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Lumbar disc disease

Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica. In this article, the term is used to describe a lumbar herniated disc, it is thought. Pain, loss of muscle strength and loss of touch sensation may occur if this herniation causes the compression of the most proximal part of the nerve neighbouring the intervertebral disc material. Pain is in the distribution of the nerve compressed down the back of the leg, side of the calf and inside of the foot. Most the nerve root between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae or between the fifth lumbar vertebra and first sacral segment are impinged. In symptomatic cases the diagnosis should be confirmed by an MRI scan. However, in cases with slight symptoms, a faster and cheaper CT scan may be recommended. While a CT scan can show the bony structures in more detail, an MRI scan can better portray soft tissue.

An inheritable gene variation may cause increased susceptibility. People with a variation in a gene that encodes the cartilage intermediate-layer protein were 1.6 times more to have the disease than persons without the variation. CILP is a normal component of disc tissue; the gene variant was hypothesized to disrupt normal maintenance of cartilage. However, this association was not replicated in a follow-up study of Finnish and Chinese individuals. Diagnosis can be made on clinical basis with MRI findings Initial treatment in lumbar disc disease is one or two days of bedrest and pain relieving medications. In cases with ongoing pain despite conservative treatments, a surgical operation that will remove the compressing disc material, a microdiscectomy or discectomy may be recommended to treat a lumbar disc herniation. Degenerative disc disease Sciatica Spinal disc herniation Lumbar spinal stenosis Seki S, Andrews C, Kawaguchi Y, Chiba K, Mikami Y, Kizawa H, Oya T, Mio F, Mori M, Miyamoto Y, Masuda I, Tsunoda T, Kamata M, Kubo T, Toyama Y, Kimura T, Nakamura Y, Ikegawa S.

"A functional SNP in CILP, encoding cartilage intermediate layer protein, is associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc disease". Nature Genetics. 37: 607–612. Doi:10.1038/ng1557. PMID 15864306. E-medicine - Lumbar disc disease


Nanictidopidae is an extinct family of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian. Two genera are included in the family, Nanictidops from South Africa and Purlovia from Russia. Nanictidopids have short skulls and were herbivorous. In comparison to other therocephalians, nanictidopids are large, with skulls ranging from 7 to 20 centimetres in length. Nanictidopids are characterized by their shortened skulls that appear triangular when viewed from above; the temporal region of the skull is wide. Their skulls are similar to those of hofmeyriids, the superfamily Nanictidopoidea has been established to unite these two groups. Nanictidopids have enlarged canine teeth in their upper and lower jaws, while the teeth behind them are small. Small bumps and ridges cover parts of lower jaws; the parietal region at the back of the skull forms a sagittal crest. The postorbital bones that make up the back of the eye sockets are thin, sometimes do not enclose the entire socket. Unlike more advanced therocephalians, nanictidopids lack a secondary palate.

Nanictidopidae was named in 1956 by Alfred Romer. Watson and Romer included many therocephalians in the family, including Blattoidealestes, Choerosaurus and Promoschorhynchus; these therocephalians have since been split up among other families like Hofmeyriidae and Akidnognathidae. Except for the canines, nanictidopids lack the large pointed teeth of carnivorous therocephalians. Nanictidopids are thought to have been herbivorous, but they lack the enlarged buccal or cheek teeth of most herbivores. Although wear facets indicate use, most teeth are small and would have served little function in processing plant material. Another adaptation toward herbivory is the development of horny plates on the palate, but nanictidopids show no evidence of this adaptation either. One of the few indications of diet comes from a broken and polished canine in a specimen of Purlovia. In life, this tooth may have been worn smooth as it was digging for food. Nanictidopids were most primitive herbivores fruit-eating

Laurent de Brunhoff

Laurent de Brunhoff is a French author and illustrator, known for continuing the Babar the Elephant series of children's books, created by his father, Jean de Brunhoff. Brunhoff was born in Paris; the children's classic, began as a bedtime story that Cécile de Brunhoff told her young sons and Mathieu, in 1930, when they were five and four years old, respectively. They loved the story about the little elephant so much that they asked their father, an artist, to draw pictures for them of the elephant world their mother had described, he did and created a book, Histoire de Babar: le petit éléphant, published by Jardin des Modes, a family-run publishing house. Jean de Brunhoff created six more Babar books and had one more son, but died of tuberculosis at age 37 in 1937. After the war, who inherited his father's artistic gift, trained at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière under the painter Othon Friesz and began living as an artist in Montparnasse. But, wishing to maintain his tie to his father and the imaginative world of his childhood, he turned back to the character his father had drawn and taught himself to draw in his father's style.

What Christine Nelson calls their "intergenerational artistic partnership" had begun earlier, when Laurent was a teenager, was asked to do the color for several pages which his father had left in black and white. His own first Babar book, Babar et ce coquin d’Arthur, was published in 1946 when Laurent was 21, he went on to publish over forty-five more Babar books, as well as creating children's books with characters of his own invention and Serafina, among others. He was married to Marie-Claude Bloch in 1951 and together they had two children, born 1952, Antoine, born 1954, they separated in 1985 and divorced in 1990. In 1985 de Brunhoff moved to the United States, living in Middletown, Connecticut with writer and Wesleyan University professor Phyllis Rose, they married in 1990 and live in New York and Key West, Florida. De Brunhoff, who holds both French and American citizenship, was made an Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur. There have been major exhibitions of his work and his father's work in 1981 at the Centre Culturel du Marais in Paris, in 1983-84 in the United States, in 1987 in Japan, in 1989-90 at the National Academy of Design in New York and the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, among others.

In 2008 the Morgan Library and Museum in New York mounted a major exhibition of original drawings and manuscripts by Jean and Laurent de Brunhoff, for which a catalogue was published, Drawing Babar: Early Drafts and Watercolors by Christine Nelson, including an essay about Babar by Adam Gopnik, published in The New Yorker. It celebrated the gift to the Morgan by Laurent de Brunhoff and his brothers and Thierry, of the manuscript of Jean de Brunhoff's first book, Histoire de Babar and by Laurent of the manuscript of his first book, Babar et ce coquin d'Arthur. There have been smaller shows at many museums throughout America, including the Art Institute of Chicago, the Dixon Gallery in Memphis, the Speed Museum in Atlanta, the Davison Center of Wesleyan University in Connecticut. A show is scheduled for 2011-2012 at the Musée des Arts Decoratifs in Paris. In addition, de Brunhoff has exhibited at the Mary Ryan Gallery in New York, which represents his work and his father's; the work of Jean and Laurent de Brunhoff has been the subject of books by Anne Hildebrand and Laurent de Brunhoff: The Legacy of Babar and by Nicholas Fox Weber, The Art of Babar.

Babar's Cousin: That Rascal Arthur. New York: Random House, 1948. Babar's Picnic. New York: Random House, 1949. Babar's Visit to Bird Island. New York: Random House, 1952. Babar's Fair. New York: Random House, 1955. A tue-tete. Paris: Juillard, 1957. Babar and the Professor. New York: Random House, 1957. Serafina the Giraffe. Cleveland: World Publishing Co. 1961. Serafina's Lucky Find. Cleveland: World Publishing Co. 1962. Babar's Castle. New York: Random House, 1962. Captain Serafina. Cleveland: World Publishing Co. 1963. Anatole and His Donkey. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Babar's French Lessons. New York: Random House, 1963. Babar Comes to America. New York: Random House, 1965. Babar's Spanish Lesson. New York: Random House, 1965. Bonhomme. New York: Pantheon, 1965. Babar Learns to Cook. New York: Random House, 1967. Babar Loses His Crown. New York: Random House, 1967. Babar's Games. New York: Random House, 1968. Babar's Moon Trip. New York: Random House, 1969. Babar's Trunk. New York: Random House, 1969. Babar's Birthday Surprise.

New York: Random House, 1970 Gregory and the Lady Turtle in the Valley of the Music Trees. New York: Pantheon, 1971. Babar's Other Trunk. New York: Random House, 1971. Babar Visits Another Planet. New York: Random House, 1972. Meet Babar and His Family. New York: Random House, 1973. Babar's Bookmobile. New York: Random House, 1974. Bonhomme and the Huge Beast. New York: Pantheon, 1974. Babar and the Wully-Wully. New York: Random House, 1975. Babar Saves the Day. New York: Random House, 1976. Babar's Mystery. New York: Random House, 1978; the One Pig with Horns. New York: Pantheon, 1979. Babar the Magician. New York: Random House, 1980. Babar's Little Library. New York: Random House, 1980 Babar and the Ghost. New York: Random House, 198

List of United States federal courthouses in Pennsylvania

Following is a list of current and former courthouses of the United States federal court system located in Pennsylvania. Each entry indicates the name of the building along with an image, if available, its location and the jurisdiction it covers, the dates during which it was used for each such jurisdiction, and, if applicable the person for whom it was named, the date of renaming. Dates of use will not correspond with the dates of construction or demolition of a building, as pre-existing structures may be adapted or court use, former court buildings may be put to other uses; the official name of the building may be changed at some point after its use as a federal court building has been initiated. List of state and county courthouses in Pennsylvania Historic federal courthouses in Pennsylvania from the Federal Judicial Center "Pennsylvania Federal Buildings". General Services Administration. U. S. Marshals Service Eastern District of Pennsylvania Courthouse Locations U. S. Marshals Service Middle District of Pennsylvania Courthouse Locations U.

S. Marshals Service Western District of Pennsylvania Courthouse Locations

Killer Sounds

Killer Sounds is the third studio album by English indie rock band Hard-Fi. It was released on 19 August 2011 in Ireland; the iTunes bonus track "Like a Drug" was featured on the deluxe edition of the soundtrack of The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 1. "Good for Nothing" was released as the first single from the album on 17 June 2011 and debuted at number 51 on the UK Singles Chart. "Fire in the House" was released as the second single on 5 August 2011 and debuted at number 170 on the UK Singles Chart. "Bring It On" was released as the third single on 24 October 2011 subsequently failing to chart in the UK Singles Chart that week. Upon its release, the album received positive reviews from critics; the Metro gave it four out of five stars, saying: "Hard-Fi’s Killer Sounds features a collection of punchy potential hits on which a real sense of fun abounds."A negative review came from James Lachno in The Daily Telegraph who awarded the album one star out of five. He called it "moody" and "humourless" and said that the "sexualised lyrics sound seedy - or worse, menacing".

All songs written by Richard Archer

Combined Campuses and Colleges cricket team

Combined Campuses and Colleges is a List A cricket team and former first-class cricket team that plays in the West Indies domestic competition the Regional Super50 (formerly KFC Cup]] and used to play in the Regional Four Day Competition. A continuation of the previous University of the West Indies cricket team, the team was created for the 2007/08 season and played their first matches in the KFC Cup one-day competition in October 2007. CCC made their four-day debut in the Carib Beer Cup in January 2008, they finished their maiden season with one win from six matches, finishing bottom of the league. In their second season of the four-day competition they improved, winning four out of 12 matches and finishing on an equal number of points with Barbados. In 2011 CCC had a good first-class season, it was CCC's best performance thus far in the competition. They progressed to the final by posting victories against Barbados, the Leeward Islands, the Windward Islands and Guyana. However, CCC were no match for a strong Jamaica team.

In the 2012 Caribbean 4-day competition, CCC kicked off in style by beating the Leeward Islands by an innings and 15 runs. In July 2014 the WICB announced that the CCC cricket team was to be excluded from the upcoming 2014-15 Regional Four Day competition as part of a series of changes adopted based on the recommendations made in a report presented by Richard Pybus, WICB's director of cricket, in March 2014. In 2017 a similar team by nature as the CCC, called the Combined Universities and Campuses made its debut in Jamaica's new premier two-day domestic cricket competition, the Jamaica Cricket Association Super League. In October 2018, they beat Trinidad and Tobago in the final of the 2018–19 Regional Super50 to win their first title in the competition