Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
The Takeda Oncology Company was a leading biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Millennium has gradually been absorbed by its parent Takeda and renamed Takeda Oncology, the Company marketed Velcade for injection, a cancer product, and has a growing clinical development pipeline of product candidates. Millenniums research and commercialization activities focused in two areas and inflammation. By applying its knowledge of the genome, understanding of disease mechanisms and industrialized drug discovery platform. On May 14,2008, Japanese company Takeda Pharmaceutical announced the completion of its acquisition of Millennium for US$25.00 per share in cash—a deal worth $8.8 billion. Takeda completed the acquisition through an offer and subsequent merger of a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda into Millennium. Millennium is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda, in its early years, Millennium focused on building science and business teams. Beginning in 1994, Millennium created more than 20 strategic alliances with leading pharmaceutical and these alliances provided Millennium with close to $2 billion of committed funding that was used to develop and enhance its pipeline.
A merger with Leukosite in 1999 brought the company its first drug close-to-market, Campath Injection, in 2000, a merger with Cambridge Discovery Chemistry gave Millennium a strong presence in the United Kingdom and added to the organization more than 100 scientists with expertise in chemistry. In a strategic decision, Campath was sold to the Millennium partner for the drug, ILEX Oncology. In February 2002, there was a merger with COR Therapeutics — among the largest such mergers in the history of the biotech industry at that time. In addition to creating a pipeline of novel therapeutics, the merger added cardiovascular research and drug development to the Companys other key therapeutic areas, oncology. The merger brought Integrilin Injection, an intravenous anti-platelet drug for patients with cardiovascular diseases. In May 2003 Velcade was launched for the treatment of relapsed, at the time, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma for patients who had not responded to at least two other therapies for the disease.
Velcade — the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor — reached the market in record time, in late December 2007, Millennium successfully submitted a supplemental new drug application to the FDA for Velcade for previously untreated multiple myeloma. The sNDA submitted to the FDA for this indication included data from the Phase III VISTA, study, a large, well-controlled international clinical trial, comparing a Velcade based regimen to a traditional standard of care. Priority review was granted by the FDA in January 2008, on June 20,2008, the FDA approved VELCADE in combination for patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. This means that Millennium can market Velcade to patients who have not had any prior therapies for multiple myeloma, in May 2008, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited purchased Millennium for $8.8 billion
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel. It specializes primarily in generic drugs, but other business interests include active pharmaceutical ingredients and, to a lesser extent and it is the largest generic drug manufacturer in the world and one of the 15 largest pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Tevas facilities are located in Israel, North America, Teva shares trade on both the New York Stock Exchange and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. The company is a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Tevas earliest predecessor was Salomon and Elstein Ltd. a wholesale distributor based in Palestine that was founded in 1901, and used camels to make deliveries. During the 1930s, new immigrants from Europe founded several companies including Teva, Assia. In 1951, Teva raised capital through the newly founded Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange after the formation of the new country, in 1964, Assia and Zori merged and acquired a controlling interest in Teva.
In 1976, these three companies merged into the modern-day Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, in 1980, Teva continued to follow its vision of becoming one of the worlds biggest pharmaceutical companies by acquiring Ikapharm, Israels second largest drug manufacturer. In 1982, Teva was granted approval by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for its Kfar Saba manufacturing plant, in 2005, Teva opened a new, state-of-the-art pharmaceutical manufacturing plant in Har Hotzvim, a technology park in Jerusalem. The plant received FDA approval in early 2007, Teva entered the Japanese market in 2005, and in 2008 established a generics joint venture with Kowa. In 2008, sales totalled $11.08 billion, $13.9 billion in 2009, Teva acquired its U. S. rival Ivax Corporation in January 2006, Barr in 2007 and Ratiopharm in 2010. In 2010, Teva announced that it would build its main center for the Americas in Philadelphia, PA. In 2010, it had 39,660 employees, in Israel, the number of workers rose 7. 5% by 6,774.
In March 2010, Teva acquired German-based company Ratiopharm in a deal worth almost $5 billion, in May 2011 Teva announced it would purchase Cephalon for US$6.8 billion, to help expand its presence in the proprietary pharmaceuticals sector. Teva Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients operates within Teva as a business unit. As well as providing for Tevas own needs, the TAPI division is a competitor in world markets. In 2009, TAPIs sales to third parties totaled $565 million, in 2000 Teva acquired Canada-based Novopharm. In January 2006, Teva said it had completed the acquisition of IVAX Corporation for around $7.4 billion, the acquisition price was $7.4 billion. On December 23,2008, Teva acquired Barr Pharmaceuticals for $7.5 billion, making Barr, on March 18,2010, Teva said it planned to acquire German generic Ratiopharm for US$5 billion
Zuclopenthixol, known as zuclopentixol, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class. It was introduced in 1962 by Lundbeck and it is the cis-isomer of clopenthixol. Zuclopenthixol is a D1 and D2, α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 agonist and it is not approved for use in the United States. Zuclopenthixol is available in three major preparations, As zuclopenthixol decanoate, it is a long acting intramuscular injection. Its main use is as a long acting injection given every two or three weeks to people with schizophrenia who have a compliance with medication and suffer frequent relapses of illness. There is some evidence it may be helpful in managing aggressive behaviour. As zuclopenthixol acetate, it is a shorter acting intramuscular injection used in the acute sedation of psychotic inpatients, the effect peaks at 48–72 hours providing 2–3 days of sedation. As zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride, it is a used in the treatment of schizophrenia in those who are compliant with oral medication. It is used in the treatment of bipolar mania.
As a long acting injection, zuclopenthixol decanoate comes in a 200 mg and 500 mg ampoule, doses can vary from 50 mg weekly to the maximum licensed dose of 600 mg weekly. In general, the lowest effective dose to prevent relapse is preferred, the interval may be shorter as a patient starts on the medication before extending to 3 weekly intervals subsequently. 100 mg of zuclopenthixol decanoate is roughly equivalent to 20 mg of flupentixol decanoate or 12.5 mg of fluphenazine decanoate, as it is a long-acting medication, care must be taken not to give an excessive dose. In oral form zuclopenthixol is available in 10,25 and 40 mg tablets, zuclopenthixol antagonises both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, α1-adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptors with a high affinity, but has no affinity for cholinergic muscarine receptors. It weakly antagonises the histamine receptor but has no α2-adrenoceptor blocking activity, evidence from in vitro work and clinical sources suggests that both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 play important roles in zuclopenthixol metabolism.
An increase in the incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas is a finding for D2 antagonists which increase prolactin secretion when administered to rats. An increase in the incidence of pancreatic islet cell tumours has been observed for some other D2 antagonists, the physiological differences between rats and humans with regard to prolactin make the clinical significance of these findings unclear. Other permanent side effects are similar to other typical antipsychotics. This may result in similar to those seen in Parkinsons disease and include a restlessness and inability to sit still known as akathisia
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis and prevention of disease. The word medicine is derived from Latin medicus, meaning a physician, Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art, while stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of medicine and are thus called alternative medicine.
For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is variable and inconsistent for any condition, in contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery. Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world due to differences in culture. In modern clinical practice, physicians personally assess patients in order to diagnose, the doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patients medical history and medical record, followed by a medical interview and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices are typically used, after examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests, take a biopsy, or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided, during the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust.
The medical encounter is documented in the record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions. Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the general procedure. The diagnosis and treatment may take only a few minutes or a few weeks depending upon the complexity of the issue, the components of the medical interview and encounter are, Chief complaint, the reason for the current medical visit. They are in the patients own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one, called chief concern or presenting complaint. History of present illness, the order of events of symptoms. Distinguishable from history of illness, often called past medical history
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter. This in turn leads to increased concentrations of serotonin and, therefore. For example, which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine. SRIs are used predominantly as antidepressants, though they are commonly used in the treatment of other psychological conditions such as anxiety disorders. Less often, SRIs are used to treat a variety of medical conditions including neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. A closely related type of drug is a releasing agent. Many SRIs exist, an assortment of which are listed below, note that only SRIs selective for the SERT over the other monoamine transporters are listed below. For a list of SRIs that act at multiple MATs, see other monoamine reuptake inhibitor such as SNRI and SNDRI
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Nasdaq Nordic is the common name for the subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc. that provide financial services and operate marketplaces for securities in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Historically, the operations have been known by the company name OMX AB, in 2015, the legal entity OMX AB was renamed Nasdaq AB, but it operates under the alias Nasdaq OMX AB. The operations have been part of Nasdaq, Inc. since February 2008, OM AB was a futures exchange founded by Olof Stenhammar in the 1980s to introduce trading in standardized option contracts in Sweden. OM acquired the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1998 and unsuccessfully attempted acquisition of the London Stock Exchange in 2001, during the dot-com bubble in the early 21st century OM, together with investment bank Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, launched a virtual European stock exchange called Jiway. The project was not successful and was cancelled on 14 October 2002, on 3 September 2003 the Helsinki Stock Exchange merged with OM, and the joint company became OM HEX.
On 31 August 2004, the name of the company was changed to OMX. OMX acquired the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in January 2005 for €164 million, on 19 September 2006 the Iceland Stock Exchange owner Eignarhaldsfelagid Verdbrefathing announced it would be acquired by OMX in a deal valuing the company at 250 million SEK. The transaction was completed by the end of the year, the company took a 10% stake in Oslo Børs Holding ASA, the owner of the Oslo Stock Exchange in October 2006. As of September 2016, Nasdaq is not a shareholder in the Oslo Stock Exchange holding company. Nasdaq has, publicly stated its interest in acquiring the Oslo Stock Exchange. OMX acquired the Armenian Stock Exchange and Central Depository in November 2007, in December 2005 OMX started First North, an alternative exchange for smaller companies, in Denmark. The First North exchange expanded to Stockholm in June 2006, Iceland in January 2007, the Markets Technology division of Computershare was acquired in 2006. The acquisition greatly expanded its offerings and made its client list the largest of all trading system technology providers.
The group launched a virtual Nordic Stock Exchange on 2 October 2006, companies listed on the Iceland Stock Exchange have since been merged into the list. OMX launched a pan-regional benchmark index, the OMX Nordic 40, on the same date, on 25 May 2007, NASDAQ agreed to buy OMX for US$3.7 billion. In August 2007, Borse Dubai offered US$4 billion, on 20 September 2007, Borse Dubai agreed to stop competing to buy OMX in return for a 20% stake and 5 percent of votes in NASDAQ as well as NASDAQs 28% stake in the London Stock Exchange. In a complex transaction, Borse Dubai acquired 97. 2% of OMXs outstanding shares before selling them on to NASDAQ, the newly merged company was renamed the NASDAQ OMX Group upon completion of the deal on 27 February 2008. OMX is the leading provider of central securities depository technology
Aluminium foil, often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than 0.2 mm, thinner gauges down to 6 micrometres are commonly used. In the United States, foils are commonly gauged in thousandths of an inch or mils, standard household foil is typically 0.016 mm thick, and heavy duty household foil is typically 0.024 mm. The foil is pliable, and can be bent or wrapped around objects. Thin foils are fragile and are sometimes laminated to other such as plastics or paper to make them more useful. Aluminium foil supplanted tin foil in the mid 20th century, annual production of aluminium foil was approximately 800,000 tonnes in Europe and 600,000 tonnes in the U. S. in 2003. Approximately 75% of aluminium foil is used for packaging of foods and chemical products, in North America, aluminium foil is known as aluminum foil. It was popularised by Reynolds Metals, the manufacturer in North America. In the United Kingdom and United States it is, widely called tin foil, metallised films are sometimes mistaken for aluminium foil, but are actually polymer films coated with a thin layer of aluminium.
In Australia, aluminium foil is widely called alfoil, Foil made from a thin leaf of tin was commercially available before its aluminium counterpart. Tin foil was marketed commercially from the late nineteenth into the twentieth century. The term tin foil survives in the English language as a term for the aluminium foil. Tin foil is less malleable than aluminium foil and tends to give a slight tin taste to food wrapped in it, tin foil has been supplanted by aluminium and other materials for wrapping food. The first audio recordings on phonograph cylinders were made on tin foil, tin was first replaced by aluminium in 1910, when the first aluminium foil rolling plant, Dr. Lauber, Neher & Cie. was opened in Emmishofen, Switzerland. Neher & Sons, the manufacturers, started in 1886 in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, at the foot of the Rhine Falls. Nehers sons, together with Dr. Lauber, discovered the endless rolling process, in 1911, Bern-based Tobler began wrapping its chocolate bars in aluminium foil, including the unique triangular chocolate bar, Toblerone.
By 1912, aluminium foil was being used by Maggi to pack soups, the first use of foil in the United States was in 1913 for wrapping Life Savers, candy bars, and gum. Processes evolved over time to include the use of print, lacquer, laminate, to maintain a constant thickness in aluminium foil production, beta radiation is passed through the foil to a sensor on the other side. If the intensity becomes too high, the rollers adjust, if the intensities become too low and the foil has become too thick, the rollers apply more pressure, causing the foil to be made thinner
Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. A negative image on film is used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print. The word photography was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, light and γραφή representation by means of lines or drawing, several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung. Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566, wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley, a hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture, renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means dark chamber in Latin and it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance and he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. The shadow images eventually darkened all over, the first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825, in 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature. Because Niépces camera photographs required a long exposure, he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy, Daguerres efforts culminated in what would be named the daguerreotype process