded to iBooks through Apple Mail, it is capable of displaying e-books that incorporate multimedia. According to product information as of March 2010, iBooks will be able to "read the contents of any page " using VoiceOver.
On January 19, 2012 at an education-focused special event in New York City, Apple announced the free release of iBooks 2, which can operate in landscape mode and allows for interactive reading. In addition, a new application, iBooks Author, was announced for the Mac App Store, allowing anyone to create interactive textbooks for reading in iBooks; the iBooks Author Conference, the annual gathering of digital content creators around Apple's iBooks Author, has convened since 2015.iBooks was renamed to Apple Books alongside the release of iOS 12 and macOS Mojave in September 2018. It features a new variation of the San Francisco typeface known as "SF Serif." IBooks was announced alongside the iPad at a press conference in January 2010. The store itself, was released in America three days before the iPad with the introduction of iTunes 9.1. This was to prevent too much traffic on Apple's servers, as they have been overloaded with previous releases of the iPhone. On the day of its launch, on March 31, 2010, the iBooks Store collection comprised some 60,000 titles.
On April 8, 2010, Apple announced that iBooks would be updated to support the iPhone and iPod Touch with iOS 4. As a result, iBooks was not supported on iPod Touches. On June 8, 2010 at the WWDC Keynote it was announced that iBooks would be updated that month to read PDF files as well as have the ability to annotate both PDFs and eBooks; as of July 1, Apple expanded iBooks availability to Canada. Upon its release for older devices running iOS 4, such as the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch, iBooks received criticism for its slow performance. However, a July 19 update from Apple offered several improvements. On September 27, 2011, Apple expanded the premium store to the Republic of Ireland. On January 19, 2012, Apple announced the release of the iBooks 2 app, allowing users to purchase and download textbooks to the iPad; the new app will support digital textbooks that can display interactive diagrams and video on the iPad. Apple released a free tool called iBooks Author; the software allows users to create these interactive textbooks themselves.
On October 23, 2012, Apple announced iBooks 3. On June 10, 2013, Apple announced iBooks for OS X Mavericks. Books are now available for purchase in the following countries. On November 15, 2013, Apple pushed version 3.2 of iBooks for iOS with a redesigned interface to match the "flat" style of iOS 7, which dropped support for iOS 6 and earlier versions. On the annual WWDC in 2014, Apple unveiled that iBooks will be a pre-installed app in the next version of the operating system, iOS 8, along with the Podcasts app. On September 17, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.0 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.0. This includes slight changes with the bookstore button, grouping of books by series in the bookshelf, Auto-night mode theme, as well as small changes to the underlying rendering engine. On October 20, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.1 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.1. On January 24, 2018, Apple renamed iBooks to Books in the iOS 11.3 beta. As well as in macOS 10.13.4 beta iBooks to Books on March 5, 2018. It was renamed back to iBooks in a next intermittent 10.13.4 macOS beta, showing some uncertainty about the marketing decision.
The supported e-book formats by iBooks are EPUB and PDF. As of version 2.0, iBooks supports a proprietary iBook format, generated with the iBooks Author tool. This format is based upon the EPUB format but depends upon custom widget code in the iBooks app to function; as of version 3, iBooks renders text written in 18 different languages. Users of the application are able to change the text size displayed. Available English fonts are Baskerville, Georgia, Times New Roman, Athelas, Iowan Old Style and Seravek. Users can adjust screen brightness from within the application. Words searched throughout the book. Definitions of words can be found upon clicking on the word and selecting'define' which will give the reader a brief description of what the word means and if there isn't a definition available, the reader can opt t