An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Grant County, New Mexico
Grant County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,514, its county seat is Silver City. The county was founded in 1868 and named for Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States. Grant County comprises the Silver NM, Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,968 square miles, of which 3,962 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. Catron County - north Sierra County - east Luna County - southeast Hidalgo County - south Greenlee County, Arizona - west Gila National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 31,002 people, 12,146 households, 8,514 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 14,066 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.67% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 1.35% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 19.02% from other races, 3.11% from two or more races.
48.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,146 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 23.70% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,134, the median income for a family was $34,231. Males had a median income of $31,126 versus $19,627 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,597.
About 15.10% of families and 18.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 9.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 29,514 people, 12,586 households, 7,941 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,693 housing units at an average density of 3.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.9% white, 1.4% American Indian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 9.6% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 48.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.9% were English, 11.8% were German, 10.4% were Irish, 2.9% were American. Of the 12,586 households, 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families, 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 45.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,591 and the median income for a family was $44,360. Males had a median income of $38,731 versus $27,161 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,164. About 11.7% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. Bayard Hurley Silver City Santa Clara Dwyer Fort Bayard Mangas Springs Mimbres Valley Mule Creek Redrock Riverside Separ Sherman National Register of Historic Places listings in Grant County, New Mexico
New Mexico's 2nd congressional district
New Mexico's second congressional district to the United States House of Representatives serves the southern half of New Mexico, including Las Cruces and the southern fourth of Albuquerque. Geographically, it is the fifth largest district in the nation, the largest not to comprise an entire state, it is represented by Democrat Xochitl Torres Small. The 2nd district leans Republican, in contrast to New Mexico's other two districts, which lean Democratic. Election results from presidential races District created January 3, 1969 from the former at-large district. New Mexico's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Columbus, New Mexico
Columbus is a village in Luna County, New Mexico, United States, about 3 miles north of the Mexican border. It is considered a place of historical interest, as the scene of the attack in 1916 by Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco "Pancho" Villa that caused America to send 10,000 troops there in the punitive Mexican Expedition; the population was 1,664 at the 2010 census. Columbus was established in 1891 just across the Mexican border from Palomas, Chihuahua and named after 15th-century explorer Christopher Columbus. In 1902, the village was moved 3 miles north when the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad built its Columbus Station; this station is now converted into a museum run by the Columbus Historical Society. About 1905, it was a small town with a community of about 100 residents, two of those early settlers being Colonel Andrew O. Bailey, Louis Heller. By this time, Columbus had only one general store, a saloon, a society inspector. In time, a high school was built, Perrow G. Mosely established the Columbus News, renamed as the Columbus Courier.
By 1915, the town had 700 residents, the Columbus State Bank was built, four hotels were constructed, several stores and a Baptist church were established. At that time, Columbus possessed rich silver, copper and zinc deposits. On March 9, 1916, on the orders of Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, Francisco Beltrán, Candelario Cervantes, Nicolás Fernández, Pablo López, others led 500 men in an attack against the town, garrisoned by a detachment of the 13th Cavalry Regiment. Villa's army burned a part of the town and killed seven or eight soldiers and 10 residents before retreating back into Mexico. United States President Woodrow Wilson responded to the Columbus raid by sending 10,000 troops under Brigadier General John J. Pershing to Mexico to pursue Villa; this was known as Pancho Villa Expedition. The expedition was called off after failing to find Villa, who had escaped; the Pershing expedition brought prosperity and international attention to Columbus and a realization that war had come to the border of the United States In 1926 after the Punitive Expedition ended, Columbus started to change and decay over the decades.
Camp Furlong activity was reduced. The army decided to close their camp, the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad stopped service in Columbus. After all these events, the economy faded over time. In the 1990s Columbus started to revitalize, with the development of city and state parks, museums, RV parks, history involving the city. In July 2011, Columbus dissolved its police force after a gun-smuggling scandal that involved its village officials and others; the mayor, a village trustee, a former police chief, nine other people were indicted in the scandal. The case was prosecuted by the United States Attorney from El Paso, before United States District Court Judge Robert Brack in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Of the 11 people charged, 10 pleaded guilty, with one person still at large. Sentences ranged from five years in federal prison to two years' probation. Columbus is located at 31°49′51″N 107°38′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.8 square miles, all land.
The village is about 3 miles north of the international border between the United States of America and Mexico. The Mexican village of Puerto Palomas, Chihuahua, is on the opposite side of the border; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,765 people, 536 households, 411 families residing in the village. The population density was 635.3 people per square mile. There were 720 housing units at an average density of 259.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 70.42% White, 0.68% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 25.50% from other races, 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 83.34% of the population. There were 536 households out of which 50.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.89.
In the village, the population was spread out with 39.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $13,773, the median income for a family was $14,318. Males had a median income of $16,912 versus $12,344 for females; the per capita income for the village was $6,721. About 56.7% of families and 57.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 67.0% of those under age 18 and 20.2% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, Columbus had the 21st-lowest median household income of all places in the United States with a population over 1,000. Columbus Elementary School is part of the Deming Public Schools District. Columbus Elementary School is located 30 miles south of Deming, New Mexico and 3 miles north of Palomas, across the border in Mexico.
About 90 % of the students come from homes. The staff at Columbus Elementary is required to be bilingually endorsed or working toward bilingual endorsement; the mission of Columbus Elementary School is to build on the students' bicultural and bilingual environment.
Mexico–United States border
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains; the Mexico–US border is the most crossed border in the world, with 350 million documented crossings annually. The total length of the continental border is 3,145 kilometers. From the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the course of the Rio Grande to the border crossing at Ciudad Juárez, El Paso, Texas. Westward from El Paso–Juárez, it crosses vast tracts of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts to the Colorado River Delta and San Diego–Tijuana, before reaching the Pacific Ocean; the Mexico–United States border extends 3,145 kilometers, in addition to the maritime boundaries of 29 kilometers in the Pacific Ocean and 19 kilometers in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" —from its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico a distance of 2,020 kilometers to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.
It follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of 859 kilometers to the Colorado River, when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the Continental Divide. It follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of 39 kilometers, follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of 227 kilometers to the Pacific Ocean. Per the La Paz Agreement, the official "border area" extends 100 kilometers "on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is a 100-mile border zone; the Rio Grande meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary; the Boundary Treaty of 1970 between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding boundary disputes and uncertainties related to the Rio Grande border.
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, two major rivers—the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The U. S. states along the border, from west to east, are California, New Mexico, Texas. The Mexican states along the border are Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. Among the U. S. states, Texas has the longest stretch of the border with Mexico, while California has the shortest. Among the states in Mexico, Chihuahua has the longest border with the United States, while Nuevo León has the shortest. Texas borders four Mexican states—Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Chihuahua—the most of any U. S. states. New Mexico and Arizona each borders two Mexican states. California borders only Baja California. Three Mexican states border two U. S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila each borders only one U. S. state: Texas. Along the border are 23 U. S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities. The border separating Mexico and the United States is the most crossed international boundary in the world, with 350 million legal crossings taking place annually.
There are 48 U. S.–Mexico border crossings, with 330 ports of entry. At these points of entry, people trying to get into the U. S. are required to open their bags for inspection. Border crossings take place by roads, pedestrian walkways and ferries. From west to east, below is a list of the border city "twinnings"; the total population of the borderlands—defined as those counties and municipios lining the border on either side—stands at some 12 million people. The Mexico–United States border is the world's most transited border; the San Ysidro Port of Entry is located between San Ysidro and Tijuana, Baja California. 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians use this entry daily. Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these border towns; the world's busiest border is having an impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is an hour. Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in San Ysidro and Tijuana.
The emission of carbon monoxide and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity and other respiratory diseases. Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior; the San Ysidro border is militarized, separated by three walls, border patrol agents and ICE. Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego. While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to
Historic site or Heritage site is an official location where pieces of political, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their cultural heritage value. Historic sites are protected by law, many have been recognized with the official national historic site status. A historic site may be any building, site or structure, of local, regional, or national significance. Historic sites and heritage sites are maintained for members of the public to be able to visit. Visitors may come out of a sense of nostalgia for bygone eras, out of wishing to learn about their cultural heritage, or general interest in learning about the historical context of the site. Many sites offer guided tours for visitors, conducted by site staff who have been trained to offer an interpretation of life at the time the site represents. A site may have a visitor center with more modern architecture and facilities, which serves as a gateway between the outside world and the historic site, allows visitors to learn some of the historical aspects of the site without excessively exposing locations that may require delicate treatment.
Cultural property Heritage centre List of heritage registers Memory space National heritage site World Heritage Site National Historic Site of Canada Listed building National Historic Sites Revolutionary Sites Chitty, Gill. Managing Historic Sites and Buildings: Reconciling Presentation and Preservation. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415208147
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral