Lima metropolitan area
The Lima metropolitan area, is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian city-provinces of Lima and Callao. It is the largest of the metropolitan areas of Peru, the seventh largest in the Americas, the fourth largest in Latin America, among the thirty largest in the world; the conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The metropolitan area is composed of six subregions; these are Lima Norte, Lima Sur, Lima Este, Residential Lima, Central Lima, Callao. Its estimated 2018 population is 12 million according to INEI statistics; the city of Lima was founded by Spanish colonists on January 18, 1535. The port of Callao was founded two years later; the city of Lima began when Francisco Pizarro declared it at what is known in Christianity as the Epiphany. He declared it at the center of the Plaza Mayor, it would become the most important city in South America. The city of Callao has been important, as for hundreds of years it was the only port in all of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed to ship anything to the rest of the world.
For hundreds of years and Callao were separated by a desert. This did not diminish the importance of the union between the two cities, it was not until the 19th century. The metropolitan linkage between these two cities did not start until they both grew enough to, in essence, crash into each other. In the present day, Lima is the most important metropolis in Peru and is the largest in the Andean region; the area's financial district is San Isidro. It is home to a large concentration of business centers and commerce. Miraflores and Barranco are two districts where the city's nightlife is based in. Parts of the metropolis can be lively. Today different areas of the city have differing aspects and showcase variations in culture caused by varying times of settlement, differences in socio-economic level and immigration from other parts of Peru; the downtown area, unlike many downtowns in other major cities, is a historic district, is home to many cathedrals and churches built during the Spanish colonial period.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the city has grown by migration from other regions of Peru. Many of these migrants began to form new communities called pueblos jovenes and asentamientos humanos young towns and human settlements; these towns are similar to the favelas of Brazil but smaller. Many of them have no running water or electricity and the city has been unable to provide the infrastructure to all the new residents. Many of the communities, such as Comas, Villa El Salvador have evolved into modern districts, where residents have found the better life they were searching for; the conurbation has an area of 2,819.26 km2. It is concentrated in the coastal area and runs north-south along the Pacific coast for 200 km, beginning in the district of Ancón, on the border with the Huaral Province of the Lima region, ending in the district of Pucusana, on the border with the Cañete Province in the Lima region; the Rímac, Chillón and Lurín rivers pass through the area. It is made up of in 7 in Callao.
Most of the area is located in the desert whereas the eastern portion is located in the foothills of the Andes. It is the world's second largest desert city after Egypt; the Lima metropolitan area is informally divided into six general areas. They are the Cono Norte, Cono Sur, Eastern Lima, the upscale commercial districts, the Port of Callao, Lima's historical district. Today Lima and Callao have conurbanized to the point. Hundreds of streets and highways link the two cities. Taxicabs vary in quality of price. Most can be stopped at any street, private taxi companies can be called to pick up passengers at a certain address. To improve the quality of taxis running in Lima, a new law was passed to prohibit importing used cars. BusNumerous inter-urban bus companies offer transportation to other cities in Peru. Quality varies depending on the price, from luxury express buses to ill-maintained and crowded micros. Mass-transit systems:El Metropolitano The newly completed bus system called Metropolitano is an above-ground mass-transit system which traverses the downtown area, the financial district, other residential districts, the upper reaches of the Cono Sur.
The system finishes in Comas. Plans for additional lines were abandoned in favor of adding complimentary lines to the existing route. Lima Metro In 2010 the government of Alan García renewed the project of Lima Metro, starting with the construction of Line 1, it calls for the construction and implementation of 11.7 kilometres of viaduct elevated of double ramp from the Atocongo Bridge to downtown Lima. The Lima Metro Line 1 is being built by a consortium made up by two engineering and construction companies, it is estimated that construction will be complete by December 2010, with remaining work the electrification of the line. Siemens Engineering has responsibility for that portion; the first part of Line 1 must be completed in June 2011 and starts daily operations in July 2011. Air transportLima's main passenger gateway for national and international air travelers is Jorge Chávez International Airport located in Callao. % of the metro area's total
Department of Lima
The Department of Lima is located in the central coast of the country, its regional seat is Huacho. Lima Province, which contains the city of Lima, the country's capital, is located west of the Department of Lima; the region is bordered by the Ancash Region on the north, the Huánuco Region, Pasco Region, Junín Region on the east, the Huancavelica Region on the southeast, the Ica Region on the south, the Pacific Ocean and the Lima Province on the west. The region has a coastal and an Andean zone, has a great diversity of natural regions: the Costa or Chala up to the Janka or Cordillera; the predominating regions are the Yunga and Quechua The Lachay National Reserve, a unique mist-fed eco-system of wild plant and animal species, is a natural reserve located in the region. Lunahuaná District of Cañete Province, is located 38 km away from the city of San Vicente de Cañete; the Incahuasi Archeological complex is located there. Lunahuaná has the sun shines during most of the year. Lunahuaná has become an adventure sports paradise, such as: Canotaje, Parapente & Ala Delta.
Whitewater rafting is possible due to the Cañete River, which has rapids up to level 4. The main settlement in this district is the town of Lunahuaná; the remains of early Andean inhabitants and harpoon fishermen from more than 10,000 years ago, are to be found in the Lima region. These remains were found in Chivateros, near the Chillón River, in various other places; these persons incorporated nets, farming and weaving to their everyday objects. The inhabitants of the coast lived in the lomas and the valleys, where they built temples and dwelling complexes, leading to huge ceremonial centers, such as the Huacoy on the Chillón River. There are finely ornamented temples with figures modeled in clay. Lithic prehistoric projectile points of Paijan type were found at Ancon 40 kilometres north-east of Lima in the Chillón River Valley; the 5,000-year-old ruins known as El Paraíso, Peru are located in this area. A temple at the site is believed to be about 5,000 years old. In 2006, a team of archeological researchers led by Robert Benfer announced their findings from a four-year excavation at Buena Vista, Peru in the Chillón River valley a few miles north of present-day Lima.
They had discovered a 4200-year-old observatory constructed by an early Andean civilization, a three-dimensional sculpture, unique for the time period in this region, sophisticated carvings. The observatory is on top of a 33-foot pyramidal mound and has architectural features for sighting the astronomical solstices; the discovery pushes back the time for the development of complex civilization in the area and has altered scholars' understanding of Preceramic period cultures in Peru. The Lima culture arose in this area to Lurín, it was distinguished by painted adobe buildings. During this time, the Huari conquest took place, thus giving rise to Huari-style ceramics, together with a local style known as Nievería; as the population grew, their culture changed. With the decline of the Huari, whose most important center was Cajamarquilla, new local cultures arose; the Chancay are the most well known. They developed large urban centers and a considerable textile production, as well as mass-produced ceramics.
At this stage in the mid-fifteenth century, the Incas arrived from their base in the Andes. They conquered and absorbed the regional cultures and occupied important sites such as Pachacamac, turning it into an administrative center; the region is divided into 10 provinces, which are composed of 171 districts. Lima Barranca Cajatambo Cañete Canta Huaral Huarochirí Huaura Oyón Yauyos Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve Lima Region Information Hub – Lima Region Information Hub official website Lima Region Tourism Board – Lima Region Tourism Board official website North Lima Region – Lima Region: Social and Tourist Information Lima Travel Guide – General facts and travel information about Lima Gobierno Regional Lima – Lima Regional Government official website
A social club may be a group of people or the place where they meet formed around a common interest, occupation, or activity. Examples include: anime clubs, book discussion clubs, charity work, chess clubs, country clubs, criminal headquarters, final club, fishing club, gaming club, gentlemen's clubs, hunting clubs, military officers' clubs, politics clubs, science clubs, university clubs; this article covers only three distinct types of social clubs: the historic gentlemen's clubs, the modern activities clubs, an introduction to fraternities and sororities. This article does not cover a variety of other types of clubs having some social characteristics. Working men's clubs developed in Britain during Victorian times as institutes where working class men could attend lectures and take part in recreational pursuits; the Reverend Henry Solly founded the Working Men's Club and Institute Union for this purpose in 1862. Many middle class social reformers founded these clubs during the temperance movement as a place to relax without alcohol, but in time this changed.
They became a combination of public houses, music-halls, clubs, becoming places to be entertained, to drink and to play bar games. Their working-class patronage is not seen as fashionable among some sections of society today, they have come under increasing pressure regarding attitudes to membership rights for women and ethnic minorities; the CIU was involved in resisting the smoking ban in private clubs. In the Dutch East Indies, sociëteits were established in various cities. Modern clubs include: San Francisco's Urban Diversion, which opened in 2003 as a general adventure and activities social club; the "traditional club" referred to is the elitist gentlemen's club, a fixture of upper class male British society. This is not to be confused with the modern use of the phrase, which now stands as a euphemism for a strip club. Clubs in England and Wales were not controlled by the licensing system until the Licensing Act of 1902 was passed, or in Scotland until the Licensing Act 1903 was passed, they were passed to check the abuse of “clubs” being formed to sell intoxicating liquors free from the restrictions of the licensing acts, but it applied to all kinds of clubs in England and Wales.
The act required the registration of every club that occupied any premises habitually used for the purposes of a club and in which intoxicating liquor was supplied to members or their guests. The secretary of every club was required to give a return to the clerk to the justices of the petty sessional division with this information: the name and objects of the club the address of the club the name of the secretary the number of members the rules of the club relating to: the election of members and the admission of temporary and honorary members and of guests the terms of subscription and entrance fee, if any the cessation of membership the hours of opening and closing the mode of altering the rules Social and recreational clubs may be considered tax-exempt 501 organizations under certain circumstances. Social activities clubs are a modern combination of several types of clubs and reflect today's more eclectic and varied society; these clubs are centered on the activities available to the club members in the city or area in which the club is located.
Some have bar, or restaurant where members gather. Events can include a broad range of activities from sporting events and social parties to ballet, arts or book clubs. Unlike traditional clubs they are not limited to one kind of event or special interest but include a broad range of events in their monthly calendars; the members choose the events in which the club is going to take part, based upon the changing interests of the members. The members themselves determine the events; because the purpose of these clubs is split between general social interaction and taking part in the events themselves, both single and married people can take part. However clubs tend to have more single members than married, many clubs exist for only single people, only married couples, or only people with certain sexual preference. Membership can be open to the general public, as can the events. Most clubs have a limited membership based upon specific criteria, restrict the events to members to increase their feeling of security, creating an increased sense of camaraderie and belonging.
There are many examples of private social clubs including the University Club of Chicago, The Mansion on O Street in D. C. Penn Club of New York City and New York Friars' Club. Social activities clubs can be for non-profit, or a combination of the two; some social clubs have function halls which members or, the general public can rent for parties. A number of Jewish community centers and other organizations such as the YMCA have social clubs for people with social anxiety and learning disabilities. Membership in these clubs is limited to individuals with these conditions. Fraternities and sororities are part of "Greek life" prevalent in universities. Many young men and women pledge during their freshman year of college in order to become a brother or sister of a fraternity or sorority; the club is founded on principles of camaraderie and communal bonding. As a social club they may be philanthropic as a body, hosting fundraisers for charities or on-campus events. Association of Conservativ
Miraflores District, Lima
Miraflores is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. It is an exclusive upscale shopping district south of downtown Lima, it is one of the most affluent districts that make up the city of Lima. It has various hotels, bars and department stores. Miraflores is one of the main tourist attractions in Lima. Founded as San Miguel de Miraflores, it was established as a district on January 2, 1857; as a result of the Battle of Miraflores fought during the War of the Pacific, Miraflores got the designation of Ciudad Heroica. The current mayor is Luis Alfonso Molina Arles; the district's postal code is 18. The district has a total land area of 9.62 km². Its administrative center is located 79 meters above sea level. Boundaries North: San Isidro and Surquillo East: Surquillo and Santiago de Surco South: Barranco and Santiago de Surco West: Pacific OceanClimate Miraflores has a marine climate, characterized by mild and comfortable conditions. Temperatures oscillate from 13 °C to 18 °C in winter, from 20 °C to 30 °C in summer.
Low clouds are frequent during winter, when morning drizzles are not uncommon. Heavy rain is unseen; the only pre-Inca ruin remaining in Miraflores, Huaca Pucllana can still be seen. The Spanish town of Miraflores was established in the 16th century; however it was merged into the Lima Metropolitan Area as the city expanded during the early 20th century. During the War of the Pacific, the district was the scene of the Battle of Miraflores. Two thousand people died as the district was sacked and burned by Chilean invaders. According to a 2010 estimate by the INEI, the district has 85,065 inhabitants and a population density of 8,516.84 persons per km². In 2010, there were 28,116 households in the district. Miraflores has a high Human Development Index at 0,986 and the lowest poor population in Lima, with only 1.80% of the district living in poverty. Along with its northern neighbour, San Isidro, Miraflores is inhabited by upper-class residents and is listed as one of the three most expensive districts in the country.
The district is a cultural center, with theaters and art galleries. It has a pre-Inca mud-brick temple called the Huaca Pucllana, one of a number of archaeological sites found in Lima. Private schools predominate in Miraflores, with the district housing 128 such institutions as of 2010. Conversely, the district is home to only 12 public schools. Schools are divide into secondary school. Since in Peru school only takes 11 years, the typical university education is 5 years long. In terms of education, the Miraflores district lodges some of the most prestigious private schools in Peru, such as the British schools Markham College, San Silvestre School, the German school Deutsche Schule Alexander von Humboldt, the Swiss school Colegio Pestalozzi, it lodges the University of Piura and the Raúl Porras Barrenechea Institute of the National University of San Marcos. Tourism dominates the economy of the district. LAN Perú has its headquarters in Miraflores; the former airline Aeroperú had its headquarters in Miraflores.
The district is full of hotels, cafés, pubs and shops, which draw large crowds of the local population on Sundays. Parque Kennedy, Miraflores' central plaza has flea markets and art exhibitions. Larcomar, a shopping mall overlooking the Pacific coast, is located in Miraflores, is popular among tourists, young people, the middle and upper classes. There are restaurants, stores, a food court, ice cream shops, bowling alleys, nightclubs and the most modern cinema in Lima; the main tourist attractions include an archaeological complex called La Huaca Pucllana, Parque Kennedy, the Iglesia Virgen Milagrosa, Parque del Amor, the Larcomar mall, Calle de las Pizzas. The Calle de las Pizzas, located in downtown Miraflores, is a favourite among the youth and locals alike, it is home to many pubs, as its name implies, offers not only drinks but varieties of pizzas and other food. Miraflores has always been a major hub for tourists in Lima. There are a number including a couple of international hotel brands.
Furthermore, there are several shops selling souvenirs and tourist products. The Miraflores Park Hotel is one of the district's five-star hotels; the Costa Verde area has several beaches, which draw beachgoers during the summertime. However, these rocky beaches are not as popular with bathers as the large, sandy beaches in the districts south of Lima, such as Santa María del Mar, Punta Hermosa, San Bartolo, Lurín and Punta Negra. La Marina Lighthouse is located on the cliffs overlooking the Costa Verde. Paragliders launch from the coastal cliffs, providing wind. Pensacola, FL, since 1964, through the efforts of Captain Harold Grow. Las Condes, CL List of upscale shopping districts Miraflores travel guide from Wikivoyage Municipalidad de Miraflores - Miraflores District Council official website Museo de Sitio Huaca Pucllana Huaca Pucllana Photo Gallery - Huaca Pucllana in Miraflores Photo Gallery Miraflores A Magnificent City - Pictures 5.03 Gigapixel Photo of Miraflores - 5.03 Gigapixel Photo of Miraflores Street View of Miraflores Larco Mar
Villa El Salvador
Villa El Salvador is an urban residential coastal district on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. It borders the district of Chorrillos on the east, it began as a pueblo joven in the vast, empty sand flats to the south of Lima in 1970 because of the urgent housing needs of immigrant families who had left the sierra of Peru. Villa El Salvador evolved into a huge urban zone self-organizing, for which it won some fame. Through the efforts of its inhabitants, the neighborhood was supplied with electricity and sewage. Villa El Salvador served as the home base for the activist María Elena Moyano, who helped organize the Federación Popular de Mujeres de Villa El Salvador, a federation of women, which grew to encompass activities such as public kitchens, health committees, the Vaso de Leche program, income-generating projects, committees for basic education. Moyano was killed by members of the Shining Path. Since June 1, 1983, Villa El Salvador has been formally established as a district within the Lima Province.
In 1987, the community received a Prince of Asturias Award in recognition of its achievements. Villa El Salvador is twinned with France and, since 2006, with Tübingen, Germany. 2019-2022: Kevin Iñigo Peralta. 2011-2014: Guido Iñigo Peralta. 2003-2010: Jaime Zea Usca. 1999-2002: Martín Pumar Vilchez. October: Lord of Miracles Arnhem in Gelderland, Netherlands Amstelveen in North-Holland, Netherlands Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad de Villa El Salvador – Villa El Salvador district council official website Amigos de Villa – Association of Friends of Villa El Salvador, Lima - Perú PortalVES – District Portal Villa El Salvador, Lima - Perú
San Isidro District, Lima
San Isidro is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Established on April 24, 1930, San Isidro has become a major financial quarter in recent years, as many banks and businesses left downtown Lima to set up their headquarters in modern office blocks, it is inhabited by upper middle and upper-class families. The district has a total land area of 9.78 km². Its administrative center is located at 109 meters above sea level. North: La Victoria and Jesús María East: San Borja South: Miraflores and Surquillo West: Magdalena del Mar and the Pacific OceanFor more than fifty years, the border at the western area of the district has been disputed with neighboring Magdalena del Mar. A judge ordered the councils of both districts to deposit the money of the affected areas' taxpayers in the National Bank of Peru until this long-standing conflict is resolved. According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 68,438 inhabitants and a population density of 6,165.6 persons/km².
In 1999, there were 20,598 households in the district. San Isidro prides itself on being home to many Peruvian artists. A few museums, as well as the Wak'a Wallamarka, a pre-Inca burying temple which dates back to the 4th century where concerts and exhibitions are held show the cultural heritage of the district. Notable residents of San Isidro have include painter Fernando de Szyszlo, president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Javier Perez de Cuellar, José Antonio García Belaúnde, Francisco Tudela, among others. There are 38 embassies and consulates in San Isidro, which are Algeria, Austria, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, North Korea, Panama, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand and Uruguay; the Hotel Westin Libertador, the tallest building in Peru, is located in the district. Lima's most important avenues, criss-cross the district. With 21 bank headquarters and 50 agencies, San Isidro is the financial center of Peru.
Monuments to Peruvian heroes and other world personalities There are 15 Catholic Churches and temples of other religions. Municipalidad de San Isidro - San Isidro District Council official website PUCP - Centro Cultural - Cultural Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, located on Avenida Camino Real in San Isidro Miramar Peru Real State Agency
History of Lima
The history of Lima, the capital of Peru, began with its foundation by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535. The city was established on the valley of the Rímac River in an area populated by the Ichma polity, it became the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. In the 17th century, the city prospered as the center of an extensive trade network despite damage from earthquakes and the threat of pirates. However, prosperity came to an end in the 18th century due to an economic downturn and the Bourbon Reforms; the population of Lima played an ambivalent role in the 1821–1824 Peruvian War of Independence. After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru, it enjoyed a short period of prosperity in the mid-19th century until the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific when it was occupied and looted by Chilean troops. After the war, the city went through a period of urban renewal. Population growth accelerated in the 1940s spurred by immigration from the Andean regions of Peru.
This gave rise to the proliferation of shanty towns as public services failed to keep up with the city expansion. In the pre-Columbian era, the location of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several Amerindian groups. Prior to the arrival of the Inca Empire, the valleys of the Rímac and Lurín rivers were grouped under the Ichma polity, their presence left a mark in the form of some 40 pyramids associated to the irrigation system of the valleys. In 1532, a group of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro ambushed the Inca ruler Atahualpa and searched for a suitable place to establish his capital, his first choice was the city of Jauja, located amid the Andes, however this location was regarded as inconvenient for its high altitude and being far from the sea. Spanish scouts reported about a better site in the valley of the Rímac, close to the Pacific Ocean, had ample water and wood provisions, extensive fields and fair weather. Gabriel Moreira Romaní thus founded the city of Lima in Peru's central coast on 18 January 1535.
Carlos Huerta writes in his Chronology of the conquest of the kingdoms of Peru – Cronología de la conquista de los Reinos del Perú: Foundation of Lima. The city capital of Peru was founded on 18 January and was called Ciudad de los Reyes in honor of the feast of the holy kings, celebrated. Began in the church, the foundation and the plane of the city, where Pizarro put the first stone. In August 1536, the new city was besieged by the troops of Manco Inca, the leader of an Inca rebellion against Spanish rule; the Spaniards and their native allies, headed by Pizarro himself, defeated the rebels after heavy fighting in the city streets and its surroundings. On November 3, 1536, the Spanish Crown confirmed the founding and, on December 7, 1537, emperor Charles V granted a coat of arms to the city. Over the next few years, Lima shared the turmoil caused by struggles between different factions of Spaniards. At the same time it gained prestige as it was designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543.
Latin America and Lima's first university, the National University of San Marcos was established in 1551 and its first printing press in 1584. Lima became an important religious center, a Roman Catholic diocese was established in 1541 and converted to an archdiocese five years later. In 1609, the city held celebrations for the beatification of Ignatius of Loyola. Lima flourished during the 17th century as the center of an extensive trade network which integrated the Viceroyalty of Peru with the Americas and the Far East, its merchants channeled Peruvian silver through the nearby port of Callao and exchanged it for imported goods at the trade fair of Portobelo in modern-day Panama. This practice was sanctioned by law as all trade from the Viceroyalty was required to go through Callao on its way to and from overseas markets; the resulting economic prosperity of the city was reflected in its rapid growth, population expanded from about 25,000 in 1619 to an estimated 80,000 in 1687. However, Lima was not free from dangers.
On October 20 and December 2, 1687, powerful earthquakes destroyed most of the city and its surroundings. The outbreaks of disease and food shortages which followed the disaster caused a reduction of the population to under 40,000 by 1692. A second threat was the presence of privateers in the Pacific Ocean. A Dutch naval expedition led by Jacques l'Hermite attacked the port of Callao in 1624 but was repelled by Viceroy Diego Fernández de Córdoba. In the 1680s, English buccaneers proliferated in the waters of the Pacific until they were routed by Lima merchants in 1690; as a precautionary measure, Viceroy Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull built the Lima City Walls between 1684 and 1687. The 1687 earthquake marked a turning point in the history of Lima as it coincided with a recession in trade, a reduction of silver production and economic competition by other cities such as Buenos Aires. To add to these problems, on October 28, 1746, a powerful earthquake damaged the city and destroyed Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco.
This disaster led to an intense devotion for an image of Christ called The Lord of the Miracles, taken out in procession every October since 1746. During the late colonial period, under the rule of the House of Bourbon, the ideas of the Enlightenment on public health and social control shaped the development of Lima. New buildings undertaken during this period include a cockfighting coliseum and a bullring, the Plaza de toros de Acho, as well as the General Cemetery; the first two were built to regulate these popular activities by centralizing them at a single venue, whil