Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain, North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and the Northeast China. The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires, in prehistory and early history, the plain is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history. The region cultivated wheat, and most speak Northern Chinese, which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese, jin Chinese and Mongolian are widely spoken. The region remains the political and cultural center of the PRC, in prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing, North China Plain Northeast China East China Northern and southern China
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong. Currently, a number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets. In contrast, simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, the debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of Mainland China, Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. Taiwan has never adopted Simplified Chinese characters since it is ruled by the Republic of China, the use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government in Taiwan.
Simplified characters are not well understood in general, although some stroke simplifications that have incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, similarly, in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, because of the influx of mainland Chinese tourists, even government websites use simplified Chinese, as they answer to the Beijing government. This has led to concerns by residents to protect their local heritage. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification, while major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters, on the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified.
Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores. In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan and this is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters, overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the half of the 19th century. Therefore, the majority of Chinese language signage in the United States, including street signs, Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world
Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s, Libby received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14C in a sample from a plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The idea behind radiocarbon dating is straightforward, but years of work were required to develop the technique to the point where accurate dates could be obtained.
Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. The resulting data, in the form of a curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the samples calendar age. Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of 14C in different types of organisms, additional complications come from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and from the above-ground nuclear tests done in the 1950s and 1960s. Conversely, nuclear testing increased the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by decaying 14C atoms in a sample. The development of dating has had a profound impact on archaeology. In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the radiocarbon revolution.
Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and they synthesized 14C using the laboratorys cyclotron accelerator and soon discovered that the atoms half-life was far longer than had been previously thought. This was followed by a prediction by Serge A. Korff, employed at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and it had previously been thought that 14C would be more likely to be created by deuterons interacting with 13C. At some time during World War II, Willard Libby, who was at Berkeley, learned of Korffs research, in 1945, Libby moved to the University of Chicago where he began his work on radiocarbon dating. He published a paper in 1946 in which he proposed that the carbon in living matter might include 14C as well as non-radioactive carbon, by contrast, methane created from petroleum showed no radiocarbon activity because of its age. The results were summarized in a paper in Science in 1947, Libby and James Arnold proceeded to test the radiocarbon dating theory by analyzing samples with known ages
Shuanlong Cave is a water-filled karst cave located some 8 km from Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, Peoples Republic of China. The cave is 66 m high and 33 m long with an area in excess of 1,200 m2. Formed around 100 million years ago, the entrance is flanked on both sides by stalactites that resemble dragon heads, hence the Chinese name for the cave. Since the entrance only has a clearance of around 30 cm above the water level. The caves interior is criss-crossed by stalactites and stalagmites and features an 8 m high stone waterfall, Shuanglong Cave provides access to the adjacent Binghu Cave via a series of stone steps. The surrounding Shuanglong Scenic Area, covering 79.9 km2, is a 4A rated national tourist attraction
Snowy Jade Cave
Snowy Jade Cave is a National Three Gorges Scenic Area and a National 4A Scenic Area located in Fengdu County, Chongqing Municipality, Peoples Republic of China, not far from the Yangtze River. The caves interior is Chinas only pure-white, jade-like example and it continues to expand due to erosion in the surrounding karst landscape. 1,644 metres long, of which 1,161 metres have been explored, both the 8 metres Stone Kings Flag and the 4 metres high Stone Kings Shield features are the largest of their type in the world. There are examples of corals. The surrounding area is home to rare animal species including macaque, wild boar. Fengdu Ghost City, a visitor attraction 12 km away Furong Cave Photograph of Stone Kings Flag
Sanya is the southernmost city on Hainan Island, and one of the four prefecture-level cities of Hainan Province, in Southeast China. According to the 2010 Census, the population of Sanya is of 685,408 inhabitants, the city is renowned for its tropical climate and has emerged as a popular tourist destination, serving as the training site of the Chinese national beach volleyball team. The city becomes known as “China’s Florida, ” drawing a number of retirees from biting cold Northeast China in winter. Sanya is home to concentrations of Utsul people. Known in ancient times as Yazhou, postal romanization, literally cliff state or prefecture, as a result, the city served as a place of exile for officials who found themselves out of favor with the countrys rulers. During the Tang dynasty, the Buddhist monk Jianzhen accidentally landed here, Japan occupied the area during the Second Sino-Japanese War and renamed Sanya as Samah. The city became a port for the Second Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
In April 1950, the Peoples Liberation Army took over Yaxian County, in 1959 and 1961 these areas were separated to establish Baoting and Lingshui while Yaxian County remained in its current prefecture. Approved by the State Council of China, Yaxian was upgraded to Sanya City on September 26,1987 and on December 30, Sanya City was officially established. In 2007 the Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee announced that the city of Sanya would become the first leg of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in China. Sanya lies at the tip of Hainan Island at Sanya Bay. Located at 18°15 N latitude, it is about as far north of the Equator as the Island of Hawaii is. Though the administrative area has a rough topography, the city itself is generally flat, the area has a tropical wet and dry climate, featuring very warm weather all year around. Monsoonal influences are strong, with a lengthy wet season. The coolest month is January, at 21.6 °C, while the hottest, unlike much of the rest of China, is June, at 28.8 °C, water temperatures remain above 20 °C year-round.
Before July 30,2014, there were direct jurisdiction over four county-level districts, now there are four districts in Sanya. In recent years Sanya has become a popular tourist destination, numerous international hotel chains are now established in the area. In 2009 the luxury Mandarin Oriental hotel group opened in the Dadong Hai area of Sanya, there are now over 100 hotels, ranging from international brands to locally managed resorts
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the Peoples Republic of China, consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. Hainan Island, separated from Guangdongs Leizhou Peninsula by the Qiongzhou Strait, is the largest island under PRC control and makes up the majority of the province. The province has an area of 33,920 square kilometers, with Hainan Island making up 32,900 square kilometers, there are a total of ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan Province. Haikou on the northern coast of Hainan Island is the capital while Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast, the other major cities are Wenchang, Wanning, Wuzhishan and Danzhou. Chinas controversial claims in the South China Sea, including the Nansha and Xisha Islands, are administered as part of the province. The provincial name derives from its island, which is named for its position south of the Qiongzhou Strait. Former names for Hainan Island include Zhuya and Qiongzhou, the two gave rise to the provincial abbreviation 瓊 or 琼.
Hainan Island first entered history in 110 BC, when the Han dynasty of China established a military garrison there following the arrival of General Lu Bode. In 46 BC the Han court decided that the conquest was too expensive, around that time, Han Chinese people together with military personnel and officials began to migrate to Hainan Island from the mainland. Among them were the offspring of those who were banished to Hainan for political reasons, most of them arrived in Hainan Island from the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Li people are the inhabitants of Hainan. They are believed to be the descendants of the ancient tribes from the mainland, some others live elsewhere on Hainan with other ethnic groups in Danzhou, Qionghai and Tunchang. The area inhabited by the Li ethnic group totals 18,700 square kilometers, during the Three Kingdoms Period, Hainan was the Zhuya Commandery under the control of Eastern Wu. At the time of the Song dynasty, Hainan became part of Guangxi, under the Mongol Empire the island became an independent province in 1370 was placed under the administration of Guangdong by the ruling Ming dynasty.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, large numbers of Han people from Fujian and Guangdong began migrating to Hainan, in the eighteenth century, the Li rebelled against the Qing Empire, which responded by bringing in mercenaries from the Miao regions of Guizhou. Many of the Miao settled on the island and their descendants live in the highlands to this day. During the 17th and 18th centuries, explorers referred to the island as Aynam, in 1906, the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen proposed that Hainan should become a separate province although this did not happen until 1988. Hainan was historically part of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces and as such was the Qiongya Circuit under the 1912 establishment of the Republic of China
A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, Stalactites may be composed of amberat, minerals, peat, pitch and sinter. A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves, the corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. The most common stalactites are speleothems, which occur in limestone caves and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed, the reversed reaction is, Ca 2 → CaCO3 + H 2O + CO2 An average growth rate is 0.13 mm a year.
The quickest growing stalactites are formed by a constant supply of slow dripping water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide. The drip rate must be enough to allow the CO2 to degas from the solution into the cave atmosphere. Too fast a drip rate and the solution, still carrying most of the CaCO3, falls to the floor where degassing occurs. All limestone stalactites begin with a single drop of water. When the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite, each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these form a very narrow, hollow tube commonly known as a soda straw stalactite. Soda straws can grow long, but are very fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite. The same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below, unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow soda straws. Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create pillars of calcium carbonate known as a column, another type of stalactite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside.
The mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalactites, a key difference with lava stalactites is that once the lava has ceased flowing, so too will the stalactites cease to grow. This means that if the stalactite were to be broken it would never grow back, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately and evolved from the word icicle
The Kizil Caves are a set of Buddhist rock-cut caves located near Kizil Township in Baicheng County, China. The site is located on the bank of the Muzat River 65 kilometres west of Kucha. This area was a hub of the Silk Road. The caves are said to be the earliest major Buddhist cave complex in China, the Kizil Caves complex is the largest of the ancient Buddhist cave sites that are associated with the ancient Tocharian kingdom of Kucha, as well as the largest in Xinjiang. Other cave sites in the Kucha region include the Kumtura Caves, there are 236 cave temples in Kizil, carved into the cliff stretching from east to west for a length of 2 km. Of these,135 are still relatively intact, the earliest caves are dated, based in part on radioactive carbon dating, to around the year 300. Most researchers believe that the caves were abandoned sometime around the beginning of the 8th century. Documents written in Tocharian languages were found in Kizil, and a few of the caves contain Tocharian inscriptions which give the names of a few rulers.
Many of the caves have a central pillar design whereby pilgrims may circumambulate around a column which is a representation of the stupa. A large vaulted chamber is located in front of the column, in the front chamber, a three-dimensional image of Buddha would have been housed in a large niche serving as the focus of the interior, none of these sculptures have survived at Kizil. The rear chamber may feature the scene in the form of a mural or large sculpture, and in some cases. There are three types of caves, square caves, caves with large image, and monastic cells. Around two-thirds of the caves are viharas which are living quarters and store-houses. In 1906, the German expedition team of Albert von Le Coq, while Grünwedel was primarily interested in copying the murals, von le Coq chose to remove many of the murals. Most of the fragments removed are now in Museum of Asian Art in Dahlem, other explorers removed some fragments of murals and may now be found in museums in Russia, Japan and United States.
According to a found in Kucha, the paintings in some of the caves were commissioned by a Tokharian king called Mendre with the advice of Anandavarman. The king ordered an Indian artist, and a Syrian artist, the neighbouring Khotanese kings Vijayavardhana and Murlimin assisted with the painting of another cave by sending artists to the site. A notable feature of the murals in Kizil is the use of blue pigments
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk