Luna 24 was an uncrewed space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme. The last of the Luna series of spacecraft, the mission of the Luna 24 probe was the third Soviet mission to return lunar soil samples from the Moon; the probe landed in Mare Crisium. The mission returned 170.1 grams of lunar samples to the Earth on 22 August 1976. Luna 24 was the third attempt to recover a sample from the unexplored Mare Crisium, the location of a large lunar mascon. After a trajectory correction on 11 August 1976, Luna 24 entered lunar orbit three days later. Initial orbital parameters were 115 by 115 kilometres at 120° inclination. After further changes to its orbit, Luna 24 set down safely on the lunar surface at 06:36 UT on 18 August 1976 at 12°45' north latitude and 62°12' east longitude, not far from where Luna 23 had landed. Exact landing location was determined by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter probe orbital cameras in 2012. Under command from ground control, the lander deployed its sample arm and pushed its drilling head about two metres into the nearby soil.
The sample was safely stowed in the small return capsule, after nearly a day on the Moon, Luna 24 lifted off at 05:25 UT on 19 August 1976. After an uneventful return trip, Luna 24's capsule entered Earth's atmosphere and parachuted safely to land at 17:55 UT on 22 August 1976, about 200 kilometres southeast of Surgut in western Siberia. Study of the recovered 170.1 grams of soil indicated a laminated type structure, as if laid down in successive deposits. The Soviet Union swapped a gram of the mission sample for a lunar sample from NASA in December 1976. Luna 24 was the last lunar spacecraft to be launched by the Soviet Union, it was the last spacecraft to make a soft landing on the Moon until the landing of Chang'e 3 on December 14, 2013, 37 years later. In February 1978 soviet scientists M. Akhmanova, B. Dement'ev, M. Markov of the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytic Chemistry published a paper claiming a detection of water definitively, their study showed that the samples returned to Earth by the probe contained about 0.1% water by mass, as seen in infrared absorption spectroscopy, at a detection level about 10 times above the threshold.
Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Zarya - Luna 24 chronology NASA NSSDC Master Catalog "Soviet Moon Lander Discovered Water on The Moon in 1976". The Physics arXiv Blog. Technology Review. May 30, 2012. Mare Crisium: Failure Success, article showing LROC images of Luna 23 and 24 on the lunar surface
Gagarin's Start is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos. The launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as Site No.1 as the first one of its kind. It is sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955. A special reconnaissance commission considered several possible geographic regions and selected Tyuratam in the Kazakh SSR; this selection was approved on 12 February 1955 by the Council of Ministers, with a completion of construction targeted for 1958. Work on the construction of Site No.1 began on 20 July 1955 by military engineers. Day and night more than 60 powerful trucks worked at the site. During winter explosives were utilized. By the end of October 1956 all primary building and installation of infrastructure for R-7 tests was completed.
The Installation and Testing Building named "Site No.2" was built and a special railway completed from there to Site No.1 where the launch pad for the rocket was located. By April 1957 all remaining work was completed and the site was ready for launches; the R-7 missile made its maiden voyage from LC-1 on 15 May 1957. On 4 October 1957 the pad was used to launch the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Manned spaceflights launched from the site include Yuri Gagarin's flight, Valentina Tereshkova's flight, numerous other human spaceflight missions, including all Soviet and Russian manned spaceflights to Mir; the pad was used to launch Luna program spacecraft, Mars probe program spacecraft, Venera program spacecraft, many Cosmos satellites and others. From 1957 through 1966 the site hosted ready-to-launch strategic nuclear ICBMs in addition to spacecraft launches; the 500th launch from this site was of Soyuz TMA-18M on 2 September 2015. In 1961, the growing launch schedule of the Soviet space program resulted in the opening of a sister pad at Baikonur, LC-31/6.
LC-1 has been the primary facility for manned launches, with occasional Soyuz flights from LC-31/6. LC-1 was damaged several times by booster explosions during the early years; as of 2016, the most recent accident to occur on or around the pad was the attempted launch of Soyuz T-10-1 in September 1983 ended disastrously when the booster caught fire during prelaunch preparations and exploded, causing severe damage that left LC-1 inoperable for a year. According to the Russian State Owned Sputnik, Gagarin's Start is supposed to be decommissioned by the end of 2019 due to the upcoming decommission of the Soyuz-FG Launch Vehicle, but again according to the same article there could be some difficulties with the decommission, because LC-31/6 might not be able to handle all planned launches in 2020. Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14, the equivalent for the United States' first manned spaceflights J. K. Golovanov, M. "Korolev: Facts and myths", Nauka, 1994, ISBN 5-02-000822-2.
ISBN 5-217-02942-0. I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.. Korolev. Yangel." - M. I. Kuznetsk, Voronezh: IPF "Voronezh", 1997, ISBN 5-89981-117-X. Notes of a military engineer" - Rjazhsky A. A. 2004, SC. first, the publishing house of the "Heroes of the Fatherland" ISBN 5-91017-018-X. "Rocket and space feat Baikonur" - Vladimir Порошков, the "Patriot" publishers 2007. ISBN 5-7030-0969-3 "Unknown Baikonur" - edited by B. I. Posysaeva, M.: "globe", 2001. ISBN 5-8155-0051-8 "Bank of the Universe" - edited by Boltenko A. C. Kiev, 2014. Publishing house "Phoenix", ISBN 978-966-136-169-9
The Luna programme called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. Fifteen were successful, each designed as either an orbiter or lander, accomplished many firsts in space exploration, they performed many experiments, studying the Moon's chemical composition, gravity and radiation. Twenty-four spacecraft were formally given the Luna designation; those that failed to reach orbit were not publicly acknowledged at the time, not assigned a Luna number. Those that failed in low Earth orbit were given Cosmos designations; the estimated cost of the Luna programme was about $4.5 billion. Luna 1 missed its intended impact with the Moon and became the first spacecraft to fall into orbit around the Sun. Luna 2 mission hit the Moon's surface, becoming the first man-made object to reach the Moon. Luna 3 rounded the Moon that year, returned the first photographs of its far side, which can never be seen from Earth.
Luna 9 became the first probe to achieve a soft landing on another planetary body. It returned five black and white stereoscopic circular panoramas, which were the first close-up shots of the Lunar surface. Luna 10 became the first artificial satellite of the Moon. Luna 17 and Luna 21 carried the Lunokhod vehicles. Another major achievement of the Luna programme, with Luna 16, Luna 20 and Luna 24, was the ability to collect samples of lunar soil and return them to Earth; the programme returned 0.326 kg of lunar samples. The Luna missions were the first space-exploration sample return missions to rely on advanced robotics. Luna 15 designed to return soil samples from the lunar surface, underwent its mission at the same time as the Apollo 11 mission. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were on the lunar surface when Luna 15 began its descent, the spacecraft crashed into a mountain minutes later. While the programme was active, it was Soviet practice not to release any details of missions which had failed to achieve orbit.
This resulted in Western observers assigning their own designations to the missions, for example Luna E-1 No.1, the first failure of 1958 which NASA believed was associated with the Luna programme, was known as Luna 1958A. NASA identified a spacecraft which it referred to as Luna 1966A as having launched on 30 April 1966, a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1969B as having launched on 15 April 1969, a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1970B as having launched on 19 February 1970; when details of Soviet launches were disclosed, no launches of Luna spacecraft were found to have occurred on those dates. Luna Luna-Glob Soviet moonshot Soviet space program Lunar and Planetary Department Moscow University Luna Series Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration Encyclopædia Britannica, Luna Space Probe Soviet Luna Chronology Soviet Lunar Images Exploring the Moon: Luna Missions
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits; the Moon is after Jupiter's satellite Io the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed not long after Earth; the most accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, thus always shows the same side to Earth, the near side; the near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. After the Sun, the Moon is the second-brightest visible celestial object in Earth's sky, its surface is dark, although compared to the night sky it appears bright, with a reflectance just higher than that of worn asphalt.
Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon's average orbital distance is 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth; the Moon's apparent size in the sky is the same as that of the Sun, since the star is about 400 times the lunar distance and diameter. Therefore, the Moon covers the Sun nearly during a total solar eclipse; this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the Moon's distance from Earth is increasing. The Moon was first reached in September 1959 by an unmanned spacecraft; the United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon's origin, internal structure, the Moon's history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.
Both the Moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar calendar systems and mythology; the usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon", which in nonscientific texts is not capitalized. The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnô, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s "moon", "month", which comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *meh₁- "to measure", the month being the ancient unit of time measured by the Moon; the name "Luna" is used. In literature science fiction, "Luna" is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon; the modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin word for the Moon, luna. The adjective selenic is so used to refer to the Moon that this meaning is not recorded in most major dictionaries.
It is derived from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη, from, however derived the prefix "seleno-", as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium. Both the Greek goddess Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia; the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana comes from the Proto-Indo-European *diw-yo, "heavenly", which comes from the PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," which in many derivatives means "sky and god" and is the origin of Latin dies, "day"; the Moon formed 4.51 billion years ago, some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. Several forming mechanisms have been proposed, including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force, the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon, the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk; these hypotheses cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.
The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after an impact of a Mars-sized body with the proto-Earth. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and the material accreted and formed the Moon; the Moon's far side has a crust, 30 mi thicker than that of the near side. This is thought to be; this hypothesis, although not perfect best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don't come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon's birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory. Before the conference, there were parti
Luna 19, was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program. Luna 19 extended location of mascons, it studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was obtained. Luna 19 was the first of the “advanced” lunar orbiters whose design was based upon the same Ye-8-class bus used for the lunar rovers and the sample collectors. For these orbiters, designated Ye-8LS, the basic “lander stage” was topped off by a wheelless Lunokhod-like frame that housed all scientific instrumentation in a pressurized container. Luna 19 was launched into an earth parking orbit on 28 September, from this orbit, was sent toward the Moon. Luna 19 entered an orbit around the Moon on 2 October 1971 after two midcourse corrections on 29 September and 1 October. Initial orbital parameters were 140 x 140 kilometers at 40.58° inclination. Soon afterward, the spacecraft began its main imaging mission — providing panoramic images of the mountainous region of the Moon between 30° and 60° south latitude and between 20° and 80° east longitude.
Other scientific experiments included extensive studies on the shape and strength of the lunar gravitational field and the locations of the mascons. Occultation experiments in May and June 1972 allowed scientists to determine the concentration of charged particles at an altitude of 10 kilometers. Additional studies of the solar wind were evidently coordinated with those performed by the Mars 2 and 3 orbiters and Veneras 7 and 8. Communications with Luna 19 were terminated some time between 3 and 20 October 1972, after a year of operation and more than 4,000 orbits around the Moon. Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Zarya - Luna programme chronology
Luna 4, or E-6 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft launched as part of the Luna program to attempt the first soft landing on the Moon. Following a successful launch, the spacecraft failed to perform a course correction and as a result it missed the Moon, remaining instead in Earth orbit. Luna 4 was launched by a Molniya-L carrier rocket at 08:16:37 UTC on 2 April 1963. Launch occurred from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. After reaching an initial parking orbit of 167 by 182 kilometres, the rocket's upper stage restarted to place Luna 4 onto a translunar trajectory; the spacecraft did not perform a required midcourse correction manoeuvre, which resulted in it missing the Moon by 8,336.2 kilometres at 13:25 UT on April 5, 1963. It entered a barycentric 90,000 × 700,000 km Earth orbit. A lecture program entitled Hitting the Moon was scheduled to be broadcast on Radio Moscow at 7:45 p.m. the evening of April 5 but was cancelled. The spacecraft transmitted at 183.6 MHz at least until April 6. The purpose of this experiment was to obtain information on the characteristics of the lunar surface.
These characteristics include the amount of cratering and size of craters, the amount and sizes of ejecta, mechanical properties of the surface such as bearing strength, compaction, etc. Determination and recognition of processes operating to produce the lunar surface features were among the objectives of this photographic experiment. Zarya - Luna programme chronology
Luna 2 or Lunik 2 was the sixth of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon. It was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, the first human-made object to make contact with another celestial body. On September 13, 1959, it hit the Moon's surface east of Mare Imbrium near the craters Aristides and Autolycus; the first mission of the Luna programme was an unnamed probe that exploded on launch on September 23, 1958. Luna missions that did not achieve orbit were not given official names and the launch attempt would not be publicly acknowledged; the first partial success of the program was the fourth launch attempt. Luna 1, which launched January 2, 1959, was a lunar impacter. One mission separated Luna 1 and Luna 2, a launch failure that occurred on an unnamed probe on June 18, 1959. Luna 2 would be the Soviet Union's sixth attempt to impact the Moon. Luna 1 and the three spacecraft before it were a part of the E1 series of spacecraft. Luna 2 was the second of the E1A series.
Luna 2 was similar in design to Luna 1, a spherical spacecraft with protruding antennas and instrumentation. The instrumentation was similar to Luna 1, including scintillation counters, Geiger counters, a magnetometer, Cherenkov detectors, micrometeorite detectors. There were no propulsion systems on Luna 2 itself. Luna 2 carried five different instruments to conduct various tests while it was on its way to the Moon; the scintillation counters would be used to measure any ionizing radiation. "The Geiger Counter carried on Luna 2 had the primary scientific objective of determining the electron spectrum of the outer radiation belt. The instrument consisted of three STS-5 gas-discharge counters mounted on the outside of the hermetically sealed container", would be powered by silver-zinc and mercury-oxide batteries; the last instrument on Luna 2 was, "a three component fluxgate magnetometer similar to that used on Luna 1 but with the dynamic range reduced by a factor of 4 to −750 to +750 gammas so that the quantization uncertainty was −12 to +12 gammas."The spacecraft carried Soviet pennants.
Two of them, located in the spacecraft, were sphere-shaped, with the surface covered by pentagonal elements. In the center was an explosive charge designed to shatter the sphere, sending the pentagonal shields in all directions; this was a low-tech method that would blow back a few elements in the direction opposite of its velocity vector to reduce the energy upon reaching the surface which would improve the chance that some part of the sphere might survive the impact. Each pentagonal element was made of stainless steel and had the USSR Coat of Arms and the Cyrillic letters СССР engraved on one side, the words СССР январь 1959 on the other side, they most vaporized on impact, however. The third pennant was located in the last stage of the Luna 2 rocket, which collided with the Moon's surface 30 minutes after the spacecraft did, it was a capsule filled with aluminium strips placed into it. On each of these strips the USSR Coat of Arms, the words 1959 январь, the words СОЮЗ СОВЕТСКИХ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСПУБЛИК were engraved.
The scientists took extra, unspecified precautions in preventing biological contamination from the Earth to the Moon. Launch was scheduled for September 9, but the Blok I core stage was shut down after it failed to reach full thrust at ignition; the booster was removed from the pad and replaced by a different vehicle, delaying the flight by three days. Luna 2, like Luna 1, took a direct path to the Moon, with a velocity high enough to result in a travel time of around 36 hours. Luna 2 hit the Moon about 800 kilometers from the centre of the visible disk on 1959 September 13 at 21:02:24 UTC, it hit with an estimated velocity of 12,000 kilometers/hour. The satellite's impact made it the first man-made object to crash-land on another celestial body. Once Luna 2 was split from its upper stage it started transmitting information back to Earth using three different transmitters; these transmitters provided precise information on its course, allowing scientists to calculate that Luna 2 would hit its mark on the Moon around 00:05 on September 14.
In order to be able to provide a visual from Earth on September 13, the spacecraft released a vapor cloud that would expand to 650-kilometer diameter that would be seen by observatories in Alma Ata, Abastumani and Stalinabad. This vapor cloud acted as an experiment to see how the sodium gas would act in a vacuum and zero gravity; the last stage of the rocket that carried Luna 2 did not carry any type of tracking device so there was uncertainty as to where it landed, but it did hit the Moon surface about 30 minutes after Luna 2 hit. The radiation detectors and magnetometer were searching for lunar magnetic and radiation fields similar to the Van Allen radiation belt around Earth, sending information about once every minute until its last transmission which came about 55 km away from the lunar surface. Although it did prove previous measurements of the Van Allen radiation belts that were taken from Luna 1 around the Earth, it was not able to detect any type of radiation belts around the Moon.
Because of claims that information received from Luna 1 was fake, as soon as the scientists of Luna 2 started receiving transmissions they sent out the intended time of impact, the transmission and trajectory details. Though Soviet scientists gave al