Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Cogeneration or combined heat and power is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling and power refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector; the terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be applied to the power systems generating electricity and industrial chemicals – e.g. syngas or pure hydrogen. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel because otherwise wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating; this is called combined heat and power district heating. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures can be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling; the supply of high-temperature heat first drives a steam turbine-powered generator. The resulting low-temperature waste heat is used for water or space heating.
At smaller scales a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the waste heat is used for both heating and cooling in an absorption refrigerator. Combined cooling and power systems can attain higher overall efficiencies than cogeneration or traditional power plants. In the United States, the application of trigeneration in buildings is called building cooling and power. Heating and cooling output may operate concurrently or alternately depending on need and system construction. Cogeneration was practiced in some of the earliest installations of electrical generation. Before central stations distributed power, industries generating their own power used exhaust steam for process heating. Large office and apartment buildings and stores generated their own power and used waste steam for building heat. Due to the high cost of early purchased power, these CHP operations continued for many years after utility electricity became available. Many process industries, such as chemical plants, oil refineries and pulp and paper mills, require large amounts of process heat for such operations as chemical reactors, distillation columns, steam driers and other uses.
This heat, used in the form of steam, can be generated at the low pressures used in heating, or can be generated at much higher pressure and passed through a turbine first to generate electricity. In the turbine the steam pressure and temperature is lowered as the internal energy of the steam is converted to work; the lower pressure steam leaving the turbine can be used for process heat. Steam turbines at thermal power stations are designed to be fed high pressure steam, which exits the turbine at a condenser operating a few degrees above ambient temperature and at a few millimeters of mercury absolute pressure. For all practical purposes this steam has negligible useful energy. Steam turbines for cogeneration are designed either for extraction of some steam at lower pressures after it has passed through a number of turbine stages, with the un-extracted steam going on through the turbine to a condenser. In this case, the extracted steam causes a mechanical power loss in the downstream stages of the turbine.
Or they are designed, for final exhaust at back pressure. The extracted or exhaust steam is used for process heating. Steam at ordinary process heating conditions still has a considerable amount of enthalpy that could be used for power generation, so cogeneration has an opportunity cost. A typical power generation turbine in a paper mill may have extraction pressures of 160 psig and 60 psig. A typical back pressure may be 60 psig. In practice these pressures are custom designed for each facility. Conversely generating process steam for industrial purposes instead of high enough pressure to generate power at the top end has an opportunity cost; the capital and operating cost of high pressure boilers and generators are substantial. This equipment is operated continuously, which limits self-generated power to large-scale operations. A combined cycle, may be used to extract heat using a heating system as condenser of the power plant's bottoming cycle. For example, the RU-25 MHD generator in Moscow heated a boiler for a conventional steam powerplant, whose condensate was used for space heat.
A more modern system might use a gas turbine powered by natural gas, whose exhaust powers a steam plant, whose condensate provides heat. Cogeneration plants based on a combined cycle power unit can have thermal efficiencies above 80%; the viability of CHP in smaller CHP installations, depends on a good baseload of operation, both in terms of an on-site electrical demand and heat demand. In practice, an exact match between the heat and electricity needs exists. A CHP plant can either meet the need for heat or be run as a power plant with some use of its waste heat, the latter being less advantageous in terms of its utilisation factor and thus its overall efficiency; the viability can be increased where opportunities for trigeneration exist. In such cases, the heat from the CHP plant is used as a primary energy source to deliver cooling by means of an absorption c
Pier47 is a DGNB Gold-certified office building located on the Langelinie Pier in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was designed by Tranberg with inspiration from 19th century warehouses, it is owned by ATP Ejendomme. The site was acquired by ATP Ejendomme in the 1990s. Lundgaard & Tranberg won first prize in an international competition to design an office building for the site in 2009 but the project was delayed by the financial crisis. Construction began in 2012 and the building was inaugurated in 2016. Pier47 is built in red brick with inspiration from 19th century warehouses such as the nearby Dahlerup Warehouse; the exterior is dominated by the placed windows. The building is centred on a large toplit atrium; the different floors are connected by a system of skyways. The building has been designed with a focus on sustainable solutions and has been DGNB Gold-certified. Sustainable solutions include natural groundwater cooling. Pier47 at Lundgaard & Tranberg's website
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, although it is annexed to mainland Kalvebod Brygge at its southern end. Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal separates it from Enghave Brygge to the south; the area was known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003. A masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006; the development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings. It consists of a mixture of offices and a hotel; the Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009. It was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter.
Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island. It was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh. A number of footballers from F. C. Copenhagen and Brøndby IF have lived on Havneholmen; the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the B, C, E and H trains. Nearby bus lines include 1A which travels along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv; the super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes. On the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagen's Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively; the new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast and unhindered passage between the Brygge Bridge and Dybøl Bridge in spite of the grade difference.
The structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk, 35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the most visited art museum in Denmark, has an extensive permanent collection of modern and contemporary art, dating from World War II to the present day; the museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, is noted for its synthesis of art and landscape. The museum also stages exhibitions of work by the great impressionists and expressionists, e.g. Claude Monet was the focus of a major exhibition in 1994; the museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die and ranks 85th on a list of the most visited art museums in the world. The name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all called Louise; the museum was created in 1958 by the owner at the time. He contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape.
This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three buildings connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991. In late November 2012, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the development of the museum as a cultural platform. In 2013, the museum's music department launched Louisiana Music, a webpage dedicated to musical videos produced by the museum in collaboration with world-famous musicians; the museum has a wide range of modern art paintings and videos dating from World War II to the present day, including works by artists such as Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Anselm Kiefer, Alberto Giacometti, Pablo Picasso, Yves Klein, Robert Rauschenberg, David Hockney and Asger Jorn. The videos are housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a sculpture garden between the museum's two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, Jean Arp.
Besides the collection of modern art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001, it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, a California-based Danish dancer and art collector, who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing, built in 1966 and 1971, its acoustics make it suitable for chamber music, but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates and symposiums. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the rear wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis. In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé. All the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website; the grounds around the museum contain a landscaped sculpture garden. It consists of a plateau and ground that slopes towards the Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea.
It contains works by such artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró and Henry Moore. The sculptures are either placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees and the sea. There are examples of site-specific art by such artists as Enzo Cucchi, Dani Karavan and George Trakas. Louisiana Literature festival is an annual festival that takes place at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. Launched in 2010, the festival each year features about forty writers from across the world, they perform on stages around the museum and in the sculpture park, attract more than 10,000 people each year. 1958 —1993: Knud W. Jensen 1995 —: Lars Nittve 1998 —: Steingrim Laursen 2000 —: Poul Erik Tøjner The museum is located by the Øresund coast in the North Zeeland region, some 30 km north of central Copenhagen and 10 km south of Elsinore. From the regional train station in Humlebæk, it takes 10-15 minutes to walk to the museum.
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art official website Louisiana Channel official website Louisiana Music official website