click links in text for more info

Luo Yixiu

Luo Yixiu, a Han Chinese woman, was the first wife of the Chinese communist revolutionary and political leader Mao Zedong, to whom she was married from 1908 until her death. Coming from the area around Shaoshan, Hunan, in south central China – the same region as Mao – her family were impoverished local landowners. Most of what is known about their marriage comes from an account Mao gave to the American reporter Edgar Snow in 1936, which Snow included in his book Red Star Over China. According to Mao, he and Luo Yixiu were the subject of an arranged marriage organised by their respective fathers, Mao Yichang and Luo Helou. Luo was eighteen and Mao just fourteen years old at the time of their betrothal. Although Mao took part in the wedding ceremony, he said that he was unhappy with the marriage, never consummating it and refusing to live with his wife. Disgraced, she lived with Mao's parents for two years until she died of dysentery, while he moved out of the village to continue his studies elsewhere becoming a founding member of the Communist Party of China.

Various biographers have suggested that Mao's experience of this marriage affected his views, leading him to become a critic of arranged marriage and a vocal feminist. He would marry three more times, to Yang Kaihui, He Zizhen and Jiang Qing, the last of whom was better known as Madame Mao. Born on 20 October 1889, Luo Yixiu was the eldest daughter of Luo Helou, a shenshi – or rural intellectual who earned his living as a farmer – and his wife, whose surname was Mao and, a distant great-aunt of Mao Zedong. Although historian Lee Feigon stated that the Luo family was locally important, Mao biographers Alexander V. Pantsov and Steven I. Levine claimed that they had fallen into poverty. Luo Helou and his wife had five sons and five daughters, but seven of these children died, leaving them only three daughters; the couple's lack of adult sons diminished their social status, for in Chinese society at the time, only sons could continue the family lineage. Mao Zedong had been born and raised at his father's farm in Shaoshanchong, a small rural village named for the nearby Shaoshan mountain.

His disciplinarian father, Mao Yichang, had decided to deal with Zedong's rebellious attitude in a manner typical of the time, by forcing him into an arranged marriage that would compel him to take family matters seriously. Yichang desired a helper for his own wife, Wen Qimei, whose health had deteriorated through years of heavy agricultural labour, he selected Luo Yixiu in either late 1907 or 1908. Her kinship to the Maos may have helped in this selection, as Luo Yixiu's mother's four brothers, surnamed Mao, lived only two li from Mao Yichang's home in Shaoshanchong. Following traditional procedures, a matchmaker would have been sent to the Luo family house, the Luo family would have been expected to accept the marriage proposal immediately. Luo Helou was happy to see his eldest daughter married; the two families exchanged gifts and signed the marriage contract, after which the marriage was considered inviolable. Zedong first met Yixiu on the day. Years his granddaughter Kong Dongmei stated that Mao was unhappy with his father's choice, that he instead was in love with his cousin, Wang Shigu.

However, marriage to Wang had been ruled out by a local diviner because their horoscopes were incompatible. Although displeased by the arrangement, Mao agreed to marry Luo. At the time he was fourteen, erroneously informed Edgar Snow that Luo was aged twenty, a claim independently accepted by Mao biographers Ross Terrill and Philip Short, but challenged by biographers Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Alexander V. Pantsov and Steven I. Levine, who established that she was eighteen; the wedding took place in 1908. According to a number of Mao's biographers, the ceremony would have followed traditional rural Hunanese custom. Thus, it would have begun with a feast in the groom's home on the day before the ceremony, to which friends and relatives were invited; the next day, the bride would have been dressed in red, with a red veil over her face, carried by red palanquin to the groom's family home. There, her veil would have been removed, she would have been expected to express unhappiness and dissatisfaction with the groom by publicly insulting him.

According to tradition, a display of fireworks would have taken place, before both bride and groom would have kowtowed to each guest, to the groom's ancestral altar, to the spirits, to one another, concluding the ceremony. If traditional practices were adhered to, feasting would have continued for two days, while guests would have given gifts of money, to the newlyweds; the wedding ceremony would have culminated with the guests entering the bridal chamber, where they would have made various sexual references and innuendos, led by a figure with his face painted black. In Chinese rural tradition, the bride was expected to show the bloodstains on the bed sheets from her wedding night to prove that her hymen had been broken during sexual intercourse, that she had therefore been a virgin. According to what he told Snow, Mao refused to live with his wife and claimed that they had never consummated their marriage. Soon after the wedding, he ran away from home to live with an unemployed student in Shaoshan.

There he spent much of his time reading historical works like Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian and Ban Gu's History of the Former Han Dynasty, political tracts like Feng Guifen's Personal Protests from the Study of Jiao Bin. Now considered part of the Mao family, Luo lived with Mao Yichang and Wen Qimei at the

Vladimir Baranov-Rossine

Wladimir Davidovich Baranoff-Rossine was a Ukrainian and French painter of Jewish origin, avant-garde artist, inventor. Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine was born in Kherson, Russian Empire under the name Shulim Wolf Leib Baranov. In 1902 he studied at the School of the Society for the Furthering of the Arts in St. Petersburg. From 1903 to 1907 he attended the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. In 1908 he exhibited with the group Zveno in Kiev organized by the artist David Burliuk and his brother Wladimir Burliuk. In 1910 he moved to Paris, where until 1914 he was a resident in the artist's colony La Ruche together with Alexander Archipenko, Sonia Delaunay-Terk, Nathan Altman and others, he exhibited in Paris after 1911. He returned to Russia in 1914. In 1916 he had a solo exhibition in Oslo. In 1918 he had exhibits with the union of artists Mir Iskusstva in Petrograd. In the same year, he had an exhibition with the group Jewish Society for the Furthering of the Arts in Moscow, together with Nathan Altman, El Lissitzky and David Shterenberg.

He participated at the First State Free Art Exhibition in Petrograd in 1919. In 1922 Baranoff-Rossine was the teacher at the Higher Artistic-Technical Workshops in Moscow, and exhibited in the First Russian Art Exhibition in Berlin. In 1924 he had the first presentation of his optophonic piano during a performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow - a synaesthetic instrument, capable of creating sounds and coloured lights and textures simultaneously. In 1925 he emigrated to France. Continuously experimenting, Baranoff-Rossine applied the art of colour to military art with the technique of camouflage or the Cameleon process and this was marketed with Robert Delaunay. Baranov-Rossine is credited as an author of dynamic military camouflage, he invented a "photochromometer" that allowed the determination of the qualities of precious stones. In another field, he perfected a machine that made and distributed fizzy drinks, the "Multiperco", this received several technical awards at the time. During the German occupation Baranoff-Rossine was deported to Auschwitz, a German concentration camp and murdered there in 1944 by the Nazis.

List of Russian artists Website dedicated to Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine A web-site including his invention of the Optophonic Piano

Bodhisattva vow

The Bodhisattva vow is the vow taken by Mahayana Buddhists to liberate all sentient beings. One who has taken the vow is nominally known as a Bodhisattva; this can be done by venerating all Buddhas and by cultivating supreme moral and spiritual perfection, to be placed in the service of others. In particular, Bodhisattvas promise to practice the six perfections of giving, moral discipline, effort and wisdom in order to fulfill their bodhicitta aim of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings. Whereas the Prātimokṣa vows cease at death, the Bodhisattva vow extends into future lives. A Bodhisattva vow is found at the end of the Avatamsaka Sutra, in which Samantabhadra makes ten vows to become a Bodhisattva. In the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, Shantideva explains that the Bodhisattva vow is taken with the following famous two verses from that sutra: Just as all the previous Sugatas, the BuddhasGenerated the mind of enlightenmentAnd accomplished all the stagesOf the Bodhisattva training,So will I, for the sake of all beings,Generate the mind of enlightenmentAnd accomplish all the stagesOf the Bodhisattva training.

The following table of the fourfold vow is as practiced by the Mahayana traditions of China, Japan and Korea. In Tibetan Buddhism there are two lineages of the bodhisattva vow; the first is associated with the Cittamatra movement of Indian Buddhism, is said to have originated with the bodhisattva Maitreya, to have been propagated by Asanga. The second is associated with the Madhyamaka movement, is said to have originated with the bodhisattva Manjusri and to have been propagated by Nagarjuna, by Shantideva; the main difference between these two lineages of the bodhisattva vow is that in the Cittamatra lineage the vow cannot be received by one who has not received the pratimokṣa vows. According to Alexander Berzin, the bodhisattva vows transmitted by the 10th-century Indian master Atisha "derives from the Sutra of Akashagarbha, as cited in Compendium of Trainings, compiled in India by Shantideva in the 8th century" including 18 primary and 48 secondary downfalls; the 18 primary root downfalls of the bodhisattva vows are: Praising ourselves and/or belittling others Not sharing Dharma teachings or wealth Not listening to others' apologies or striking others Discarding the Mahayana teachings and propounding made-up ones Taking offerings intended for the Triple Gem Forsaking the holy Dharma Disrobing monastics or committing such acts as stealing their robes Committing any of the five heinous crimes: killing our fathers, mothers, or an arhat, with bad intentions drawing blood from a Buddha, or causing a split in the monastic community.

Holding a distorted, antagonistic outlook Destroying places such as towns Teaching voidness to those whose minds are untrained Turning others away from full enlightenment Turning others away from their pratimoksha vows Belittling the shravaka vehicle Proclaiming a false realization of voidness Accepting what has been stolen from the Triple Gem Establishing unfair policies Giving up bodhicitta Parinamana The 22 Vows of Ambedkar and his followers Blo-gros-mthaʼ-yas, Koṅ-sprul. Śes bya mthaʼ yas paʼi rgya mtsho. Treasury of Knowledge. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-191-X. OCLC 52906881. Panchen, Ngari. Sdom gsum rnam ṅes. Translated by Gyurme Samdrub. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9780861710836. OCLC 34669418. Rinpoche, Bokar. Vœu de Bodhisattva. Translated by Christiane Buchet. San Francisco: ClearPoint Press. ISBN 978-0-9630371-8-3. OCLC 42015705. Rinchen, Sonam. Sonam, Ruth. Bodhisattvasaṃvaraviṃśaka. Translated by Ruth Sonam. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-150-2. OCLC 44026191.

Tson-Kha-Pa. Asanga's Chapter on Ethics, with the Commentary of Tsong-Kha-Pa: The Basic Path to Awakening – The Complete Bodhisattva. Translated by Mark Tatz. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-88946-054-X. OCLC 605654078. Brahma Net Sutra Twenty Verses on the Bodhisattva Vow by Chandragomin The Actions for Training from Pledged Bodhichitta, Root Bodhisattva Vows and the Secondary Bodhisattva Vows by Dr. Alexander Berzin The Ethical Discipline of Bodhisattvas, by Geshe Sonam Rinchen Nine Considerations and Criteria for Benefiting Beings

Ring Up!

"Ring Up!" is the 14th episode of the eighth season of the CBS sitcom How I Met Your Mother, the 174th episode overall. Ted meets a new girlfriend who turns out to be a leather cuff salesperson just younger than 21 who convinced him to buy a leather cuff, so the gang is unable to meet her in person at MacLaren's. While he finds her attractive, their age difference means he has trouble connecting with her; when he is about to end things with her, Barney convinces him to give it a shot, which will allow Barney to live vicariously through Ted now that Barney is engaged to Robin. Ted is about to end it with her upon realizing she has a strong fetish for old people, but gives in when he realizes she likes Star Wars. After they sleep together, Barney finds out that she is Carly, his half-sister, is furious at this betrayal. Barney attempts to marry Ted and Carly, mentions that he finds the idea of a one-night stand "cheap and disgusting". Both Ted and Barney realise that Barney is done with his detox from one-night stands.

Though happy with this freedom, Barney urges Carly not to sleep with each other again. While Barney struggles with his detox, Robin is going through her own struggles as well — she has difficulty getting used to being engaged. Where she used to get freebies by being a single, beautiful young woman, the ring now deprives her of them — including buying herself a beer at MacLaren's; however and Lily assure her that when she looks at the man she loves, everyone else becomes invisible. That night, Robin understands the true power of her ring when she looks at Barney, cleverly solves her problems by asking Barney to help buy her a drink instead. Meanwhile, Marshall takes to wearing Ted's leather cuff; this is in spite of the fact that his wrist starts swelling and gives off a horrible smell. Lily explains that he doesn't need the leather cuff to turn her on. Afterwards, Lily receives a pair of elastic waist jeans in the mail by mistake, which turns out to be a big turn-on for Marshall. "Hey, Beautiful" - The Solids "On the House" - performed by Cobie Smulders "Treulich geführt" - Richard Wagner "What Would I Do Without You" - Drew Holcomb & The Neighbors Donna Bowman of the A.

V. Club gave the episode a C+, she wrote that the episode treated Barney's "long history as a character defined by his womanizing" as "either as a source for lazy jokes, or as a story problem to be gotten past as and sloppily as the show can get away with." She objected to how Carly is "shoehorned into this recovery-from-sex-addiction business" because it is "far less than what this particular character arc deserves."Max Nicholson of IGN gave the episode a score of 4.9/10. Overall, he commented that "no single story arc pulled through as engaging or eventful, there were any laughs" and called the episode "one of the bigger duds this season." He said it "lacked originality and humor -- although, there was plenty of sleaze."Angel Cohn of Television Without Pity gave the episode a B, but qualified the grade as a result of "grading on the curve of this season". Cohn described the episode as "not terrible" and "not total torture". Commenting on how the conclusions of Barney and Robin's separate stories in the episode brings them closer together, Cohn "grudgingly tolerated their cutesy'could I love you more' stuff, since at least it made them seem like a real couple... who we want to punch."

"Ring Up!" on IMDb

Rotary vane pump

A rotary vane pump is a positive-displacement pump that consists of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates inside a cavity. In some cases these vanes can have variable length and/or be tensioned to maintain contact with the walls as the pump rotates, it was invented by Charles C. Barnes of Sackville, New Brunswick, who patented it on June 16, 1874. There have been various improvements, including a variable vane pump for gases They are considered less suitable than other vacuum pumps for high-viscosity and high-pressure fluids, are complex to operate, they can endure short periods of dry operation, are considered good for low-viscosity fluids. The simplest vane pump has a circular rotor rotating inside a larger circular cavity; the centers of these two circles are offset. Vanes are allowed to slide into and out of the rotor and seal on all edges, creating vane chambers that do the pumping work. On the intake side of the pump, the vane chambers are increasing in volume; these increasing-volume vane chambers are filled with fluid forced in by the inlet pressure.

Inlet pressure is the pressure from the system being pumped just the atmosphere. On the discharge side of the pump, the vane chambers are decreasing in volume, forcing fluid out of the pump; the action of the vane drives out the same volume of fluid with each rotation. Multistage rotary-vane vacuum pumps can attain pressures as low as 10−6 mbar. Vane pumps are used as high-pressure hydraulic pumps and in automobiles, including supercharging, power-steering, air conditioning and automatic-transmission pumps. Pumps for mid-range pressures include applications such as carbonators for fountain soft-drink dispensers and espresso coffee machines. Furthermore, vane pumps can be used in low-pressure gas applications such as secondary air injection for auto exhaust emission control, or in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition systems. Rotary-vane pumps are a common type of vacuum pump, with two-stage pumps able to reach pressures well below 10−6 bar; these vacuum pumps are found in numerous applications, such as providing braking assistance in large trucks and diesel-powered passenger cars through a braking booster, in most light aircraft to drive gyroscopic flight instruments, in evacuating refrigerant lines during installation of air conditioners, in laboratory freeze dryers, vacuum experiments in physics.

In the vane pump, the pumped gas and the oil are mixed within the pump, so they must be separated externally. Therefore, the inlet and the outlet have a large chamber, maybe with swirl, where the oil drops fall out of the gas. Sometimes the inlet has a venetian blind cooled by the room air to condense cracked pumping oil and water, let it drop back into the inlet; when these pumps are used in high-vacuum systems, a significant concern is contamination of the entire system by molecular oil backstreaming. One of the major advantages of the vane pump is that the design lends itself to become a variable-displacement pump, rather than a fixed-displacement pump such as a spur-gear or a gerotor pump; the centerline distance from the rotor to the eccentric ring is used to determine the pump's displacement. By allowing the eccentric ring to pivot or translate relative to the rotor, the displacement can be varied, it is possible for a vane pump to pump in reverse if the eccentric ring moves far enough.

However, performance cannot be optimized to pump in both directions. This can make for a interesting hydraulic-control oil pump. A variable-displacement vane pump is used as an energy-savings device and has been used in many applications, including automotive transmissions, for over 30 years. Externals – cast iron, ductile iron, brass and stainless steel. Vane, pushrods – carbon graphite, PEEK. End plates – carbon graphite Shaft seal – component mechanical seals, industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals, * magnetically driven pumps. Packing – available from some vendors, but not recommended for thin liquid service Guided rotor compressor Powerplus supercharger Vane pump description and animation U. S. Patent of a Vane Pump H. Eugene Bassett's articulated displacer compressor


Altitoxin is a neurotoxin found in the South African scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus. Injection of altitoxin in mice leads to akinesia and death. Altitoxin is secreted by the venom gland of the South African spitting scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus. Altitoxin has a molecular mass of 6598 Da, it has large homology to other toxins from the venom of Parabuthus transvaalicus, including bestoxin, birtoxin and dortoxin. Altitoxin has sequence homology to scorpion β-toxins. However, its depressing action following injection into mice is not in agreement with the effect of β-toxins on sodium channels. Related scorpion toxins, which include birtoxin and bestoxin, exhibit divergent biological activity, indicating that the mode of action of these toxins is diverse. An injection of 100 ng altitoxin in 20 g mouse causes a state of depression. Lethality is reached at injecting 200 ng