Boy Scouts of America
The BSA was founded in 1910 and, since then, more than 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time. The BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. In order to further these activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases, Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys ages 7 to 10½ years, Boy Scouting for boys ages 10½ to 18, Learning for Life is a non-traditional subsidiary that provides in-school and career education. Units are led entirely by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century. With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was a promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, social.
In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Setons works among other influences, several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination. The boy refused Boyces tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8,1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA, Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, and other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had complained of the decline in American manhood. The current mission statement of the BSA is to young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, on behalf of the BSA, Paul Sleman, Colin H. Livingstone, Ernest S. Martin, and James E. West successfully lobbied Congress for a charter for the BSA which President Woodrow Wilson signed on June 15,1916. The special recognition neither implies nor accords Congress any special control over the BSA, in the BSA, Scouting is considered to be one movement with four main programs, Cub Scouting is available to boys from first to fifth-grade or 7 to 11 years. Boy Scouting is the program of the BSA generally for boys ages 11 to 18
Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893 and the United States annexed the islands in 1898. The Hawaiian Islands are the peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. The islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent and this name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name Hawaii gradually began to take precedence. The Hawaiian Islands have a land area of 6,423.4 square miles. Except for Midway, which is a territory of the United States. The eight main islands of Hawaii are listed here and this number includes all minor islands and islets, or very small island, offshore of the main islands and individual islets in each atoll. Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and typically smaller, the age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods.4 Ma.
The only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the island, Hawaiʻi. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images, almost all of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, and so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed almost entirely of this igneous rock. There is very little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase, nephelinite is exposed on the islands but is extremely rare. Hawaiʻi island is the biggest and youngest island in the chain, mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth. The measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles, the Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes, generally caused by volcanic activity. Most of the earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman. From 1833 to 1896, approximately 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year, Hawaii accounted for 7. 3% of the United States reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes.
Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this period, after Alaska. On October 15,2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, the initial earthquake was followed approximately five minutes by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock. Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island, several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, and effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, nearly 150 miles from the epicenter
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis Worlds Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1,1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event, more than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, which was attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians generally emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, from the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it primarily promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a Worlds Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, an additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901. The fundraising mission was aided by the support of President of the United States William McKinley.
The exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1,1904, the fairs 1, 200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, and was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of roads and it was said to be impossible to give even a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres, exhibits were staged by approximately 50 foreign nations, the United States government, and 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S, post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many parks in Texas. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park, there are several reasons for this confusion.
First, Kessler in his twenties had worked briefly for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in Queens, New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park, Olmsteds sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street. Taylor quickly appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design, Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery, many African Americans contributed to architecture design, but were not credited. Florence Hayward, a freelance writer in St. Louis in the 1900s was determined to play a role in the Worlds Fair. She negotiated a position on the otherwise all-male Board of Commissioners, Hayward learned that one of the potential contractors for the fair was not reputable and warned the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company
Maine is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 39th most extensive and the 41st most populous of the U. S. states and territories and it is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the north. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and it is known for its jagged, rocky coastline, rolling mountains, heavily forested interior, and picturesque waterways, and its seafood cuisine, especially clams and lobster. There is a continental climate throughout the state, even in areas such as its most populous city of Portland. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607, as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived.
Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maines territory during the American Revolution, Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become an independent state. On March 15,1820, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state under the Missouri Compromise, there is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name Maine, but the most likely origin is the name given by early explorers after a province in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English Kings Commissioners ordered that the Province of Maine be entered from on in official records. The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivans 1795 History of the District of Maine. He made the allegation that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria.
MAINE appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, the view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh maen, plural main or meini. Some early spellings are, MAINE1086, MEINE1200, MEINES1204, mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine, Maine is the only state whose name has exactly one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Abenaki, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, who had a loose confederacy. European contact with what is now called Maine started around 1200 CE when Norwegians interacted with the native Penobscot in present-day Hancock County, most likely through trade
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
Peter Johnson Gulick
Peter Johnson Gulick was a missionary to the Kingdom of Hawaii and Japan. His descendants carried on the tradition of work, and included several scientists. Peter Johnson Gulick was born March 12,1796 in Freehold Borough, New Jersey to John Gulick and he studied at the private Lawrenceville School from 1820 to 1822. Along with James Brainerd Taylor and two students, Gulick helped found Princeton Universitys Philadelphian Society of Nassau Hall. He graduated from Princeton in 1825, and did additional studies at the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1827, on September 5,1827 he married Frances Fanny Hinckley Thomas who was born April 16,1798 in Lebanon, Connecticut. He was ordained as a Presbyterian minister on October 3,1827, on November 3,1827 the couple sailed from Boston as part of the third company of missionaries from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They reached Honolulu, Hawaii on March 30,1828 and they were first assigned to the mission at Waimea on the island of Kauaʻi.
In 1835 they moved to Kōloa on Kauaʻi, where the Kōloa sugar plantation had just been started by Ladd & Co, after the Ladd company failed in 1843, they moved to the island of Molokaʻi where they assisted Harvey Rexford Hitchcock and his wife Rebecca Howard Hitchcock. In 1847 they moved to Waialua on the island of Oʻahu, in 1857 they moved to Honolulu. His brother William Gulick married Fannys sister Eliza Throop Thomas and their son Charles T. Gulick went to Hawaii to serve as a missionary. In 1874, the Gulicks went to Kobe, Japan to join their sons, peter Gulick died on December 8,1877. Fanny died May 24,1883 in Kobe and they had a total of 8 children who traveled throughout the world. Son Luther Halsey Gulick was born in Honolulu on June 10,1828, married Louisa Lewis October 29,1850 and he died on April 8,1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Their son Sidney Lewis Gulick was a minister in Japan and educator in the US. Sidneys son, named Luther Halsey Gulick, was a social scientist and Louisas son Luther Halsey Gulick Jr.
was a physician who founded Camp Fire Girls. He supervised the development of the game of basketball, Luther Jr. s daughter Frances Gulick operated a canteen for servicemen near the front lines of World War I. Son Orramel Hinckley Gulick was born in Honolulu October 7,1830, married Ann Eliza Clark and he served as a missionary to Japan, and returned to Hawaii, where he died September 18,1923. They published a history of the missions in 1918, son John Thomas Gulick was born March 13,1832 on Kauaʻi, became a missionary and biologist and died April 14,1923. He exchanged ideas on some of the theories of evolution with Charles Darwin
Camp Timanous is a historic boys summer camp in Raymond, United States. It offers a program of land and water activities, aimed at developing Body, Mind. Camp Timanous is both a progenitor of the Maine sleepaway camping tradition and industry and is one of the oldest continually operating summer camps in America. Across Maine in a summer, some 40,000 children participate in youth summer programs, mostly at one of Maines 200 licensed summer camps. In 1920, Gulick moved the camp to the current Raymond, location on Panther Pond. The name Timanous derives from the Indian name Gulick was known by, in 1907, Gulick founded a sister camp, with which Timanous interacts through dances, swim meets and various races. John and Martha Suitor purchased the camp from the Gulick family, in the early 1980s, the Suitors two sons and David, became directors. Camp Timanous is currently owned and operated by David and Linda Suitor, staff and counselors have a very high return rate. In 2006, 93% of the 50 counseling staff were former campers, there is no indoor plumbing nor electricity at Timanous.
Intended for boys aged 7 to 15, the summer is divided into two sessions, and many campers choose to attend both. It is located on 180 acres of land abutting Panther Pond in Raymond, there are typically around 125 campers at camp at any given point in the summer. Campers live in one of the 10 wooden cabins, a large tent or a waterside structure called The Nest. There is no electricity or running water in any of the cabins, cabins are named after birds, such as mallards or crows. Camp Timanous offers a variety of camping trips throughout Maine and New Hampshire, including trips to the White Mountains, Mount Washington, every cabin goes on one trip per summer, ranging from one to three days, and optional sign-up trips are available to the eldest five cabins. These trips usually consist of hiking or canoeing, but occasionally include rafting, biking and kayaking, several times during the summer, the regular schedule is suspended for popular camp-wide games of capture the flag. Campers and counselors are divided into two teams and gray, each campers association with a team color is permanent, and each new arrival to Timanous with alumni relatives is automatically assigned to the relatives former team.
On the 4th of July, the entire camp builds a bonfire and it is part of the annual, camp-wide celebration of the American Independence Day, and is often attended by Timanous alumni. Sharing a common heritage although under different ownership today, the camps hold dances and swim meets, as well as organize a brother-sister day, during which Wohelo and Timanous campers with siblings at the opposite camp will spend a couple of hours together
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Raymond is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 4,436 at the 2010 census and it is a summer recreation area and is part of the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area. Raymond Neck is the landing for the ferry to the town of Frye Island in Sebago Lake, the Raymond school system is currently affiliated with the Windham school system in a district known as RSU14. Raymondtown Plantation was granted in 1767 by the Massachusetts General Court to the descendants of Captain William Raymond of Beverly, Massachusetts and it was the second attempt to repay the troop for service under Governor Sir William Phipps during the Battle of Quebec in 1690. A township had been awarded them in 1735 called Beverly-Canada, the township at Sebago Lake was given to the Beverly Proprietors as compensation. It was first settled in 1770 by Captain Joseph Dingley and Dominicus Jordan of Cape Elizabeth and it was on the stage route to Bridgton. On June 21,1803, the Raymondtown Plantation was incorporated as Raymond, in 1829, land was annexed to help form the new town of Naples, and in 1841, Casco was set off and incorporated as a town.
The town provided agriculture and lumber products for Portland and other cities, Panther Run, which drains Panther Pond, provided water power for industry. Raymond village grew near the mills, which included a gristmill, plaster mill, a stave factory, from about 1812 until 1825, Nathaniel Hawthorne lived in Raymond with his siblings and widowed mother. His writings would reminisce about his boyhood hiking in the woods or fishing in the lake, automobile tourists discovered Raymond after designation of the Theodore Roosevelt International Highway in 1919. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 44.75 square miles. Raymond village is located at the head of Jordan Bay on Sebago Lake, the town is crossed by U. S. Route 302 and state routes 85 and 121. It is bordered by Gray and Windham to the southeast, Casco to the northwest, Frye Island is to the south in Sebago Lake. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,436 people,1,773 households, the population density was 133.7 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 2,852 housing units at a density of 86.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97. 2% White,0. 4% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 3% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 2% from other races, and 1. 5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 9% of the population,19. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the family size was 2.87
J. T. Gulick
John Thomas Gulick was an American missionary and naturalist from Hawaii. He performed some of the first modern evolutionary studies, starting with a collection of Hawaiian land snails, Gulick was born in Waimea on Kauaʻi Island, during the Kingdom of Hawaii. His father was missionary Peter Johnson Gulick and mother was Fanny Gulick, in 1851, he started to collect and study Hawaiian land snails. He had been interested in snails since his teens. He discovered many species of snails were found in very specific areas within the islands. In 1855, he enrolled for one year at New York University and Williams College in Massachusetts, in 1859, he was elected Lyceum President, and graduated with an A. B. degree. He followed the tradition of attending theological school. While there, he read Darwins On the Origin of Species and he collected shells in Panama and Japan. On August 22,1864, Gulick was ordained as a missionary in China, on September 3,1864, he married Emily de la Cour. In 1872, he wrote On the Variation of Species as Related to Their Geographical Distribution, Illustrated by the Achatinellinae, in 1872, he traveled to England for two years.
While there, he corresponded with Charles Darwin regarding his studies and he finally met Darwin and gave him a synopsis of an upcoming paper. That paper was On Diversity of Evolution Under One Set of External Conditions, Gulick returned to China, and remained there until 1875. After his first wife died in 1875, he moved to Japan to continue missionary work, as in China, he studied snails while performing as a missionary. On May 31,1880, he married Frances Amelia Stevens, in 1888, he went again to London where his paper Divergent Evolution Through Cumulative Segregation was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology. He met George Romanes who worked with Gulick to refine evolutionary biology, in 1889, he received an honorary A. M. and Ph. D from Adelbert College of Western Reserve University. In 1891, another paper, Intensive Segregation, or Divergence Through Independent Transformation was published in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London and he moved to Oberlin, Ohio in 1899.
He expanded his study to societal evolution in humans, coming to believe societal evolution could be attributed to altruistic motives and he put forth this thesis in his paper Evolution and Habitudinal in 1905 and received an honorary Ph. D. by Oberlin College. Later in 1905, he returned to Hawaii and sold his collection to Charles Montague Cooke
1908 Summer Olympics
The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, England from 27 April to 31 October 1908. These games were scheduled to be held in Rome, but were re-located on financial grounds following a disastrous eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906. They were the fourth chronological modern Olympic Games in keeping with the now-accepted four-year cycle as opposed to the proposed Intercalated Games alternate four-year cycle, the IOC president for these Games was Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Lasting a total of 187 days, or 6 months and 4 days, the selection process for the 1908 Summer Olympics consisted of four bids, and saw Rome selected ahead of London and Milan. The selection was made at the 6th IOC Session in London in 1904, italian authorities were preparing to hold the games when Mount Vesuvius erupted on 7 April 1906, devastating the city of Naples. Funds were diverted to the reconstruction of Naples, so a new venue was required, London was selected for the first time to hold the Games which were held at White City alongside the Franco-British Exhibition, at the time the more noteworthy event.
The White City Stadium, built in time for the games. The stadium track was three laps to the mile, not the current standard of 400 metres, with a pool for swimming and diving and platforms for wrestling and gymnastics in the middle. The distance from the start of the Marathon to the finish at the stadium was established at these games. ”As a result of changes, the marathon covered a distance of 26 miles 385 yards. The games were surrounded by controversy, on the opening day, following the practice introduced at the Intercalated Games of 1906, teams paraded behind national flags. The Swedish flag had not been displayed above the stadium, so the members of the Swedish team decided not to part in the ceremony. The flag of the United States had not been displayed above the stadium before the opening, the United States flag bearer, Ralph Rose, refused to dip the flag to King-Emperor Edward VII in the royal box. However, the flag was dipped in the collective greeting of the royal family. Martin Sheridan, Irish American Athletic Club member and American team captain, is believed to have supported Rose by explaining This flag dips to no earthly king.
It is claimed that his statement exemplified both American and Irish defiance of the British monarchy, research has shown that this quotation by Sheridan was first reported in 1952, some 24 years after his death. The 1908 Olympics prompted establishment of rules for sports. One reason was the 400 meter race, in which a US runner was accused of interfering with a British runner, part of the problem was the different definition of interference under British and US rules. The race was re-run, but the Americans refused to participate, the British runner, Wyndham Halswelle, won by running around the track on his own, because three of the four original runners had been American, the only walkover in Olympic history
Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio. The college was founded as the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1833 by John Jay Shipherd and it is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music, part of the college, is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States, the College of Arts & Sciences offers more than 50 majors and concentrations. Oberlin is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium, both the college and the town of Oberlin were founded in northern Ohio in 1833 by a pair of Presbyterian ministers, John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart. The College was built on 500 acres of land donated by the previous owners, Titus Street, founder of Streetsboro and Samuel Hughes. Shipherd and Stewert named their project after Jean-Frédéric Oberlin, an Alsatian minister whom they both admired, the ministers vision was for both a religious community and school.
Oberlins founders bragged that Oberlin is peculiar in that which is good, asa Mahan accepted the position as first President of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1835, simultaneously serving as the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy and a professor of theology. The college had some difficult beginnings, and Rev. John Keep, a nondenominational seminary, Oberlins Graduate School of Theology, was established alongside the college in 1833. Oberlins role as an educator of African-American students prior to the Civil War, in 1844, Oberlin College graduated its first black student, George B. Vashon, who one of the founding professors at Howard University. The African Americans of Oberlin and those attending Oberlin College have experienced intense challenges and its African American and other students of color have used education and activism to influence the college, the town, and beyond. Their efforts have helped Oberlin remain committed to its values of freedom, social justice, the Colleges approach to African Americans was by no means perfect.
Intensely anti-slavery, Oberlin was the college to admit black students in the 1830s. By the 1880s, with the fading of evangelical idealism, Oberlin graduates accounted for a significant percentage of African-American college graduates by the end of the 19th century. The college was listed as a National Historic Landmark on December 21,1965, for its significance in admitting African Americans, Oberlin is the oldest coeducational institution in the United States, having admitted four women in 1837. These four women, who were the first to enter as full students, were Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford, Mary Jane Patterson graduated in 1862 as the first black woman to earn a B. A. degree. Soon women were integrated into the college, and comprised from a third to half of the student body. The religious founders, especially evangelical theologian Charles Grandison Finney, saw women as morally superior to men