Mount Liebig is a mountain with an elevation of 1,274 metres AHD in the southern part of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is one of the highest peaks of the MacDonnell Ranges and was named by the explorer Ernest Giles after the German chemist Justus von Liebig. Nearby settlements include Haasts Bluff. Notable Indigenous Australians who have lived in the region of Mount Liebig include Indigenous artist Nora Andy Napaltjarri and Ngoia Pollard Napaltjarri. List of mountains of the Northern Territory Mt. Liebig at www.peakbagger.com.
The Arrernte people, sometimes referred to as the Aranda, Arunta or Arrarnta, are an Aboriginal Australian people who live in the Arrernte lands, at Mparntwe and surrounding areas of the Central Australia region of the Northern Territory. Some Aranda live in other areas far from their homeland, including the major Australian cities and overseas. Aranda mythology and spirituality focuses on the Dreamtime. Altjira is the creator being of the Inapertwa. Tjurunga are objects of religious significance; the Arrernte Council is the representative and administrative body for the Aranda Lands and is part of the Central Land Council. Tourism is important to the economy of surrounding communities; the ancestors of the Aranda all spoke one or more of the Arrernte group of languages/dialects. "Aranda" is a simplified, Australian English approximation of the traditional pronunciation of the name of Arrernte. Aranda people speak the following Arrernte dialects/languages: Alyawarra Anmatjirra Antekerrepenhe Ayerrerenge Eastern dialect,Ikngerripenhe Central Aranda, or Mparntwe Arrernte.
Lower Aranda, known as Alenjerntarpe.. This dialect was spoken by the people around the Finke River area, is now extinct; the last speaker was Brownie Doolan, from whom Gavan Breen managed to write up a dictionary of 1000 words. Southern Aranda|Southern Aranda dialect, Pertame. Western Aranda, Tyuretye Arrernte,/Arrernte Alturlerenj; the Aranda had a developed sign language. The Arrernte's traditional lands, according to Norman Tindale's estimate, encompassed some 47,000 square miles. Of their overall territory he writes that they were:- At Mount Gosse, Mount Zeil, Mount Heughlin; the name Aranda refers to the following distinct groups: Central Aranda, from the township of Alice Springs only. Eastern Aranda, from the Aranda lands east of Alice Springs. Western Aranda, from the Aranda lands west of Alice Springs, out to King's Canyon. HMAS Arunta Aranda language Veronica Perrule DobsonSpirituality & mythology Altjira Inapertwa Tjurunga Arrernte Tribal Group
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Papunya is a small Indigenous Australian community 240 km northwest of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is now home to a number of displaced Aboriginal people from the Pintupi and Luritja groups. At the 2006 census, Papunya had a population of 299. Papunya requires a permit to enter or travel through; the predominant religion at Papunya is Lutheranism, with 258 members or 86.3% of the population, based on the 2006 census. It is the closest town to the Australian continental pole of inaccessibility. Warumpi Band were an Australian country and Aboriginal rock group. Pintupi and Luritja people were forced off their traditional country in the 1930s and moved into Hermannsburg and Haasts Bluff where there were government ration depots. There were tragic confrontations between these people, with their nomadic hunter-gathering lifestyle, the cattlemen who were moving into the country and over-using the limited water supplies of the region for their cattle; the Australian government built a water bore and some basic housing at Papunya in the 1950s to provide room for the increasing populations of people in the already-established Aboriginal communities and reserves.
The community grew to over a thousand people in the early 1970s and was plagued by poor living conditions, health problems, tensions between various tribal and linguistic groups. These festering problems led many people the Pintupi, to move further west closer to their traditional country. After settling in a series of outstations, with little or no support from the government, the new community of Kintore was established about 250 km west of Papunya in the early 1980s. During the 1970s a striking new art style emerged in Papunya, which by the 1980s began to attract national and international attention as a significant art movement. Leading exponents of the style included Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Billy Stockman Tjapaltjarri, Kaapa Tjampitjinpa, Turkey Tolson Tjupurrula, Pansy Napangardi. A substantial bibliography about Papunya art and artists is available from the National Museum of Australia. Papunya Tjupi Aboriginal Arts, a community based arts organisation, commenced in 2007 and hosts around 100 regional artists.
These include Doris Bush Nungarrayi. Contemporary Indigenous Australian art Geoffrey Bardon Honey ant dreaming Papunya Tula Papunya Painting: Out of the Desert An online exhibition of Papunya artworks held by the National Museum of Australia; the website includes the works, biographies of the artists, installation images and a bibliography
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. It is a collecting and research institute and is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples; the Institute is a leader in ethical research and the handling of culturally sensitive material and holds in its collections many unique and irreplaceable items of cultural and spiritual significance. The collection at AIATSIS has been built through over 50 years of research and engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and is now a source of language and culture revitalisation, native title research and family and community history. AIATSIS is located on Acton Peninsula in Australian Capital Territory. In the late 1950s, there was an increasing focus on the global need for anthropological research into'disappearing cultures'; this trend was emerging in Australia in the work of researchers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, leading to a proposal by W.
C. Wentworth MP for the conception of an Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies in 1959; the proposal was made as a submission to Cabinet, argued for a more comprehensive approach by the Australian Government to the recording of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures. In 1960, a Cabinet sub-committee assessed the proposal and formed a working party at the Australian National University to consider the viability of the proposal. One of their first actions was to appoint W. E. H. Stanner to organise a conference on the state of Aboriginal Studies in Australia, to be held in 1961 at the ANU. Academics and anthropologists in the field of Aboriginal Studies attended the conference, contributed research papers published in a conference report in 1963. No Aboriginal people were present at the conference; the Prime Minister, Robert Menzies appointed an Interim Council in 1961. The role of the Interim Council was to plan for a national Aboriginal research organisation and establish how this organisation would interact with existing research and scientific bodies.
The Interim Council was tasked with developing a programme that would identify and address urgent research needs. The Interim Council consisted of 16 members and was chaired by Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the ANU, Professor AD Trendall recognised as the first Chair of the institute now known as AIATSIS. In August 1962, a draft constitution for the institute was submitted to the Menzies government, rejected; the Interim Council completed a revised constitution in July 1963. Amendments to the document included the change from the title ‘director’ to ‘principal’ of the institute; this version of the constitution would go on to form the basis for the creation of the new Australian Institute for Aboriginal Studies the following year. The Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies was established as a Statutory authority under an Act of Parliament in June 1964; the mission of the Institute at that time has been described as "to record language, art, material culture, ceremonial life and social structure before those traditions perished in the face of European ways."This notion is reflected in the Institute’s official functions, as recorded in the Reading of the Bill in Parliament.
These were: to sponsor and to foster research of a scientific nature on the Australian Aborigines. to treat as a matter of urgency those studies for which the source materials are disappearing. To establish and conduct a documentation centre on the Aborigines, a library of books and other relevant material, both for the use of scholars and for public education. To encourage co-operation with and between scholars in universities and other institutions engaged in studies of the Aborigines, with appropriate private bodies. To publish and to support the publication of the results of research. To co-operate with appropriate bodies concerning the financing of research, the preservation of sites, the collection of records. To promote as and when necessary the training of research workers. To establish and maintain relations with relevant international bodies. AIAS had a twenty-two member Council, composed of academics, had a foundation membership of one hundred; the founding Principal of the newly formed institute was Frederick McCarthy, a professional anthropologist and graduate of Sydney University who had spent nearly 30 years working in the field.
The creation of the AIAS provided an opportunity for greater cross-discipline interaction in fields relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies in Australia. The Institute’s founding principal, Fred McCarthy, was an advocate of film as an important part of research methodology as early as his tenure as curator of anthropology at the Australian Museum in Sydney in the 1940s; this was evident in the contributions he made during his involvement in establishing the AIAS and as its principal, in continuing to support the development of the AIAS Film Unit and championing ethnographic film in global forums. In the early years of the AIAS, the Film Unit outsourced early filmmaking work to other companies, or worked in collaboration with the Commonwealth Film Unit, but over the next 30 years, the Film Unit would go on to produce “one of the largest assembly of ethnographic films created in the world”. In keeping with the AIAS official function “to publish and to support the publication of the results of research”, a publishing arm of the Institute was established in 1964.
Publishing under the name Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, the publishing arm released a range o
Central Australia known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia. The term Central Australia is used to describe an area centred on Alice Springs, it is sometimes referred to as Centralia. The region is located in the southern part of the Northern Territory spanning from the west on the Western Australian Border to the east on the Queensland border; the main town in Central Australia is Alice Springs. Whilst a few of these townships are stations, the vast majority of them are indigenous Australian communities; the region covers an area of 546,046 square kilometres, which makes up forty percent of the Northern Territory. The following Local Government Areas make up the region: Town of Alice Springs Central Desert Region MacDonnell Region Yulara The total population of Central Australia is estimated to be 41,000. Alice Springs, the main urban area of Central Australia, is predominantly Anglo-Celtic Australian, with 25% Aboriginal population. Altogether, the population of the region is between 40% to 45% Aboriginal.
The region is dry, has a tropical climate receiving on average just 150 millimetres of rainfall annually. Regions of the Northern Territory Centre points of Australia Alice Springs Region Alice Springs Film and Television
Kings Canyon (Northern Territory)
Kings Canyon is a canyon in the Northern Territory of Australia located at the western end of the George Gill Range about 323 kilometres southwest of Alice Springs and about 1,316 kilometres south of Darwin within the Watarrka National Park. The walls of Kings Canyon are over 100 metres high, with Kings Creek at the bottom. Part of the gorge is a sacred Aboriginal site and visitors are discouraged from leaving the walking tracks. Three walks exist at Kings Canyon; the two km and one-hour Kings Creek Walk traces the bottom of the gorge. At the end of the walk is a platform, with views of the canyon walls above; the six km Kings Canyon Rim Walk traces the top of the canyon and takes three to four hours to complete. A steep climb at the beginning of the walk, which locals call "Heartbreak Hill", takes visitors up to the top, with views of the gorge below and of the surrounding landscape. About half way during the walk, a detour descends to the Garden of Eden, a permanent waterhole surrounded by plant life.
The last half of the walk passes through a maze of weathered sandstone domes, reminiscent of the Bungle Bungle. A slow descent brings the visitor back to the starting point; the loop can be done in reverse, but the National Park Rangers encourage visitors to walk in one direction. Access to the walk may be restricted during hot weather; the 22 km Giles Track connects Kings Canyon to Kathleen Springs and is popular with more adventurous hikers. Birds that can be seen on the Kings Canyon Rim walk include spinifex pigeon, zebra finch, grey-headed honeyeater, dusky grasswren, black-breasted buzzard and peregrine falcon. Kings Canyon Solar Power Station was a photovoltaic power station in the Northern Territory, with a generating capacity of 225 kWp and electricity production of 372,000 kWh of electricity per annum, it was the largest single installation of its kind in Australia and began operation in December 2003. It has been shut down since December 2015 due to the local tourist resort installing its own generators.
Kings Creek Station