Amphitheatre of Pompeii
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii is the oldest surviving Roman amphitheatre. It is located in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, and was buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, that buried Pompeii itself and the neighboring town of Herculaneum. Built around 70 BC, the current amphitheatre is the earliest Roman amphitheatre known to have been built of stone, the next Roman amphitheatre known to be built from stone is the Colosseum in Rome, which postdates it by over a century. Contemporarily, it was known as a rather than an amphitheatrum. It was built with the funds of Quinctius Valgus and Marcius Porcius. The amphitheatres design is seen by some modern crowd control specialists as near optimal and its washroom, located in the neighboring palaestra has been cited as an inspiration for better bathroom design in modern stadiums. The famed preservation of Pompeii and its amphitheatre have given insights into the culture of Rome. Around 59 AD, a brawl occurred between Pompeiians and residents of Nuceria during games in the amphitheatre, resulting in a 10-year ban on such events.
Aside from being a landmark and an object of archaeological study. In October 1971, over a 4-day period Pink Floyd made a film at the amphitheatre, titled Pink Floyd. David Gilmour, the Pink Floyd guitarist, performed two concerts at the amphitheatre in July 2016 as part of his Rattle That Lock Tour and it was his first performance in the amphitheatre since recording Live at Pompeii in 1971. Gilmours 2016 concerts saw the first public performances in the amphitheatre since 79 A. D
Conservation issues of Pompeii and Herculaneum
Pompeii and Heraculaneumus were once thriving towns,2000 years ago, in the Bay of Naples. For over 1,500 years, these cities were left in remarkable states of preservation underneath volcanic ash, the eruption completely obliterated the towns but ironically was the cause of their longevity and survival over the centuries. However, for cities, excavation has brought with it deterioration, as both natural forces and human activity have played their part in the slow disintegration of the sites. As stated by Henri de Saint-Blanquat, The ancient city was included in the 1996 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, in 1996, the organization claimed that Pompeii desperately need repair and called for the drafting of a general plan of restoration and interpretation. While the excavation of the cities has led to a wealth of information on the two towns and on Roman life in general, it has allowed the sites to come under the attack of the elements. Some of this is unpreventable, much of it can be slowed or completely stopped through human intervention, funding is in such a state that not everything can be saved.
An estimated US$335 million is needed to carry out all the necessary in Pompeii alone. This is an amount of money, bearing in mind it wasnt just Pompeii which was damaged. Pompeii and Herculaneum have been excavated for centuries, and all exposed structures have been affected by general deterioration over time, in particular, since the eruption disrupted many of the buildings, excavation has left them unstable and vulnerable to collapse, such as the town wall of Pompeii. In many places, walls have collapsed, and much of the site is closed to visitors because of the danger it poses to them. Many artifacts themselves are damaged by natural processes, in Herculaneum, the carbonised remains of objects, once exposed to the air, deteriorated within days. Only when a substance was applied were they able to survive in the open, in Herculaneum, the bones of hundreds of victims found at the beach have been left in the open air due to a lack of funding, and are steadily disintegrating. The frescoes and paintings prevalent in both towns were highly preserved, retaining a large amount of detail and vibrancy.
Unfortunately, on excavation, they began to due to exposure to natural light, as well as beginning to crumble. In addition, detailed reproductions have been made of many of the artworks, not all actions taken to preserve structures and artefacts have been effective and some have caused more damage. For example, perspex cases have been constructed to protect frescoes and graffiti, however this creates a humidity trap, the region of Campania in which both sites lie is very temperate and fertile, so many plants thrive even inside the archaeological site. In particular, ivy grows along the walls, making parts crumble, in regions traversed by tourists, their feet trample the plants, in closed-off areas, particularly those closest to unexcavated parts of the cities, this severely damages the buildings. Feral dogs were particularly an issue in Pompeii, the dogs which occupied buildings around the Forum in the 1980s have been removed
House of the Tragic Poet
The House of the Tragic Poet is a typical 2nd century BC Roman house in Pompeii, Italy. The house, or villa, is famous for its mosaic floors. Discovered in November 1824 by the archaeologist Antonio Bonucci, the House of the Tragic Poet has interested scholars and writers for generations. Although the size of the house itself is in no way remarkable, its decorations are not only numerous but of the highest quality among other frescoes. Because of the mismatch between the size of the house and the quality of its decoration, much has been wondered about the lives of the homeowners, little is known about the family members, who were likely killed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Traditionally, Pompeii is geographically broken up into nine regional areas, the House of the Tragic Poet sat in Regio VI, Insula 8, the far-western part of Pompeii. The house faced the Via di Nola, one of Pompeiis largest streets that linked the forum, across the Via di Nola from the House of the Tragic Poet sat the Forum Baths of Pompeii.
Like many Roman homes of the period, the House of the Tragic Poet is divided into two primary sections, the front, south-facing portion of the house serves as a public, presentation-oriented space. Here, two rooms with outward-opening walls serve as shops run by the homeowners, or, less likely. These shops lie on side of a narrow entranceway, or vestibule. At the end of this sits the atrium, the most decorated of the rooms within the House of the Tragic Poet. Here, a large rectangular impluvium, or sunken water basin sits beneath an open ceiling, collecting water to be used by members of the household, near the northern end of the impluvium sits a wellhead to be used for drawing water from the basin. Still farther from the entrance sits the tablinum, a second, from these main areas extend smaller, private rooms, marking the second section of the house. Along the western wall of the atrium lie a series of cubicula, opposite these lie an additional cubiculum, an ala, and an oecus. The northern end of the tablinum opens onto a large, open peristyle, to the right of the peristyle sits the drawing room, which, in the House of the Tragic Poet, is believed to have been used as the main dining salon.
Adjacent to the room is a small kitchen area. Near the left side of the peristyle, a back door opens onto an additional street. Finally, into north-western corner of the peristyle is built a small lararium, or shrine to be used in worshiping the Lares Familiares, the vestibule floor was decorated with a mosaic picture of a domesticated dog leashed and chained to an arbitrary point
House of the Centenary
The House of the Centenary was the house of a wealthy resident of Pompeii, preserved by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. The house was discovered in 1879, and was given its name to mark the 18th centenary of the disaster. Built in the mid-2nd century BC, it is among the largest houses in the city, with baths, a nymphaeum, a fish pond. The Centenary underwent a remodeling around 15 AD, at time the bath complex. In the last years before the eruption, several rooms had been redecorated with a number of paintings. Although the identity of the houses owner eludes certainty, arguments have been made for either Aulus Rustius Verus or Tiberius Claudius Verus, for the purposes of archaeological and historical study, Pompeii is divided into nine regions, each of which contains numbered blocks. Within a block, doorways are numbered in clockwise or counter-clockwise order and it belongs to the luxurious tufa period of Pompeiian architecture, characterized by the use of fine-grained gray volcanic tufa that was quarried around Nuceria.
Of the two atria, the grander one leads to the most highly decorated rooms, the smaller atrium might have been for private family and service access. The triclinium or dining room was situated so that the guest of honor could view the enclosed garden, the dining room itself was decorated with vertical stalks entwined with tendrils on which birds perch, with leaf-adorned candelabra in the panels between. The house had its own bakery, located in a cellar under the service quarters on the west side, a graffito in the latrine uses the rare word cacaturit found once in the Epigrams of Martial. Another records a slaves bid for freedom, Officiosus escaped on November 6 of the consulate of Drusus Caesar and it has been suggested that one secluded room, which was decorated with explicit scenes of female-male intercourse, functioned as a private sex club. Guests would have entered the smaller, more private atrium, passed down a corridor and through a triclinium, a small opening oddly positioned in the wall may have been an aperture for voyeurism.
Other scholars categorize Room 43 simply as a bedroom, which often featured erotic imagery, the House of the Centenary is known for its large and diverse collection of paintings in the Third and Fourth Pompeiian styles. The garden nymphaeum is a rich example of combining painting with architectural elements to create the ambience of a country villa. The lower part of the wall is painted to look like a balustrade with ivy growing on it, below the steps and above the garden pool, there was a painting of a river god crowned with reeds, no longer visible. The composition has been characterized as a potpourri, an assemblage of elements desirable because they represent the country villa lifestyle. Here and in similarly decorated spaces in Pompeii, the owner is concerned with displaying size and quantity, the room to the north of the peristyle featured delicate ivy and stylized flowering vines as decoration. Ducks and lotus leaves appear together as decorative motifs and viticulture appear throughout the house, as in a scene of cupids gathering grapes
A brothel or bordello is a place where people may come to engage in sexual activity with a prostitute, sometimes referred to as a sex worker. Technically, any premises where prostitution takes place qualifies as a brothel. However, for legal or cultural reasons, establishments sometimes describe themselves as massage parlors, strip clubs, body rub parlours, sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution. Under English criminal law, a brothel is commonly referred to as a disorderly house, attitudes around the world to prostitution and how it should be regulated vary considerably, and have varied over time. Part of the impacts on whether the operation of brothels should be legal. On 2 December 1949, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons, the Convention came into effect on 25 July 1951 and as at December 2013 has been ratified by 82 states. The Convention seeks to combat prostitution, which it regards as incompatible with the dignity, parties to the Convention agreed to abolish regulation of individual prostitutes, and to ban brothels and procuring.
Some countries not parties to the Convention ban prostitution or the operation of brothels, various United Nations commissions, have differing positions on the issue. In the European Union, there is no policy and no consensus on the issue. The European Womens Lobby condemns prostitution as a form of male violence. In February 2014, the members of the European Parliament voted in a resolution, in favor of the Swedish Model of criminalizing the buying. Prostitution and the operation of brothels is illegal in many countries, such situations exist in many parts of the world, but the region most often associated with these policies is Asia. When brothels are illegal they may operate in the guise of a legitimate business, such as massage parlors. In other places, prostitution itself may be legal, but many activities which surround it are illegal and this is the situation, for example, in the United Kingdom and France. In a few countries and operating a brothel is legal, the degree of regulation varies widely by country.
Most of these countries allow brothels, at least in theory, in parts of Australia, for example, brothels are legal and regulated. Regulation includes planning controls and licensing and registration requirements, and there may be other restrictions, the existence of licensed brothels does not stop illegal brothels from operating. The Netherlands has one of the most liberal prostitution policies in the world, amsterdam is well known for its red-light district and is a destination for sex tourism
House of Julia Felix
The House of Julia Felix is a large Roman villa in the ruined city of Pompeii. It was the residence of Julia Felix, who converted portions of it to apartments after an earthquake in 62 AD. Archaeological excavations began in 1755 and continue to this day, as the residence of multiple family units, it is an invaluable resource for providing insights into the daily lives of the people of Pompeii. Julia Felix was a Roman woman who resided in the city of Pompeii, Julia Felix was a very wealthy property owner who inherited her money from her family. After the earthquake Julia rented out her property to residents of Pompeii who may have lost their homes and transformed parts of her villa into public baths, shops and apartments. Renting out her villa helped her earn extra income and establish herself as a property owner, business woman, Felix is a Roman cognomen meaning The Fortunate One was an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius Sulla and his descendants in the Republican period. In the Imperial period it was a name involving luck as well as one of the most common cognomina, the homes of the wealthy in Pompeii were built around courtyards that were rectangular in shape into which the main rooms opened.
These homes had enclosed gardens and private water supply, through the tufa period in Roman history, Pompeians used relief stucco work to add something extra to the architecture, marble dust for luminosity, and used paints with rich colors. Inside their villas, Pompeians chose many different ways to express themselves, some Pompeians would copy Greek paintings and others would choose a theme of love or fertility, but most chose landscapes. Those found in Pompeii were of scenes, villas from along the coast, or woodland. When one owner in Pompeii lost part of his garden to a new room, the art inside the villa of Julia Felix is very interesting. Julia Felix was descendant of the Julii, who were Imperial freedmen, since the excavations of Pompeii, much has been revealed about the villa of Julia Felix. As early as 1755 many sections belonging to the villa were uncovered when the city of Pompeii was excavated, a complex taberna, luxurious baths, and richly decorated formal garden dining rooms were revealed in the first excavation.
Between the years 1998-1999 some of the most important discoveries were made by excavators, a trench found behind the caldarium dated back as early as the Augustan period. The caldarium revealed a drain that conducted water from the hypocaust floor, a nymphaeum or grotto of nymphs with a waterstair fountain and triclinium was discovered which was a modification put in after the earthquake of 62 A. D
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms a source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life, the Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements. CIL refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and it was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the territory of the Roman Empire. The earlier volumes collected and published versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide range of publications. The language of the CIL is Latin, the leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen. Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible, the first volume appeared in 1853.
The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, thirteen supplementary volumes have plates and special indices. The other volumes cover other topics, volume XVII, for instance, is entirely devoted to milestones. A volume XVIII is planned, which contain the Carmina Latina Epigraphica. A two-volume Index of Numbers, correlating inscription numbers with numbers, was published in 2003. The Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL, epigraphy Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Prosopographia Imperii Romani Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. English translations of selected inscriptions from CIL. attalus. org
The only one visible in situ today is the Villa Regina, the others being reburied soon after their discovery at the end of the 19th century. Also finds from the Villa del fondo Ippolito Zurlo are in several museums, in Roman times this area was agricultural, specialising in wine and olive oil. Information on, and objects from, the villas can be seen in the nearby Antiquarium di Boscoreale and this rustic villa was discovered more recently in 1977 and therefore has been preserved in its complete state as buried 8m below ground level. The villa is a working farm rather than a luxurious estate that others nearby were. Nonetheless an elegant central courtyard is colonnaded on three sides with columns of red and white stucco, large quantities of pottery and farm implements were found. Plaster casts of the entrance doors were made from the hollow spaces left. A plaster cast of a pig found here and killed in the catastrophe was made and it includes preserved parts of a wine press. Near the centre of the villa is the cellar in which 18 dolia.
An unusual find was an oil lamp dating from the 3-5th c, AD showing that the place was tunnelled into in the Roman era. The holes in the left by the roots of the Roman vines were found. Although the villa was of relatively modest size compared to others in the area and had no atrium, pool or sculpture collection, evidence in tablets and graffiti shows that the house was probably built in the 1st century. The villa was discovered, partially dismantled and reburied in 1900. The villa had three stories, complete with a suite and an underground passage to a stable and agricultural buildings. The central ground floor of the living quarters consisted of over thirty rooms or enclosures surrounding a courtyard or peristyle. The building featured a main entrance approached by five broad steps leading to a colonnaded forecourt. Ownership of the villa has been contested, while there is no doubt P. Fannius Synistor did reside there, excavated bronze tablets show another name, that of Lucius Herennius Florus.
Many things were marked with seals in ancient Rome to indicate possession and it is believed that since the tablet with the letters L. HER. FLO on the front of it was found inside the villa and these two are the only confirmed owners in the early 1st century BC and 1st century AD, though there may have been earlier owners
Temple of Jupiter (Pompeii)
The Temple of Jupiter, Capitolium, or Temple of the Capitoline Triad was a temple in Roman Pompeii, at the north end of its forum. Jupiter was the ruler of the gods and the protector of Rome, as the most important divinity in Ancient Rome, many temples were built to honor Jupiter or the entire Capitoline Triad in towns newly conquered by the Romans. This held true for Pompeii, where the previously existing Temple of Jupiter was enlarged and Romanized upon conquest, Pompeii was occupied by the Romans beginning in 310 BC. It maintained much of its autonomy, until the Italic Revolt against Rome at the beginning of the 1st century BC, in 89, the town was besieged by Sulla. Roman language and law would soon come to dominate the city. The architecture of the town had been changed by the Greeks. In contrast to the previous Samnite occupiers, the Romans very much believed in the importance of architecture in religious, Pompeii was transformed into a much more public and open place. Public buildings and spaces would come to dominate the city, the temple structure was built in 150 BC to dominate the forum, and it became Pompeiis main temple after the Roman conquest.
Pure Italic style characterized the structure, which sat atop a base measuring 121 x 56 x 10 feet. The interior of the contained the cella, which held the statues of Jupiter and Minerva. There was a chamber below the hall which was used to store sacrificial offerings. In 62 A. D. an earthquake shook the city of Pompeii, after this, the much smaller Temple of Jupiter Meilichios became the main seat of worship to Jupiter and the Capitoline Triad. The original Temple of Jupiter was still awaiting restoration when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79, burying the town of Pompeii in volcanic dust, the excavated temple can still be seen in Pompeii today. The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Third Edition Revised, edited by Simon Hornblower and Anton Spawforth. Temples of Pompeii, including photographs of excavated temples Photograph and Mapped Location of Temple of Jupiter, Pompeii 3D model of Temple of Jupiter
The Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC, is a Roman floor mosaic originally from the House of the Faun in Pompeii. It depicts a battle between the armies of Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia and measures 2.72 by 5.13 metres, the original is preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. The mosaic is believed to be a copy of an early 3rd-century BC Hellenistic painting, the mosaic illustrates a battle in which Alexander faced and attempted to capture or kill Darius. Alexander defeated him at the Battle of Issus and two years at the Battle of Gaugamela, the work is traditionally believed to show the Battle of Issus. Since the mosaic emulates the appearance of a painting so accurately, the mosaic is held to be a copy either of a painting by Aristides of Thebes, or of a lost late 4th-century BC fresco by the painter Philoxenus of Eretria. The latter is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a commission for the Macedonian king Cassander, despite being damaged, the two main figures are easy to recognize.
The portrait of Alexander is one of his most famous, Alexanders breastplate depicts Medusa, the famous Gorgon, and his wavy hair is typical of royal portraiture as established in Greek art of the fourth century BC. He is portrayed sweeping into battle at the left, on his famous horse, Darius is shown in a chariot. He seems to be commanding his frightened charioteer to flee the battle, while stretching out his hand either as a mute gesture to Alexander. He has an expression on his face. The charioteer is whipping the horses as he tries to escape, the Persian soldiers behind him have expressions of determination and consternation. Dariuss brother Oxyathres is portrayed, sacrificing himself to save the King, radical foreshortening – as in the central horse, seen from behind – and the use of shading to convey a sense of mass and volume enhance the naturalistic effect of the scene. Repeated diagonal spears, clashing metal, and the crowding of men, at the same time, action is arrested by dramatic details such as the fallen horse and the Persian soldier in the foreground who watches his own death throes reflected in a shield.
The mosaic is made of one and a half million tiny colored tiles called tesserae. The color scale of Roman mosaics are extremely rich in gradation, the process of gathering materials for mosaics was a complex undertaking since the color scale was based solely off of the pieces of marble that could be found in nature. The mosaic is a detailed work for a private residence and was likely commissioned by a wealthy person or family. The fact that this scene was made to be viewed in the house of a Roman civilian reveals that Alexander the Great was more than just an image to the Romans. Because Roman leaders followed after Alexanders image, Roman civilians aspired to emulate the power he represented, since the mosaic was arranged on the floor where the patron would receive his guests, it was the first decorative object a visitor would see upon entering the home
Temple of Isis (Pompeii)
The Temple of Isis is a Roman temple dedicated to the Egyptian goddess Isis. This small and almost intact temple was one of the first discoveries during the excavation of Pompeii in 1764. Its role as a Hellenized Egyptian temple in a Roman colony was fully confirmed with an inscription detailed by Francisco la Vega on July 20,1765. Original paintings and sculptures can be seen at the Museo Archaeologico in Naples, in the aftermath of the temples discovery many well-known artists and illustrators swarmed to the site. The preserved Pompeian temple is actually the structure, the original building built during the reign of Augustus was damaged in an earlier earthquake of 62 AD. Seventeen years with the volcanic eruption, the Iseum alone was the sole temple to be completely re-built—ahead even of the Capitolium. Principal devotees of this temple are assumed to be women, initiates of the Isis mystery cult worshipped a compassionate goddess who promised eventual salvation and a perpetual relationship throughout life and after death.
The temple itself was reconstructed in honor of a 6-year-old boy by his father, Numerius. Many scenes from the temple are re-created in the rooms of Pompeians, indicating that many individuals visited this temple for political, economic. Isis is an Ancient Egyptian goddess, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshiped as a patron of both motherhood and marriage, as well as mysticism and magical practise and she was the friend of slaves, sinners and the downtrodden, who listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens and rulers. Devotion to Isis was coupled with the acquisition of knowledge. In contrast to most other clerics of the Graeco-Roman world, priests of Isis typically shaved their heads and wore linen garments, as per Egyptian tradition and her cult did not include a messianic worldview, but did provide a relationship with the divine that was not severed with death. In common with most other deities of antiquity, Isis did not demand exclusive worship, daily services were held, with a solemn morning opening, and a nightly closing ritual that featured musical accompaniment.
Egyptian features of this include, extensive mythological scenes in the Ekklesiasterion. The purgatorium is an enclosure in the southeast corner of the courtyard that demarcates a subterranean room with a basin for Nile waters. Furthermore, statues of Isis are assumed to line the front with Roman deities along the long walls, the purgatorium itself resembles a miniature temple with pediments and pilasters at the entrance coated with stucco. The Ekklesiasterion includes scenes of Ios arrival in Egypt and subsequent reception by Isis, the north wall includes scenes with Io, and Hermes
House of the Vettii
In Pompeii one of the most famous of the luxurious residences is the so-called House of the Vettii, preserved like the rest of the Roman city by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. The house is named for its owners, two successful freedmen, Aulus Vettius Conviva, an Augustalis, and Aulus Vettius Restitutus. Its careful excavation has preserved almost all of the wall frescos, the House of the Vettii is located on a back street, opposite a bar. Servants quarters are to one side off the atrium, arranged round a small atrium of their own, the major fresco decorations enliven the peristyle and its living spaces and the triclinium or dining hall. The house had approximately 30 rooms, most artifacts found from upper level rooms were toiletry items and jewelry, consistent with artifacts found in other Pompeian houses. Throughout the house, the decor is unified by the backgrounds of its large frescoed panels, in Pompeiian red and yellow framing. Also throughout the house were images of hermaphrodites with the intention to ward off the Evil Eye of envy from those who entered the home, the most richly-decorated room is a virtual picture gallery, with trompe loeil views of architecture.
The peristyle was laid out symmetrically for a water display. The statues were connected to piping and spouted water. There are 14 jets of water, new York, St. Martins Press,2005. From Pompeii, The Afterlife of a Roman Town, House of Sallust House of the Faun R. Etienne, Pompeii. The Day a City Died R. Laurence, Roman Pompeii and Society A. Wallace-Hadrill and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum Rowland, from Pompeii, The Afterlife of a Roman Town