The Fender Jaguar is an electric guitar by Fender Musical Instruments characterized by an offset-waist body, a unusual switching system with two separate circuits for lead and rhythm, a medium-scale 24" neck. Owing some roots to the Jazzmaster, it was introduced in 1962 as Fender's feature-laden top-of-the-line model, designed to lure players from Gibson. During its initial 13-year production run, the Jaguar did not sell as well as the less expensive Stratocaster and Telecaster, achieved its most noticeable popularity in the surf music scene. After the Jaguar was taken out of production in 1975, vintage Jaguars became popular first with American punk rock players, more so during the alternative rock and indie rock movements of the 1980s and 1990s. Fender began making a version in Japan in the mid-1980s, introduced a USA-made reissue in 1999. Since Fender has made a variety of Jaguars in America and China under both the Fender and Squier labels. Original vintage Jaguars sell for many times their original price.
Both the Fender company and vintage guitar authorities date the introduction of the Jaguar to 1962. One writer states that the model was introduced in December 1960, but a 1962 ad featuring a Jaguar automobile in the background referred to the "new" Fender Jaguar.1960s advertising for the Jaguar had beach themes, underscoring the guitar's appeal to surf musicians. Photographs for the campaign, done by Bob Perine, included photographs of bikini-clad girls on sandy beaches holding Jaguars—many of these featured Perine's daughter and her friends; the guitar was not, however publicized by surf players themselves, although The Beach Boys' Carl Wilson is featured in one early publicity photo. The Jaguar never enjoyed the popularity of its Telecaster siblings. After several upgrades—which included custom finishes, a bound neck, pearloid block inlays, maple fingerboard with black binding, block inlays—the Jaguar was discontinued in December 1975 after a thirteen-year production run. Punk and early new wave rockers such as Tom Verlaine of the band Television adopted the Jaguar for both contrarian and economic reasons.
In the 1990s the popularity of the Jaguar and Jazzmaster exploded after they were used by guitarists such as Scott Hill, John Squire, Kurt Cobain, Kevin Shields, Black Francis, J Mascis, Brian Molko, Thurston Moore, John Frusciante. Despite this, Jaguars still fetch less than Telecasters and Stratocasters of similar vintage. One of the reasons why the Jaguar was used by indie rock artists is the sonic possibilities offered by the bridge construction; the bridge and vibrato unit of the Jaguar and the Jazzmaster help produce sympathetic resonance since there is a considerable length of string between the bridge and the tailpiece. On top of that, when the strings are strummed behind the bridge, a characteristic chiming sound is created, exploited by artists like Sonic Youth. Fender reissued the 1962 version of the Jaguar in 1999 as part of its American Vintage Reissue Series. Several other variations have been released within the last decade, including several humbucker versions and a Jaguar bass guitar in 2006.
Fender Japan produced Jaguars for its own domestic market with numerous special editions including an accurate version of Kurt Cobain's modified model until its closure in 2015. The main difference between Japanese and American models is the electronics: American models use higher quality chrome rather than stainless steel parts and have brass shielding plates installed in the cavities. American Jaguars have nitrocellulose lacquer. No standard US made AVRI Jaguars sport matching headstocks unlike their vintage counterparts, many Japanese models do, offer some custom colors not found on American models. In the late 2000s, Fender began to offer limited editions of the AVRI models, called Thin Skins; these were identical to the production AVRI models, with the exception of their finishes. The Thin Skin models used 100% nitrocellulose finishes, a departure from the production models, which used polyurethane undercoats/sealers; these Thin Skin models featured thinner color and clear coats. These models were available in a number of Custom Colors, unlike the standard production'62 Jaguars, these did feature matching headstocks.
In 2012, Fender replaced the entire AVRI line with the American Vintage Series. The AV Series included more vintage-accurate appointments, such as more accurate decals, thinner cases, a new'flash' finishing process, updated neck profiles, pickups and vintage-reproduction paperwork and manuals; the replacement for the 1962 Jaguar was the 1965 Jaguar. The 1965 Jaguar features a bound rosewood fingerboard with larger pearloid dot inlays, a larger C profile, more vintage-accurate pickups, a thinner finish, no amber tint in the clear coat on the neck, ships with a black tolex case with a red plush interior. Offered in Candy Apple Red and Three-Color Sunburst, the Candy Apple Red has since been discontinued; as with the AVRI model, the headstock on the AV'65 in Candy Apple Red did not feature a matching headstock. Fender did offer a limited production run of the'65 Jaguar in Ice Blue Metallic, which did feature a matching headstock. Fender's Custom Shop produces various Jaguar models, many of which are reissues/relics
Samuel Cornelius Phillips was an American record producer who played an important role in the development of rock and roll during the 1950s. He was the founder of Sun Records and Sun Studio, in Memphis, where he produced recordings by Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Howlin' Wolf, he launched Presley's career in 1954. Phillips sold Sun in 1969 to Shelby Singleton, he was an early investor in the Holiday Inn chain of hotels. He operated radio stations in Memphis, he helped break down racial barriers in the music industry. Phillips was the youngest of eight children, born on a 200 acre farm near Florence, Alabama, to Madge Ella and Charles Tucker Phillips. Sam's parents owned their farm; the experience of hearing workers singing in the fields left a big impression on the young Phillips. Traveling through Memphis with his family in 1939 on the way to see a preacher in Dallas, he slipped off to look at Beale Street, at the time the heart of the city's music scene.
"I just fell in love," he recalled. Phillips attended the former Coffee High School in Florence, he had ambitions to be a criminal defense attorney. However, his father was bankrupted by the Great Depression and died in 1941, forcing Phillips to leave high school to look after his mother and aunt. To support the family he worked in a grocery store and a funeral parlor. In 1942, Sam, 19, met Rebecca "Becky" Burns, 17, his future wife, while they were both working at WLAY radio station in Sheffield, Alabama, he was an announcer and she was still in high school and had a radio segment with her sister as'The Kitchen Sisters' where they played music and sang. A January 18, 2013 article in the Alabama Chanin Journal honoring Becky quoted Sam as saying, "I fell in love with Becky's voice before I met her." Becky described her first encounter with Sam to journalist Peter Guralnick: "He had just come in out of the rain. His hair was full of raindrops, he wore sandals and a smile unlike any I had seen. He began to talk to me.
I told my family that night that I had met the man I wanted to marry." They wed in 1943 and went on to produce two children in a marriage that lasted 60 years until Sam's death in 2003. Widow Becky Phillips died in 2012, aged 87. In the 1940s, Phillips worked as a DJ and radio engineer for station WLAY, in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. According to Phillips, the station's "open format" would inspire his work in Memphis. Beginning in 1945, he worked for four years as an announcer and sound engineer for radio station WREC, in Memphis. On January 3, 1950, Phillips opened the Memphis Recording Service, at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, he let amateurs record, which drew performers such as B. B. King, Junior Parker, Howlin' Wolf, who made their first recordings there. Phillips sold the recordings to larger labels. In addition to musical performances, Phillips recorded events such as weddings and funerals, selling the recordings; the Memphis Recording Service served as the studio for Phillips's own label, Sun Record Company, which he launched in 1952.
Phillips recorded different styles of music. He was interested in the blues and said, "The blues, it got people—black and white—to think about life, how difficult, yet how good it can be, they would sing about it. This is how they relieved the burden of what existed day in and day out."Phillips recorded what the music historian Peter Guralnick considered the first rock and roll record: "Rocket 88", by Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats, a band led by the 19-year-old Ike Turner, who wrote the song. The recording was released in 1951 by Chess Records, of Chicago. From 1950 to 1954 Phillips recorded music by James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, Rosco Gordon, Little Milton, Bobby Blue Bland, the Prisonaires and others. Sun Records produced more rock-and-roll records than any other record label of its time during its 16-year run, producing 226 singles. Phillips and Elvis Presley opened a new form of music. Phillips said of Presley: "Elvis cut a ballad, just excellent. I could tell you, both Elvis and Roy Orbison could tear a ballad to pieces.
But I said to myself,'You can't do that, Sam.' If I had released a ballad I don't think you would have heard of Elvis Presley."Much has been written about Phillips's goals, but he stated that "everyone knew that I was just a struggling cat down here trying to develop new and different artists, get some freedom in music, tap some resources and people that weren't being tapped." He didn't care about mistakes. Phillips met Presley through the mediation of his longtime collaborator at the Memphis Recording Service, Marion Keisker, a well-known Memphis radio personality. On 18 July 1953, the eighteen-year-old Presley dropped into the studio to record an acetate for his mother's birthday, she played it for Phillips, who with Keisker's encouragement, warmed to the idea of recording Elvis. Presley, who recorded his version of Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup's "That's All Right" at Phillips's studio, became successful, first in Memphis throughout the southern United States, he auditioned for Phillips in 1954, but it was not until he sang "That's All Right" that Phillips was impressed.
He brought the song to Dewey Phillips, a disc jockey at WHBQ 560, to play on his Red, Hot & Blue program. For the first six months, the
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music"; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.
The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions. Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin
Vanderbilt University is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1873, it was named in honor of New York shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1-million endowment despite having never been to the South. Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War. Vanderbilt enrolls 12,800 students from all 50 U. S. states and over 100 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. The university is in the process of converting its residence halls into an academic residential college system. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities, the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory. Vanderbilt University Medical Center part of the university, became a separate institution in 2016. With the exception of the off-campus observatory, all of the university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles from downtown.
Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. The Fugitives and Southern Agrarians were based at the university in the first half of the 20th century and helped revive Southern literature among others; the Jean and Alexander Heard Library, the campus library system, contains over 8 million items across ten libraries and stands as one of the nation's top research libraries. Vanderbilt Television News Archive holds the most extensive collection of television news coverage in the world, with over 40,000 hours of content. BioVU, Vanderbilt's DNA databank, is one of the largest of its kind in the world, running over 200 ongoing projects and holding over 225,000 samples. Additionally, Vanderbilt's Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, the largest of its type in the world, provides integral support to several companies and governmental units, including Boeing, NASA, the United States Department of Defense.
Vanderbilt has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 45 current and former members of the United States Congress, 17 U. S. Ambassadors, 13 governors, ten billionaires, seven Nobel Prize laureates, two Vice Presidents of the United States, two U. S. Supreme Court Justices. Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, Academy Award winners, Grammy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, musicians, professional athletes, Olympians. Vanderbilt has more than 139,000 alumni, with 40 alumni clubs established worldwide. Vanderbilt is a founding member of the Southeastern Conference and has been the conference's only private school for a half-century. In the years prior to the American Civil War of 1861–1865, the Methodist Episcopal Church South had been considering the creation of a regional university for the training of ministers in a location central to its congregations. Following lobbying by Nashville bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, church leaders voted to found "The Central University of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South" in Nashville in 1872.
However, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college. The following year, McTyeire stayed at the New York City residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose second wife was Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt, a cousin of McTyeire's wife, Amelia Townsend McTyeire. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age, he had been planning to establish a university on New York, in honor of his mother. However, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to "contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country."The endowment was increased to $1 million and would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire and his fellow trustees rechristened the school in his honor.
Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him. They acquired land owned by Texas Senator John Boyd inherited by his granddaughter and her husband, Confederate Congressman Henry S. Foote, who had built Old Central, a house still standing on campus; the first building, Main Building known as Kirkland Hall, was designed by William Crawford Smith, a Confederate veteran who designed the Parthenon. In the fall of 1875, about 200 students enrolled at Vanderbilt, in October the university was dedicated. Bishop McTyeire was named Chairman of the Board of Trust for life by Vanderbilt as a stipulation of his endowment. McTyeire named Landon Garland, his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor; as chancellor, he shaped the school's structure and hired the school's faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes including over pay rates; when the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877.
Meanwhile, Old Gym
Intensive care medicine
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and intensive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care may require support for cardiovascular instability lethal cardiac arrhythmias, airway or respiratory compromise, acute renal failure, or the cumulative effects of multiple organ failure, more referred to now as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, they may be admitted for intensive/invasive monitoring, such as the crucial hours after major surgery when deemed too unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit. Medical studies suggest a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for mechanically ventilated patients. After adjustment for severity of illness, demographic variables, characteristics of the ICUs, higher ICU volume was associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality rates. For example, adjusted ICU mortality was 21.2% in hospitals with 87 to 150 mechanically ventilated patients annually, 14.5% in hospitals with 401 to 617 mechanically ventilated patients annually.
Hospitals with intermediate numbers of patients had outcomes between these extremes. ICU delirium and inaccurately referred to as ICU psychosis, is a syndrome common in intensive care and cardiac units where patients who are in unfamiliar, monotonous surroundings develop symptoms of delirium; this may include interpreting machine noises as human voices, seeing walls quiver, or hallucinating that someone is tapping them on the shoulder. There exists systematic reviews in which interventions of sleep promotion related outcomes in the ICU have proven impactful in the overall health of patients in the ICU. In general, it is the most expensive, technologically advanced and resource-intensive area of medical care. In the United States, estimates of the 2000 expenditure for critical care medicine ranged from US$15–55 billion. During that year, critical care medicine accounted for 0.56% of GDP, 4.2% of national health expenditure and about 13% of hospital costs. In 2011, hospital stays with ICU services accounted for just over one-quarter of all discharges but nearly one-half of aggregate total hospital charges in the United States.
The mean hospital charge was 2.5 times higher for discharges with ICU services than for those without. Intensive care takes a system-by-system approach to treatment; as such, the nine key systems are each considered on an observation-intervention-impression basis to produce a daily plan. In addition to the key systems, intensive care treatment raises other issues including psychological health, pressure points and physiotherapy, secondary infections. In alphabetical order, the nine key systems considered in the intensive care setting are: cardiovascular system, central nervous system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal tract, integumentary system, microbiology and respiratory system. Intensive care is provided in a specialized unit of a hospital called the intensive care unit or critical care unit. Many hospitals have designated intensive care areas for certain specialities of medicine, such as the coronary intensive care unit for heart disease, medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, pediatric intensive care unit, neuroscience critical care unit, overnight intensive-recovery, shock/trauma intensive-care unit, neonatal intensive care unit, other units as dictated by the needs and available resources of each hospital.
The naming is not rigidly standardized. For a time in the early 1960s, it was not clear that specialized intensive care units were needed, so intensive care resources were brought to the room of the patient that needed the additional monitoring and resources, it became evident, that a fixed location where intensive care resources and dedicated personnel were available provided better care than ad hoc provision of intensive care services spread throughout a hospital. Common equipment in an intensive care unit includes mechanical ventilation to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy. Critical care medicine is an important medical specialty. Physicians with training in critical care medicine are referred to as intensivists. In the United States, the specialty requires additional fellowship training for physicians having completed their primary residency training in internal medicine, anesthesiology, surgery or emergency medicine. US board certification in critical care medicine is available through all five specialty boards.
Intensivists with a primary training in internal medicine sometimes pursue combined fellowship training in another subspecialty such as pulmonary medicine, infectious disease, or nephrology. The American Society of Critical Care Medicine is a well-established multiprofessional society for practitioners working in the ICU including nurses, respiratory therapists, physicians. Most medical research has demonstrated that ICU care provided by intensivists produces better outcomes and more cost-effective care; this has led the Leapfrog Group
Pickup (music technology)
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, converts these to an electrical signal, amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure. The signal from a pickup can be recorded directly. Most electric guitars and electric basses use magnetic pickups. Acoustic guitars, upright basses and fiddles use a piezoelectric pickup. A typical magnetic pickup is a transducer that consists of one or more permanent magnets wrapped with a coil of several thousand turns of fine enameled copper wire; the magnet creates a magnetic field, focused by the pickup's pole piece or pieces. The permanent magnet in the pickup magnetises the guitar string above it. So the string is, in essence, a magnet itself and its magnetic field is in alignment with that of the permanent magnet that magnetized it; when the string is plucked, the magnetic field around it moves down with the string.
This moving magnetic field induces a current in the coil of the pickup. The pickup is connected with a patch cable to an amplifier, which amplifies the signal to a sufficient magnitude of power to drive a loudspeaker. A pickup can be connected to recording equipment via a patch cable; the pickup is most mounted on the body of the instrument, but can be attached to the bridge, neck or pickguard. Pickups have magnetic polepieces centered on each string. On most guitars, the strings are not parallel: they converge at the nut and diverge at the bridge. Thus, bridge and middle pickups have different polepiece spacings on the same guitar. There are string spacing between the poles. Spacing is measured either as a distance between 1st to 6th polepieces' centers, or as a distance between adjacent polepieces' centers; some high-output pickups employ strong magnets, thus creating more flux and thereby more output. This can be detrimental to the final sound because the magnet's pull on the strings can cause problems with intonation as well as damp the strings and reduce sustain.
Other high-output pickups have more turns of wire to increase the voltage generated by the string's movement. However, this increases the pickup's output resistance/impedance, which can affect high frequencies if the pickup is not isolated by a buffer amplifier or a DI unit; the turns of wire in proximity to each other have an equivalent self-capacitance that, when added to any cable capacitance present, resonates with the inductance of the winding. This resonance can accentuate certain frequencies; the more turns of wire in the winding, the higher the output voltage but the lower this resonance frequency. The inductive source impedance inherent in this type of transducer makes it less linear than other forms of pickups, such as piezo-electric or optical; the tonal quality produced by this nonlinearity is, subject to taste, some guitarists and luthiers consider it aesthetically superior to a more linear transducer. The external load consists of resistance and capacitance between the hot lead and shield in the guitar cable.
The electric cable has a capacitance, which can be a significant portion of the overall system capacitance. This arrangement of passive components forms a resistively-damped second-order low-pass filter. Pickups are designed to feed a high input impedance a megohm or more, a lowimpedance load reduces the high-frequency response of the pickup because of the filtering effect of the inductance.|date=January 2019 Single-coil pickups act like a directional antenna and are prone to pick up mains hum — nuisance alternating current electromagnetic interference from electrical power cables, power transformers, fluorescent light ballasts, video monitors or televisions — along with the musical signal. Mains hum consists of a fundamental signal at a nominal 50 or 60 Hz, depending on local current frequency, some harmonic content. To overcome this, the humbucking pickup was invented by Joseph Raymond "Ray" Butts, but Seth Lover of Gibson was working on one. Who developed it first is a matter of some debate, but Ray Butts was awarded the first patent and Seth Lover came next.
A humbucking pickup is composed of two coils. Each set of six magnetic poles is opposite in polarity. Since ambient hum from electrical devices reaches the coils as common-mode noise, it induces an equal voltage in each coil, but with opposite amplitudes; these cancel each other, while the signal from the guitar string is doubled. When wired in series, as is most common, the overall inductance of the pickup is increased, which lowers its resonance frequency and attenuates the higher frequencies, giving a less trebly tone than either of the two component single-coil pickups would give alone. An alternative wiring places the coils in buck parallel, which has a more neutral effect on resonant frequency; this pickup wiring is rare, as guitarists have come to expect that humbucking pickups'have a sound', are not so neutral. On fine jazz guitars, the parallel wiring produces cleaner sound, as the lowered so