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Luna 22

Luna 22 was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program called Lunik 22. Luna 22 was a lunar orbiter mission; the spacecraft carried imaging cameras and had the objectives of studying the Moon's magnetic field, surface gamma ray emissions and composition of lunar surface rocks, the gravitational field, as well as micrometeorites and cosmic rays. Luna 22 was launched into Earth parking orbit and to the Moon, it was inserted into a circular lunar orbit on 2 June 1974. The spacecraft made many orbit adjustments over its 18-month lifetime in order to optimize the operation of various experiments, lowering the perilune to as little as 25 km. Maneuvering fuel was exhausted on 2 September and the mission was ended in early November. Luna 22 was the second of two "advanced" lunar orbiters designed to conduct extensive scientific surveys from orbit. Launched about a year after the termination of Lunokhod 2 operations on the lunar surface, Luna 20 performed a single mid-course correction en route the Moon on 30 May before entering lunar orbit on 2 June 1974.

Initial orbital parameters were 219 × 222 kilometers at 19°35' inclination. In addition to its primary mission of surface photography, Luna 22 performed investigations to determine the chemical composition of the lunar surface, recorded meteoroid activity, searched for a lunar magnetic field, measured solar and cosmic radiation flux, continued studies of the irregular magnetic field. Through various orbital changes, Luna 22 performed without any problems and continued to return photos fifteen months into the mission, although its primary mission had ended by 2 April 1975; the spacecraft's maneuvering propellant was depleted on 2 September, the successful mission was formally terminated in early November 1975. Luna 22 as of November, 2011, is the last Soviet or Russian lunar orbiter. Launch Date/Time: 1974-05-29 at 08:57:00 UTC On-orbit dry mass: 4000 kg Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Zarya - Luna programme chronology

Jeanne Baret

Jeanne Baret was a member of Louis Antoine de Bougainville's expedition on the ships La Boudeuse and Étoile in 1766–1769. Baret is recognized as the first woman to have completed a voyage of circumnavigation of the globe. Jeanne Baret joined the expedition disguised as a man, she enlisted as valet and assistant to the expedition's naturalist, Philibert Commerçon, shortly before Bougainville's ships sailed from France. According to Bougainville's account, Baret was herself an expert botanist. Jeanne Baret was born on July 27, 1740, in the village of La Comelle in the Burgundy region of France, her record of baptism survives and identifies her as the legitimate issue of Jean Baret and Jeanne Pochard. Her father is identified as a day laborer and seems to have been illiterate, as he did not sign the parish register. Nothing definitive is known of Baret's childhood or young adulthood, she told Bougainville that she had been orphaned and lost her fortune in a lawsuit before taking to disguising herself as a man.

While she might well have been an orphan given the low life expectancies of the time, historians agree that other details of the story she gave Bougainville were a fabrication to shield Commerson from complicity in her disguise. Burgundy was at this time one of the more backward provinces of France in terms of the condition of the peasant classes, it is that Baret's family was quite impoverished. One of the mysteries of Baret's life is how she obtained at least the rudiments of an education, as her signature on legal documents provides evidence that she was not illiterate. One of her biographers, Glynis Ridley, suggests that her mother might have been of Huguenot extraction, a group that had a higher tradition of literacy than was otherwise typical of the peasant classes of the time. Another biographer, John Dunmore, suggests that she was taught by the parish priest or taken on as a charity case by a member of the local gentry. At some point between 1760 and 1764, Baret became employed as housekeeper to Commerson, who had settled in Toulon-sur-Arroux, some 20 km to the south of La Comelle, upon his marriage in 1760.

Commerson's wife, the sister of the parish priest, died shortly after giving birth to a son in April 1762, it seems most that Baret took over management of Commerson's household at that time, if not before. It is evident that Baret and Commerson shared a more personal relationship, as Baret became pregnant in 1764. French law at that time required women who became pregnant out of wedlock to obtain a "certificate of pregnancy" in which they could name the father of their unborn child. Baret's certificate, from August 1764, survives, she refused to name the father of her child, but historians do not doubt that it was Commerson and that it was Commerson who had made the arrangements with the lawyer and witnesses on her behalf. Shortly afterwards and Commerson moved together to Paris, where she continued in the role of his housekeeper. Baret changed her name to "Jeanne de Bonnefoy" during this period, her child, born in December 1764, was given the name Jean-Pierre Baret. Baret gave the child up to the Paris Foundlings Hospital.

He was placed with a foster mother but died in the summer of 1765. In 1765, Commerson was invited to join Bougainville's expedition, he hesitated in accepting because he was in poor health. His appointment allowed him a servant, paid as a royal expense, but women were prohibited on French navy ships at this time. At some point, the idea of Baret disguising herself as a man in order to accompany Commerson was conceived. To avoid scrutiny, she was to join the expedition before the ship sailed, pretending to be a stranger to Commerson. Before leaving Paris, Commerson drew up a will in which he left to "Jeanne Baret, known as de Bonnefoi, my housekeeper", a lump sum of 600 livres along with back wages owed and the furnishings of their Paris apartment. Thus, while the story Baret concocted for Bougainville's benefit to explain her presence on board ship was designed to shield Commerson from involvement, there is clear documentary evidence of their previous relationship, it is improbable that Commerson was not complicit in the plan himself.

Baret and Commerson joined the Bougainville expedition at the port of Rochefort in late December 1766. They were assigned to sail on the Étoile; because of the vast quantity of equipment Commerson was bringing on the voyage, the ship's captain, François Chesnard de la Giraudais, gave up his own large cabin on the ship to Commerson and his "assistant". This gave Baret more privacy than she would have had otherwise on board the crowded ship. In particular, the captain's cabin gave Baret access to private toilet facilities so that she did not have to use the shared head with other members of the crew. In addition to Bougainville's published account, Baret's story figures in three other surviving memoirs of the expedition: a journal kept jointly by Commerson and Pierre Duclos-Guyot. Vivès has the most to say about Baret, but his memoir is problematical because he and Commerson were on bad terms throughout the voy

Pittsburgh Police Chief

The Pittsburgh Police Chief is the head of the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, appointed by the Mayor of Pittsburgh. The Chief is a civilian administrator, was referred to as the Police Superintendent as well as Chief, both titles having the same authority and meaning. ♥ still living 17 years, 145 days – James W. Slusser 13 years, 5 months – Harvey J. Scott 11 years, 34 days – Robert J. Coll 9 years, 275 days – Robert McNeilly 9 years – Thomas A. McQuaide 7 years – Peter Paul Walsh 7 years – Roger O'Mara 6 years, 112 days – Nathan Harper 5 years, 61 days – AH Leslie 4 years, 19 days – Robert E. Colville 3 years, 197 days – Earl Buford 3 years, 6 months – Franklin T. McQuaide 2 years, 360 days – Ralph Pampena Pittsburgh was required by an 1887 state law to have a Public Safety Director over all emergency responders. Wendell Hissrich - January 11, 2016 -Present Steven Bucar - July 29, 2014 - September 2015 Michael Huss -January 24, 2007 -July 29, 2014 Robert Kennedy Jan. 2003 -2005 Sal Sirabella 1995?-Jan.

2003 Kathy Kraus 1995-2005? Lou DiNardo April 27, 1992 -1995 Glenn Cannon October 7, 1986- July 1992 - John J. Norton July 3, 1985 -October 7, 1986 John H. Bingler April 1970- Princeton Engineering, Pitt Law, US Justice Dept Civil Rights Division 1965-1967, born 1939. James Cortese June 11, 1969 – 1970? chief of the Bureau of Building Inspection in mid-1960s born 1932. David W. Craig March 16, 1967-January 1967? Former City Solicitor James J. Dillon -March 16, 1967 Former FBI Agent and attorney. Louis Rosenberg 1957?-1961? was city council, after a federal judge Born 1898 David Olbum January 1, 1955- was city council, after a common pleas judge board member of County Sanitary Authority 1946-1955, County Elections supervisor 1928 Pitt Law Grad born 1907 George E. A. Fairley 1943 1936-Jan. 1 1955 born 1877 Colonel World War I vet, superintendent for CMU from 1920-1936 Colonel Thomas A. Dunn - January 1935 - Aug 7 1936 Chamber of Commerce President 1920-1931, candidate for Mayor 1929. Served on Prison Board.

Died Aug 10 1936 fired on July 15, 1936. Marshall Bell September 1934?-January 1935 Ralph E. Smith Jan 22, 1934 Born Ellicottville New York 1868 moved to Pittsburgh 1902 March 1934 Office at 215 City-County, Police Chiefs office 205 City-County. James M. Clark July 1926 April 1933 Prichard 1920 Charles S. Hubbard October 1914 October 1915 1918 John H. Dalley May 25, 1913 October 1913 John M. Morin 1912 -January 28, 1913 Edward G. Lang 1908 Harry Moore late March 1903 April 1904 Frank Ridgeway 1906-07 A. H. Leslie November 26, 1901 -1902 J. O. Brown 1887-1889 July 17, 1899 & 1892: William J. Kane 1920 Pittsburgh Police Allegheny County District Attorney Allegheny County Sheriff Police Chief's page on the Pittsburgh Police website Pittsburgh Police Chief Mayoral protection detail

Fred Quilt inquiry

The Fred Quilt inquiries were two coroner's inquests into the November 1971 death of Fred Quilt, an elder of the Tsilhqot'in First Nation in the Chilcotin Country region of the west-central British Columbia Interior. Members of Quilt's family alleged that he died days after being beaten by Royal Canadian Mounted Police constables; the inquest juries found no wrongdoing on the part of the RCMP. A group of activists formed the Fred Quilt Committee, which raised money for Quilt's family attempted to press criminal charges against the RCMP; the two constables were exonerated in 1977 by Quilt's widow's deathbed confession that she had caused Quilt's fatal injury and had orchestrated false testimony by herself and other witnesses. On November 28, 1971, the RCMP received a call about a pickup truck blocking Highway 20 around Alexis Creek near Williams Lake. RCMP constables Daryl Bakewell and Peter Eakins responded and found Fred Quilt along with three other members of his family in the pickup. Fred Quilt, 55, was arrested on charges of drunk driving.

The RCMP constables alleged that the four were "extremely intoxicated" and that Fred Quilt had to be pulled from the truck where he fell to the ground. The two officers claimed that Fred Quilt fell again as he was being taken to the police truck in which the four were driven to the nearby Anaham Reserve. Quilt complained of stomach pain that night and the following day, but refused to ride in an ambulance to Williams Lake's Cariboo Memorial Hospital, he instead went to the Stone Reserve until the following day when he was taken to Cariboo Memorial Hospital where he would die on November 30, 1971. Before his death he told a nurse at the hospital that a RCMP officer jumped up and down on him a claim, supported by Quilt's wife and sister-in-law, Agnes. An autopsy performed by Dr. Han Choo Lee found that Quilt died from peritonitis due to "complete severance of the small bowel". First InquestA coroner's inquest, held in January 1972, took place in Williams Lake; the Fred Quilt committee was represented by Harry Rankin, a famous lawyer and one-time Vancouver Alderman.

Rankin would be called before the BC Law Society for telling Native representatives that the police didn't mind beating up an Indian, but they "didn't like to get caught." He was threatened with disbarment, but all charges were dropped. The inquest conclusion rejected claims of police brutality as the cause of death. Second InquestA second coroner's inquest was ordered to be held in Kamloops after Attorney General Leslie Peterson learned that some of the first inquest's jury members had close ties to the Williams Lake RCMP unit; the jury for the second inquest was made up of four men and two women, including two First Nation members. On August 4, 1972, the jury returned with an open verdict, saying Quilt's "injury was caused by way of an unknown blunt force applied by an unknown object to his lower abdomen." The jury ruled that the injury happened sometime between moving Quilt from the pickup into the police vehicle. The jury did not lay blame on anyone for Quilt's death. Christine Quilt dying confessionOn March 18, 1977, page 1, The Province newspaper reported that "Christine Quilt, widow of Chilcotin Indian Fred Quilt, confessed before her death that she backed their truck into him the night he was fatally injured in 1977, RCMP said Thursday."

"The new information is that Quilt was urinating behind the truck when his wife backed up the truck and knocked him down. She put Fred back in the cab of the truck before the RCMP arrived." "RCMP Chief Supt. Gordon Dalton said Mrs. Quilt, who died of cancer last September confessed to the fatal shooting of Rose Setah on the Stone Lake Indian reserve near Williams Lake in 1968; the confessions could lead... to a pardon and possible compensation for Stephen Hink, who served a three-year prison term for manslaughter in the Setah case.'Hink had heard the rumours about Mrs. Quilt's confessions before police talked to him.'" The Fred Quilt Committee was a group of activists fighting for Fred Quilt's case. They regarded Fred Quilt's death as the RCMP beating to death of a First Nation elder. After the Second Inquest they voiced their disappointment of the verdict and released a statement that they would proceed with an attempt to start criminal charges against one of the RCMP members who were present at Fred Quilt's alleged beating.

They supported Fred Quilt's family after his death and attempted to raise money to buy his widow 20 head of cattle. Notes References July 1972 protest pamphlet calling for protest by the Fred Quilt Committee

Huguenot rebellions

The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, were an event of the 1620s in which French Calvinist Protestants located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority. The uprising occurred a decade following the death of Henry IV, himself a Huguenot before converting to Catholicism, had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes, his successor Louis XIII, under the regency of his Italian Catholic mother Marie de' Medici, became more intolerant of Protestantism. The Huguenots tried to respond by defending themselves, establishing independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, revolting against central power; the Huguenot rebellions came after two decades of internal peace under Henry IV, following the intermittent French Wars of Religion of 1562–1598. The first Huguenot rebellion was triggered by the re-establishment of Catholic rights in Huguenot Béarn by Louis XIII in 1617, the military annexation of Béarn to France in 1620, with the occupation of Pau in October 1620.

The government was replaced by a French-style parliament. Feeling their survival was at stake, the Huguenots gathered in La Rochelle on 25 December 1620. At this Huguenot General Assembly in La Rochelle the decision was taken to forcefully resist the Royal threat, to establish a "state within the state", with an independent military commandment and independent taxes, under the direction of the Duc de Rohan, an ardent proponent of open conflict with the King. In that period, the Huguenots were defiant of the Crown, displaying intentions to become independent on the model of the Dutch Republic: "If the citizens, abandoned to their guidance, were threatened in their rights and creeds, they would imitate the Dutch in their resistance to Spain, defy all the power of the monarchy to reduce them." In 1621, Louis XIII moved to eradicate. He led an army to the south, first succeeding in capturing the Huguenot city of Saumur, succeeding in the Siege of Saint-Jean-d'Angély against Rohan's brother Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise on 24 June 1621.

A small number of troops attempted to surround La Rochelle under the Count of Soissons in the Blockade of La Rochelle, but Louis XIII moved south to Montauban, where he exhausted his troops in the Siege of Montauban. After a lull, combat resumed with numerous atrocities in 1622, with the terrible Siege of Nègrepelisse in which all the population was massacred and the city was burnt to the ground. In La Rochelle, the fleet of the city under Jean Guiton started to harass royal bases; the Royal fleet met head-to-head with the fleet of La Rochelle in the Naval battle of Saint-Martin-de-Ré on 27 October 1622 in an inconclusive encounter. Meanwhile, the Treaty of Montpellier was negotiated; the Huguenot fortresses of Montauban and La Rochelle could be kept, but the fortress of Montpellier had to be dismantled. The year 1624 saw the arrival of Cardinal Richelieu to power as chief minister, which would mean much harder times ahead for the Protestants. Louis XIII did not, uphold the terms of the Treaty of Montpellier, sparking renewed Huguenot resentment.

Toiras reinforced the fortification of Fort Louis, instead of dismantling it, right under the walls of the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle, as a strong fleet was being prepared in Blavet for the eventuality of a siege of the city. The threat of a future siege on the city of La Rochelle was obvious, both to Soubise and the people of La Rochelle. In February 1625, Soubise led a second Huguenot revolt against Louis XIII, after publishing a manifesto and occupied the island of Ré, near La Rochelle. From there he sailed up to Brittany where he led a successful attack on the royal fleet in the Battle of Blavet, although he could not take the fort after a three weeks siege. Soubise returned to Ré with 15 ships and soon occupied the Ile d'Oléron as well, thus giving him command of the Atlantic coast from Nantes to Bordeaux. Through these deeds, he was recognized as the head of the Huguenots, named himself "Admiral of the Protestant Church"; the French Navy on the contrary was now depleted, leaving the central government vulnerable.

The Huguenot city of La Rochelle voted to join Soubise on 8 August 1625. These events would end with the defeat of the fleets of La Rochelle and Soubise, the full Capture of Ré island by September 1625. After long negotiations, a peace agreement, the Treaty of Paris, was signed between the city of La Rochelle and king Louis XIII on 5 February 1626, preserving religious freedom but imposing some guaranties against possible future upheavals: in particular, La Rochelle was prohibited from keeping a naval fleet; the third and last Huguenot rebellion started with an English military intervention aimed at encouraging an upheaval against the French king. The rebels had received the backing of the English king Charles I, who sent his favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham with a fleet of 80 ships. In June 1627 Buckingham organised a landing on the nearby island of Île de Ré with 6,000 men in order to help the Huguenots, thus starting an Anglo-French War, with the objective of controlling the approaches to La Rochelle, of encouraging the rebellion in the city.

Buckingham ran out of money and support, his army was weakened by diseases. The English intervention ended with the unsuccessful Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. After a last attack on Saint-Martin they were repulsed with heavy casualties, left in their ships; the English intervention was followed by the Siege of La R

Marie Pleyel

Marie Pleyel was a Belgian concert pianist. With a father from Torhout in Flemish-speaking Belgium, a language teacher, a German mother who ran a lingerie shop in the 9th arrondissement, Pleyel was trilingual, studied the piano with Henri Herz and Kalkbrenner, she gave her first formal recital at the age of eight, amazing the public with her young virtuosity. The famous critic François Joseph Fétis wrote that he had heard all the famous pianistes, but that none conveyed to him a sentiment of perfection like Madame Pleyel Berlioz was in love with Pleyel, in 1830 they became engaged. While he was in Italy, she broke off the engagement to marry Camille Pleyel, son of Ignaz Pleyel, heir to the piano manufacturing business. Pleyel was one of the most admired pianists of the 1830s. In 1848, she became chair of the piano department of the Brussels Conservatoire