Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe
Vigontina San Paolo F.C.
Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo F. C. is an Italian association football team of the city of Vigonza, Veneto. It plays in Eccellenza; the club was founded in 2010 after the merger with A. S. San Paolo and the Serie D club of Albignasego Calcio, founded in 1959, its first official football match in Serie D was on 29 August 2010, against Treviso, for the Coppa Italia di Serie D: San Paolo Padova won the match by 2–0. It was played on the neutral venue of Rovigo, since Stadio Plebiscito was still not available for football matches. In the summer of 2014, the San Paolo Padova S.r.l. Declares bankruptcy. On 11 July, the A. R. L. S. S. D. Atletico San Paolo Padova detects rights. At the end of the 2014–15 season in Serie D, relegated to Eccellenza. June 22, 2015 Atletico San Paolo Padova changes its name in Luparense San Paolo Football Club moving in San Martino di Lupari, forming the main team of the city. August 5 is admitted at 2015–16 Serie D. June 17, 2016 Luparense San Paolo Football Club changes its name in Vigontina San Paolo Football Club moving in Vigonza, forming the main team of the city.
At the end of the 2016–17 season in Serie D/C, they were relegated to Eccellenza. June 9, 2018 Vigontina San Paolo Football Club changes its name in Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo Football Club moving te first team in Tombolo; the team's colors are black. San Paolo Calcio and blue, 1965–2010 San Paolo Padova and blue, 2010–2014 Atletico San Paolo Padova and blue, 2014–2015 Luparense San Paolo and blue, 2015–2016 Vigontina San Paolo and black, 2016-2018 Tombolo Vigontina San Paolo and black, 2018-now Official website Official page on Facebook History of San Paolo Padova S.r.l. on web.archive.org
Province of Padua
The Province of Padua is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Padua, it has an area of 2,142 km², a total population of 936,492 making it the most populated province of Veneto. There are 102 comuni in the province; the territory is divided in the capital city and its hinterland, formed by the nearby municipalities. The Euganei hills are the only heights of the entire province, the other parts being plain; the borders of the province are the same of the Medieval commune of Padua, with just some adjustment in the north-east. The territory was administered within these boundaries since the time of the Republic of Venice, but the modern province comes directly from the administrative divisions of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia; the Diocese of Padua covers the most part of the province, out of a main part of Alta Pianura. Padua is home to some masterpieces from Medieval and Renaissance art and architecture, while the towns of Cittadella and Montagnana are known for the well preserved Medieval city walls.
There are numerous villas in the countryside, a few of them from Palladio, the main ones being Villa Contarini and Villa Barbarigo. The Euganei hills offer a relaxing naturalistic site covered in woods, while at their eastern slopes there are many ancient spa sites: the Terme Euganee, as Abano Terme, Montegrotto Terme, Galzignano Terme, Battaglia Terme. There is a small part of the Venetian Lagoon lying inside the Valle Millecampi. Travelling by boat is possible as well; the most part of the province has a temperate sub-continental climate for the Köppen climate classification Cfa). The winter is moderately cold in the province, avoiding both warm and cold extremes; the lower plain is colder than the higher plain. Fog is a common phenomenon lasting all the day long, above all in the lower plain. Summers are moderately hot and wet and less rainy in the lower plain, while the higher plain is hit by thunderstorms. Spring and autumn are changeable seasons, which may experience wintry or sultry weather, heavy rainfalls or pleasant sunny days.
The period between April and June is the wettest one in a year. Extreme events may sometime hit the province. Flooding is a well-known phenomenon since ancient time, so that all the rivers and channels which cross the plain are embanked, many channels were dug to avoid frequent flooding; the worst recent events were on 4 November 1966 and on 2 November 2010. Snowstorms, with some inch of fresh snow and strong Bora gusts, may happen during a normal winter, but can be considered like a blizzard, they do not last more than 1–2 days and with no more than 6-10in of snow. Anyway, a exceptional event happened during the winter of 1608: a snowfall that lasted for 40 consecutive days, from late January to early March, with the snow depth at ground reaching at least 6–7 ft as witnessed by Galileo. Between May and September, tornadoes may hit the area as well; the most famous were the one of 17 August 1756. Hailstorms are possible as well by summer, the worst recent event having been on 28 August 2003; the province has a thriving economy, in the metropolitan area and the Alta Pianura, due to the presence of numerous enterprises of every kind industrial ones, but from tertiary and primary economical sectors.
The Bassa Pianura is instead a rural area, thus being poorer and less populated. Tourism is developed above all in the spa towns, while both in Padua and in the other parts of the province it may be considered under-developed, aside from the arrival of large numbers of pilgrims in Padua. Two motorways cross the territory, one being the A4, the other being the A13; the main railways make the same paths of the motorways, going to Venice, Milan or Bologna. The main roads follow all those paths. Several sports are practiced in the province of Padua; the most popular is football: every village as well as every city parish has its own little team, out of the most important ones playing in the Italian professional or
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of