Coming of Age in Samoa
Coming of Age in Samoa is a book by American anthropologist Margaret Mead based upon her research and study of youth – primarily adolescent girls – on the island of Tau in the Samoan Islands. First published in 1928, the book launched Mead as a pioneering researcher, since its first publication, Coming of Age in Samoa was the most widely read book in the field of anthropology until Napoleon Chagnons Yanomamö, The Fierce People overtook it. The book has sparked years of ongoing and intense debate and controversy on questions pertaining to society and science. It is a key text in the nature and nurture debate, as well as in discussions on issues relating to family, gender, social norms, and attitudes. Although Meads work has been very influential some of her most significant claims about Samoan culture have been criticized and contradicted by subsequent research and it is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways. Boas felt that a study of the problems faced by adolescents in another culture would be illuminating and she discusses various limitations in each approach and introduces the new field of anthropology as a promising alternative science based on analyzing social structures and dynamics.
For this reason her methodology is one of studying societies in their natural environment, once she has an understanding of Samoan culture she will delve into the specifics of how adolescent education and socialization are carried out in Samoan culture and contrast it with western culture. Under different conditions does adolescence present a different picture, to answer this question, she conducted her study among a small group of Samoans. Mead studied daily living, social structures and dynamics, etiquette, Mead begins with the description of a typical idyllic day in Samoa. Then she describes child education starting with the birth of children which is celebrated with a ritual feast. After birth however, Mead describes how children are ignored, for girl children sometimes explicitly ritually ignored. She describes the methods of disciplining children. Most involve some sort of punishment such as hitting with hands, palm fronds. However, the punishment is mostly ritualistic and not meant to inflict serious harm, children are expected to contribute meaningful work from a very early age.
Initially, young children of both sexes help to care for infants, as the children grow older, the education of the boys shifts to fishing while the girls focus more on child care. However, the concept of age for the Samoans is not the same as the west and they dont keep track of birth days and they judge maturity not on actual number of years alive but on the outward physical changes in the child. As a child gets bigger and stronger he or she gets more work, male adolescents undergo various kinds of both encouragement and punishment to make them competitive and aggressive. For the males there are different possible jobs in the community
Fagatogo is a village situated on Tutuila Island, in American Samoa. It is part of the agglomeration of Pago Pago. Fagatogo is the location of the American Samoa Fono, and is listed in the Constitution of American Samoa as the official seat of government. Fagatogo contains the port of Pago Pago, the bus station and market
Margaret Mead was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelors degree at Barnard College in New York City and her M. A. Mead was a respected and often controversial academic who popularized the insights of anthropology in modern American and Western culture. Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution and she was a proponent of broadening sexual mores within a context of traditional Western religious life. Margaret Mead, the first of five children, was born in Philadelphia and her father, Edward Sherwood Mead, was a professor of finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and her mother, Emily Mead, was a sociologist who studied Italian immigrants. Her sister Katharine died at the age of nine months and this was a traumatic event for Mead, who had named the girl, and thoughts of her lost sister permeated her daydreams for many years.
Her family moved frequently, so her early education was directed by her Grandmother until, at age 11, she was enrolled by her family at Buckingham Friends School in Lahaska and her family owned the Longland farm from 1912 to 1926. Born into a family of various religious outlooks, she searched for a form of religion that gave an expression of the faith that she had been acquainted with. In doing so, she found the rituals of the Episcopal Church to fit the expression of religion she was seeking, Margaret studied one year,1919, at DePauw University, transferred to Barnard College where she earned her bachelors degree in 1923. She studied with professor Franz Boas and Dr. Ruth Benedict at Columbia University before earning her masters degree in 1924, Mead set out in 1925 to do fieldwork in Samoa. In 1926, she joined the American Museum of Natural History, New York City and she received her Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1929. Before departing for Samoa, Mead had an affair with the linguist Edward Sapir.
But Sapirs conservative ideas about marriage and the role were anathema to Mead. Mead received news of Sapirs remarriage while living in Samoa, where, on a beach and her first husband was American Luther Cressman, a theology student at the time who eventually became an anthropologist. Mead dismissively characterized their union as my student marriage in Blackberry Winter and her second husband was New Zealander Reo Fortune, a Cambridge graduate and fellow anthropologist. Meads third and longest-lasting marriage was to the British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson and she readily acknowledged that Gregory Bateson was the husband she loved the most. She was devastated when he left her, and she remained his friend ever after, keeping his photograph by her bedside wherever she traveled. Mead had a close relationship with Ruth Benedict, one of her instructors. In her memoir about her parents, With a Daughters Eye, Mead never openly identified herself as lesbian or bisexual
United States territory
United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters and all U. S. naval vessels. The United States asserts sovereign rights for exploring, exploiting and this extent of territory is all the area belonging to, and under the dominion of, the United States federal government for administrative and other purposes. The United States total territory includes a subset of political divisions, the United States territory includes any geography under the control of the United States federal government. Various regions and divisions are under the supervision of the United States federal government, the United States territory includes clearly defined geographical area and refers to an area of land, air, or sea under jurisdiction of United States federal governmental authority. The extent of territory is all the area belonging to, and under the dominion of, under Article IV of the U. S. Constitution, territory is subject to and belongs to the United States.
This includes tracts of land or water not included within the limits of any State, Congress possesses power to set territorial governments within the boundaries of the United States. The power of Congress over such territory is exclusive and universal, congressional legislation is subject to no control, unless in the case of ceded territory. The U. S. Congress is granted the exclusive and universal power to set a United States territorys political divisions, all territory under the control of the federal government is considered part of the United States for purposes of law. From 1901–1905, the U. S. Supreme Court in a series of known as the Insular Cases held that the Constitution extended ex proprio vigore to the territories. However, the Court in these cases established the doctrine of territorial incorporation, a Supreme Court ruling from 1945 stated that the term United States can have three different meanings, in different contexts, The term United States may be used in any one of several senses.
It may be merely the name of a sovereign occupying the position analogous to that of sovereigns in the family of nations. It may designate the territory over which the sovereignty of the United States extends, or it may be the name of the states which are united by. The United States Department of the Interior is charged with managing federal affairs within U. S. territory, the Interior Department has a wide range of responsibilities. The contiguous United States and Alaska are divided into administrative regions. These are called counties in 48 of the 50 states, and they are called boroughs in Alaska, a county can include a number of cities and towns, or just a portion of either type. These counties have varying degrees of political and legal significance, a township in the United States refers to a small geographic area. Territories are subdivided into legally administered tracts—e. g, geographic areas that are under the authority of a government. The District of Columbia and territories are under the authority of Congress
National Park of American Samoa
The National Park of American Samoa is a National Park in the United States Territory of American Samoa, distributed across three separate islands, Ofu, and Ta‘ū. The park preserves and protects coral reefs, tropical rainforests, fruit bats, and it is popular for hiking and snorkeling. Of the parks 13,500 acres,9,000 acres is land and 4,500 acres is coral reefs, the park is the only American National Park Service system unit south of the equator. The National Park of American Samoa was established on October 31,1988 by Public Law 100-571 and this was resolved on September 9,1993, when the National Park Service entered into a 50-year lease for the park land from the Samoan village councils. In 2002, Congress approved a thirty percent expansion on Olosega, in 2009 an earthquake and tsunami produced several large waves, resulting in 34 confirmed deaths, more than a hundred injuries and the destruction of about 200 homes and businesses. The visitor center and main office were destroyed but there was one reported injury among the NPS staff.
The Tutuila unit of the park is on the end of the island near Pago Pago. It is separated by Mount Alava and the Maugaloa Ridge and includes the Amalau Valley, Craggy Point, Tafeu Cove, and it is the only part of the park accessible by car and attracts the vast majority of visitors to the area. The park lands include a trail to the top of Mount Alava and historic World War II gun emplacement sites at Breakers Point, the trail runs along the ridge in dense forest, north of which the land slopes steeply away to the ocean. Ofu island is accessible via small fisherman boats from Tau island. Ta‘ū island can be reached by a flight from Tutuila to Fiti‘uta village on Ta‘ū, a trail runs from Saua around Si’u Point to the southern coastline and stairs to the 3, 170-foot summit of Lata Mountain. Because of its location, diversity among the terrestrial species is low. Approximately 30% of the plants and one species are endemic to the archipelago. Three species of bat are the native mammals, two large fruit bats and a small insectivore, the Pacific sheath-tailed bat.
They serve an important role in pollinating the islands plants, the sheath-tailed bat was nearly eliminated by Cyclone Val in 1991. Native reptiles include the pelagic gecko, Polynesian gecko, mourning gecko, stump-toed gecko, Pacific boa, a major role for the park is to control and eradicate invasive plant and animal species such as feral pigs, which threaten the parks ecosystem. There are several species, the most predominant being the wattled honeyeater, Samoan starling. Other unusual birds include the Tahiti petrel, the spotless crake, the islands are mostly covered by tropical rainforest, including cloud forest on Tau and lowland ridge forest on Tutuila
American Samoa Department of Public Safety
It was created to protect the lives and property of American Samoans. The DPS has police and fire divisions, airport police, port police conservation officers, and community college police departments are active in American Samoa. It is in charge of the Tafuna Correctional Facility, the correctional facility in the territory. In 2008 former Tafuna warden Mika Kelemete, along with a guard at Tafuna
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. American Samoa consists of five islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group, the 2010 census showed a total population of 55,519 people. The total land area is 199 square kilometers, slightly more than Washington, American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the U. S. and one of two U. S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the exports, and the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. Most American Samoans are bilingual and can speak English and Samoan fluently, Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century, dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768, contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. The site of battle is called Massacre Bay. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands, by that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the American and German ships, a compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships.
Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889, the following year, the USA formally occupied its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900, the territory became known as the US Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17,1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, in 1918 during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. The result of Poyers quick actions earned him the Navy Cross from the US Navy, with this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease
American Samoa Senate
The American Samoa Senate is the upper house of the American Samoa Fono. The Senate, like the lower House of Representatives, is a nonpartisan body and it is composed of 18 senators, serving a four-year term. Galeai M. Tuufuli, Manua District 1 NuanuaolefeagaigaT, the Senates voting franchise is strictly limited to the various chiefs of the islands