Addington Palace is an 18th-century mansion in Addington near Croydon in south London, England. It was built on the site of a 16th-century manor house, it is known for having been, between 1807 and 1897, the summer residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury. Between 1953 and 1996 it was occupied by the Royal School of Church Music, it is now a conference and wedding venue and country club, while the grounds are occupied by a golf course. The original manor house called. An ancient recipe for Malepigernout, a spiced chicken porridge, was made by the current Lord of the Manor of Addington to be served upon the Coronation of the Monarch of England; the Leigh family gained this serjeanty upon becoming Lords of the Manor of Addington prior to the coronation of Charles II in 1661. The Addington estate was owned by the Leigh family until the early 18th century. Sir John Leigh died without heirs in 1737 and his estates went to distant relatives, who sold to Barlow Trecothick. Trecothick had been brought up in Boston and became a merchant there.
He moved to London, still trading as a merchant, sat as MP for the City of London in 1768–74, served as Lord Mayor in 1770. He bought the estate for £38,500, he built a new house, designed by Robert Mylne in the Palladian style. He died before it was completed in 1774 and it was inherited by his heir, James Ivers, who had to take the surname Trecothick in order to inherit the estate. James continued the work on the house, having the substantial grounds and gardens landscaped by Lancelot "Capability" Brown. Owing to financial difficulties, James Trecothick had to sell the estate in 1802; the estate was sold in lots in 1803. The next owners got into financial trouble and sold it by Act of Parliament in 1807; this enabled the mansion to be purchased for the Archbishops of Canterbury, since nearby Croydon Palace had become dilapidated and inconvenient. The name became Addington Farm under the first few Archbishops, but changed to Addington Palace; the archbishops made enlarged the building. It became the official summer residence of six archbishops: Charles Manners-Sutton William Howley John Bird Sumner Charles Thomas Longley Archibald Campbell Tait Edward White Benson All except Benson are buried in St Mary's Church or churchyard, Addington: Benson is buried in Canterbury Cathedral.
The house was sold in 1897 to a diamond merchant from South Africa. After his death, the mansion was taken over during the First World War by the Red Cross and became a fever hospital. In 1930, it came into the hands of the County Borough of Croydon; the house was Grade II* listed in 1951. In 1953, it was leased to the Royal School of Church Music to house choirboys assembled from all over Britain to sing at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II; the building housed the Royal School of Church Music's music publishing operation, residential college and choir school until 1996, when a private company took it over for development as a conference and banqueting venue, health farm and country club. It is used extensively for weddings, it is surrounded by a park and golf courses, its gardens are still in their original design. Much of the grounds have been leased by golf clubs and the exclusive Bishops Walk housing development was built on Bishops Walk. A large Cedar of Lebanon stands next to one of the Great Trees of London.
Croydon Palace, the summer residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury for 500 years Addington Palace – Surrey Wedding Venue & Conference Centre Addington Palace – Surrey Health Club & Spa Friends of Old Palace, Surrey
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two people on the Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:17 UTC. Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours on July 21 at 02:56:15 UTC, they spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Command module pilot Michael Collins flew the command module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon's surface. Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21.5 hours on the lunar surface before rejoining Columbia in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16 at 13:32 UTC, was the fifth crewed mission of NASA's Apollo program; the Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module with a cabin for the three astronauts, the only part that returned to Earth. After being sent to the Moon by the Saturn V's third stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from it and traveled for three days until they entered lunar orbit.
Armstrong and Aldrin moved into Eagle and landed in the Sea of Tranquillity. The astronauts used Eagle's ascent stage to lift off from the lunar surface and rejoin Collins in the command module, they jettisoned Eagle before they performed the maneuvers that blasted them out of lunar orbit on a trajectory back to Earth. They returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24 after more than eight days in space. Armstrong's first step onto the lunar surface was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience, he described the event as "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Apollo 11 ended the Space Race and fulfilled a national goal proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy: "before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth." In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the United States was engaged in the Cold War, a geopolitical rivalry with the Soviet Union. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite.
This surprise success fired imaginations around the world. It demonstrated that the Soviet Union had the capability to deliver nuclear weapons over intercontinental distances, challenged American claims of military and technological superiority; this precipitated the Sputnik crisis, triggered the Space Race. President Dwight D. Eisenhower responded to the Sputnik challenge by creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, initiating Project Mercury, which aimed to launch a man into Earth orbit, but on April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space, the first to orbit the Earth. It was another body blow to American pride. Nearly a month on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American in space, completing a 15-minute suborbital journey. After being recovered from the Atlantic Ocean, he received a congratulatory telephone call from Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy. Kennedy believed that it was in the national interest of the United States to be superior to other nations, that the perception of American power was at least as important as the actuality.
It was therefore intolerable that the Soviet Union was more advanced in the field of space exploration. He was determined that the United States should compete, sought a challenge that maximized its chances of winning. Since the Soviet Union had better booster rockets, he required a challenge, beyond the capacity of the existing generation of rocketry, one where the US and Soviet Union would be starting from a position of equality. Something spectacular if it could not be justified on military, economic or scientific grounds. After consulting with his experts and advisors, he chose such a project. On May 25, 1961, he addressed the United States Congress on "Urgent National Needs" and declared:I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft.
We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain, superior. We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned explorations-explorations which are important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook: the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight, but in a real sense, it will not be one man going to the Moon-if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there; the effort to land a man on the Moon had a name: Project Apollo. An early and crucial decision was choosing lunar orbit rendezvous over both direct ascent and Earth orbit rendezvous. A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver in which two spacecraft navigate through space and meet up. On July 11, 1962, James Webb announced the decision to use lunar orbit rendezvous; this resulted in a much smaller launch vehicle, in the Apollo spacecraft being composed of three major parts: a command module with a cabin for the three astr
Fairfield Halls is an arts and conference centre located in Croydon, London. It opened in 1962 and contains a theatre and gallery, the large concert hall has been used for BBC television and orchestral recordings. Fairfield Halls for a £30 million redevelopment in July 2016, is due to reopen by end March 2019. Although the venue has been a major venue for professional music, musicals, stand-up comedy and classical music, a significant proportion of Fairfield's programme has been for community events, it was used by local schools as the venue for their annual choral concerts, as well as being used by local music, amateur dramatic and religious organisations. The Concert Hall features a cinema with Croydon's largest cinema screen; the halls are built on the site of Croydon's historic "Fair Field", which hosted a well-known fair up until around 1860, above disused railway cuttings which used to link the main London to Brighton railway to Croydon Central Station in what is now Queen's Gardens. Between 1930 and 1962 the land was home to both air raid shelters during the war.
The venue was 50 years old in 2012 and an anniversary concert by the London Mozart Players was attended by the Earl of Wessex. A website was launched to celebrate both the venue's history and to act as an ongoing archive, containing 2,000 digitised images accessed via text and keyword searches; this makes it one of the largest digitised venue archives in Europe. In the summer of 2014 the council paid for the refurbishment of the Arnhem Gallery, the conversion of the former Green Room into the New Studio and the installation of modern digital projection equipment with Dolby Surround 7.1 in the Concert Hall. Fairfield was run from 1993 to 2016 by a self-financing charity with a board of trustees; the charity was in receipt of an operating grant from Croydon Council. Croydon Council, the freeholder of the land, had various plans to refurbish Fairfield over the years but none of these plans came to fruition. In the spring of 2015 a new set of consultants led by Croydon firm Mott MacDonald was appointed by Croydon Council to deliver a £12m programme on the Fairfield Halls and a separate programme for the remainder of the College Green site.
Around £30m would be spent on redeveloping and modernising Fairfield Halls in the period between 2016 and 2018. In February 2016, it was confirmed that the venue would close for two years for redevelopment starting July 2016 as part of the Croydon council's plan for the cultural and educational quarter in the town centre, with new homes, shops and a building for Croydon College being constructed; the venue is scheduled to re-open by the end of March 2019. The building's concert hall has 1,801 seats, the Ashcroft Theatre has 755, the Arnhem Gallery is used for standing concerts of up to 400. Many famous acts have performed at the Fairfield Halls, including The Dubliners, Kenny Rogers, Stevie Wonder, Canned Heat, Free, the Beatles, Pink Floyd, the Who, Morrissey, Status Quo, Chuck Berry, Petula Clark, The Stranglers and Shane Filan of Westlife. Delaney & Bonnie & Friends recorded their live album On Tour with Eric Clapton in the halls, with a band that featured George Harrison; the Nice recorded most of their posthumous album Five Bridges live at the concert hall on 17 February 1969, with King Crimson as their opening act for the concert.
Free recorded part of their album Free Live! at the venue on 13 September 1970. Rat Scabies and Captain Sensible of the Damned both worked as toilet cleaners at Fairfield Halls, Captain Sensible remarking that he was inspired to take music more after witnessing a T. Rex concert there. Morecambe and Wise's appearance at the halls in 1973 was filmed, the only time that their live stage act was recorded. Fairfield Halls was used for British professional wrestling for many years, with various cards having been featured on ITV's World of Sport in the 1970s and 1980s. Fairfield has featured as a location in TV productions and commercials, it was featured in the opening titles of June. Fairfield Halls is notable for being the location of a Tangerine Dream concert on 31 October 1982, only a week before the recording of their live album, Logos. Fairfield's concert hall appeared in the film The Da Vinci Code as the location of Robert Langdon's speech to students; the venue featured in the films Made in Dagenham and Cuban Fury.
Official web site Official archive web site
Harry John Hyams was a British millionaire who made his money as a speculative property developer. He was best known as the developer of the Centre Point office building in London. Hyams was born in Middlesex, his father was an importer. After private schooling he joined an advertising agency joined an estate agency and switched to property development. Hyams made much of his fortune developing office space in London at a time in the 1960s and 1970s when rents there were rising significantly, he preferred to find single, blue-chip tenants for his properties, having them repair and insure the buildings they occupied, as is now common with commercial property in the UK. This approach enabled Hyams to manage a valuable and sizable property business with a staff of just six, it was used by him as justification for keeping his 33-storey Centre Point development empty for years after its completion: he claimed he could find no tenant willing to lease all 202,000 sq ft of space. In 1954 he married his wife Kay in Chelsea.
She died 1 February 2011, aged 91. On 19 December 2015, Hyams died at the age of 87. Between the mid-1960s and 2010, Hyams owned the classic 64 m motor yacht Shemara, although he is thought to have made little use of her. In 1965 Hyams bought Ramsbury Manor, near Marlborough and surrounding land for £650,000 – said at the time to be the highest price paid for a private house in England. In 2008, a raid at Ramsbury Manor by the Johnson Gang was described as the biggest private burglary in England. In his will, Hyams gave the house and his collections of fine art and cars to the nation via his Capricorn Foundation, in a bequest reported to be worth £450m
Apollo House (Croydon)
Apollo House is a 22-storey high-rise office building at 36 Wellesley Road in the London Borough of Croydon, England. In common with a neighbouring building Lunar House and others developed by Harry Hyams, the building's name was inspired by the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969. Like Lunar House, Apollo serves as the headquarters of UK Visas and Immigration, a division of the Home Office in the United Kingdom; the buildings at one time hosted the headquarters of the Property Services Agency, along with other 1960s office blocks, including those forming part of the Whitgift Centre. The PSA had offices in central London, a regional network of offices throughout the UK. Up until 2008, part of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Services section were based on floors 17 and 18. "Apollo House", SkyscraperNews.com
The Warehouse Theatre was a professional producing theatre in the centre of the Croydon, England. Based in an oak-beamed Victorian former cement warehouse, it had 100 seats; the theatre closed in 2012 following withdrawal of funding and the discovery, after a survey, of serious faults in the building. The Warehouse was known for its commitment to new writing, including an annual International Playwriting Festival, in partnership with the Extra Candoni Festival of Udine in Italy and Theatro Ena in Cyprus. Youth theatre was an important feature of the theatre, with a resident Croydon Young Peoples' Theatre and including an annual collaboration with the Croydon-based Brit School; the Warehouse Theatre was founded by Sam Kelly, Richard Ireson and Adrian Shergold when lunchtime theatre was popular, with the aim of presenting a varied season of plays with an emphasis on new work to the highest possible standards. The first production — Hell's Angels on Typewriters by Angela Wye — opened in May 1977, the then-50-seat auditorium became an instant favourite with local audiences for lunchtime performances whilst sharing the building with a Caribbean night club.
In 1978, the Arts Council recognised the work of the theatre by awarding a major grant, in 1979 the nightclub closed, evening performances were introduced and the seating capacity was increased to 100. Respected touring companies began to visit the theatre between in-house productions. Cabaret evenings were introduced, with performers including Lenny Henry, French & Saunders, Rik Mayall, Ben Elton, Julian Clary. More plays were premiered, with many being specially commissioned by successful writers, such as Sue Townsend, who wrote Groping for Words and Womberang for the theatre. After the withdrawal of an Arts Council grant in 1984, potential closure was averted when the London Borough of Croydon and the GLC agreed to replace the grant. Following a brief closure for major refurbishment, including the building of the bar, the theatre re-opened in 1985 under the directorship of Ted Craig with the premiere of David Allen's Cheapside. Now concentrating on new playwriting, initiatives such as the South London Playwriting Festival were launched, giving an invaluable platform to works by both new and established writers.
Kevin Hood's new play Beached won the first festival in 1986 and he became Resident Playwright, writing both The Astronomer's Garden and Sugar Hill Blues for the theatre. Demolished 26/27 October 2013; the South London Playwriting Festival became the International Playwriting Festival, reflecting the number of entries from all over the globe. Finalists included playwrights from the United States and Tobago, Australia and Bulgaria, with the 1994 winner, Dino Mahoney, being half Irish, half Greek, living in Hong Kong. Mahoney's selected play Yo Yo had its premiere in April 1995. In 1996, the Warehouse Theatre inaugurated a partnership with the leading Italian playwriting festival, the Premio Candoni Arta Terme and in 1999 a partnership was formed with Theatro Ena in Cyprus providing selected writers with a window for further productions in Europe; the new writers discovered by the festival, including James Martin Charlton, Sheila Dewey, Richard Vincent, Mark Norfolk, Maggie Nevill and Roumen Shomov have gone on to further productions and screen contracts.
The Warehouse Theatre was a converted Victorian warehouse, built in 1882 for a sand and lime merchant. In spite of refurbishments, it still had several original features. There were picture tiles from the 1880s on the cellar under the main staircase, a "crab" winch and wall crane of unusual design in full working order on the side of the building. Early drawings show that the bar, opened in 1985, was sited in the old stable block, with the eating area above in the appropriately named "Hayloft" bar; the Victorian origin of the building had negative sides: the removal of a false ceiling in 1981 uncovered the planked roof and vast beams and tresses of the original holes in the original roof to let in the rain over audience and cast alike. For some years a new theatre has been planned in partnership with Stanhope / Schroders as part of their Ruskin Square development. Designed by Foster + Partners around a park setting with the Warehouse Theatre occupying a £5 million, 200 seat custom designed building.
Although a complete contrast to the existing Victorian warehouse, the new building has been designed to be as intimate as possible. As part of the redevelopment, a Boxpark retail park was opened on the site in October 2016. Croydon Arena was a proposed arena part of the Croydon Gateway re-generation scheme in the south London district of Croydon; the site is next to East Croydon station and was in the ownership of the rival development, Ruskin Square. The Arena scheme was backed by Croydon Council with developer partner Arrowcroft; the matter was the subject of a public inquiry that took place from September to November 2007. The full decision rejecting the Planning Application and the Compulsory Purchase Order was issued on the 31 July 2008 and 6 August 2008. On 4 May 2012 the Warehouse was placed into administration by the board of management, with debts of £100,000, following Croydon Council's decision to withdraw funding; the last performance was at the end of the run of Call Mr Robeson. A fund-raising appeal was launched to save the company.
A new company Warehouse Phoenix Limited was formed to continue the work of the theatre. It produced the annual International Playwriting Festival in June 2013 and a production of the selected play from the Festival The Road to Nowhere by Sean Cook was produced at the Ashcroft Theatre in Croydon in October 2013. Warehouse Phoenix website
Taberner House housed the main offices of Croydon London Borough Council until September 2013. It was located in Croydon, close to the Croydon Town Hall. Taberner House was built between 1964 and 1967, designed by architect H. Thornley, with Allan Holt and Hugh Lea as borough engineers. Although the Croydon Corporation had needed extra space since the 1920s, it was only with the imminent creation of the London Borough of Croydon that action was taken, it had its upper slab block narrowing towards both ends. It was named after Ernest Taberner OBE, Town Clerk from 1937 to 1963. Taberner House accommodated most of the council's central employees, its'one-stop shop' was the main location for the public to access information and services. In September 2013 Croydon Council moved their main offices into a new PSDH adjacent to Taberner House; the new building, named Bernard Weatherill House after the late former local MP & Speaker of the House of Commons, covers more ground space, but is less tall at 14 storeys in its highest section.
In April 2014, demolition of Taberner House was underway. By 2015, the demolition was complete and Croydon Council had announced a revised residential scheme to lessen the impact on adjoining green spaces and to provide more affordable housing. Construction of a 500-home development began in May 2018 and completion is expected in 2021. In September 2015, the site was temporarily planted with crocus as a link with the origins of the town's name. Plants were made available to community gardens within the borough