Aspach-Michelbach is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department of northeastern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2016 and consists of the former communes of Aspach-le-Haut and Michelbach. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department
Ammerschwihr is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Its inhabitants are called Ammerschwihriens. Ammerschwihr is a small town located on the Wine Road of Alsace, its main economical resources come from wine-growing, in particular its famous vineyard Kaefferkopf, situated on a hill, one of the Alsace Grand Cru vineyards. 1836: 2000 1962: 1341 1968: 1405 1975: 1448 1982: 1566 1990: 1869 1999: 1892 2006: 1938 Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file Alsace Wine Road Panoramic photo of Ammerschwihr
Thann is a commune in the northeastern French department of Haut-Rhin, in Grand Est. It is the sous-préfecture of the arrondissement of Thann-Guebwiller and part of the canton of Cernay, its inhabitants are known as Thannois. Thann is situated at the mouth of the valley of the Thur River; the Thur runs through the middle of the town. In 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, Thann was taken by imperialist forces. A mercenary among those troops described it as a "beautiful city, which lies on a mountain and is fortified." Thann is 21 km from Mulhouse. The town is well situated for the French autoroute network such as the A35 and A36; the RN66 passes through Thann, providing an east-west route between Epinal. Thann and the Thur valley are served by regular TER trains on a branch line running from Mulhouse to Kruth. A new tram-train service of the Mulhouse tramway links Thann to the city centre of Mulhouse. Despite sustaining heavy damage in World War I and World War II, Thann contains several old buildings and monuments of significance.
Situated in the centre of the old town, the church known as the Collégiale is good example of the style of gothic architecture that flourished in the Rhine valley in the late Middle Ages. The Cathedrals of Strasbourg and Freiburg in Germany are built in a similar style; the building owes its name "La collégiale" to the college of monks who moved to Thann from the nearby town of Saint-Amarin in 1442. Construction of the collégiale took more than 200 years, from the end of the 13th Century through the 15th Century, was completed in 1516 with the 78m tall spire. For an extensive study of the Thann collegiate church, circumstances of its erection, issues of patronage, unique sculptural programs, see Assaf Pinkus and Patrons of St. Theobald in Thann; this was a tower in the old town walls, built in 1411. The bulbous roof dates from 1628. Today the interior houses a museum dedicated to winemaking; the ruins of the Engelbourg Castle sit on a hill to the north of the old town. The castle was constructed in the 13th century by the Counts of Ferrette to control the entrance to the valley and ensure the paying of tolls by those wishing to cross the Vosges by way of the Thur valley and the col de Bussang.
The castle was destroyed on the orders of Louis XIV. During demolition, one of towers overturned and cracked into sections, one of which forms a large stone ring known locally today as The Witch's Eye; the town is served by 4 écoles maternelles. Thann is the southern terminus of the route des Vins d'Alsace; the northern side of the town is overlooked by the Rangen vineyard, one of the few vineyards in Alsace to be classed grand cru. Thann is well situated for access to the Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges. Ernst Robert Curtius, literary critic Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel - Gubbio, Italy - Tonneins, France Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE Official site of Thann town council Tourist Office of the Pays de Thann
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Artzenheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains. This combines the tram's flexibility and accessibility with a train's greater speed, bridges the distance between main railway stations and a city centre. There is a train-tram, a train modified to run on tramlines; the tram-train and train-tram are interchangeable, although a train-tram is based on a train design modified to run as a tram and a tram-train is based on a tram design modified to run on a train line. The tram-train concept was pioneered with the Karlsruhe model in Germany, has since been adopted in Mulhouse in France and in Kassel and Saarbrücken in Germany; the tram-train is a type of interurban, i.e. they link separate towns or cities. According to George W. Hilton and John F. Due's definition. Most tram-trains are standard gauge. Exceptions include Alicante Nordhausen, which are metre gauge. Tram-train vehicles are dual-equipped to suit the needs of both tram and train operating modes, with support for multiple electrification voltages if required and safety equipment such as train stops and other railway signalling equipment.
The Karlsruhe and Saarbrücken systems use "PZB" or "Indusi" automatic train protection, so that if the driver passes a signal at stop the emergency brakes are applied. The idea is not new. In 1924, in Hobart, sharing of tracks between trams and trains was proposed; the difference between modern tram-trains and the older interurbans and radial railways is that tram-trains are built to meet mainline railway standards, rather than ignoring them. An exception is the United States' River Line in New Jersey which runs along freight tracks with time separation: passenger trains run by day, freight by night. Ōtsu: Keihan Keishin Line Kolkata: Calcutta Tramways Company Gmunden: Traunsee Tram Vienna: Badner Bahn Lyon: Rhônexpress Mulhouse: Mulhouse tramway Nantes: Tram-train Nantes Île-de-France: Tramway Line 4 Tramway Line 11 Express Chemnitz: Chemnitz Tramway – 750 V DC Karlsruhe: Stadtbahn Karlsruhe – 750 V DC/15 kV AC Kassel: Kassel RegioTram 600 V DC/15 kV AC and 600 V DC/on-board Diesel generator Nordhausen: Trams in Nordhausen – 600 V DC/on-board Diesel generator Saarbrücken: Saarbahn Zwickau: Trams in Zwickau – on-board Diesel generator Cagliari: Cagliari light rail Sassari: Metrosassari Alicante: Alicante Tram Cádiz: Tranvía Metropolitano de la Bahía de Cádiz Sheffield - Rotherham: Sheffield Supertram Austin, Texas: Capital MetroRail – commuter rail that shares more commonality with tram-train operation, with downtown street running and usage of mainline track.
Uses diesel multiple units. New Jersey: River Line – diesel multiple units using main line tracks between Trenton, New Jersey and Camden, New Jersey in a time-sharing agreement with the freight companies. Salt Lake City: TRAX uses former Denver and Rio Grande tracks as well as street trackage to service Salt Lake City. Between the hours of midnight and six in the morning, Union Pacific freight trains use much of the trackage, up to just past 2500 S to service a number of industries along the line. Oceanside: – Escondido: Sprinter uses track used by BNSF for freight at night in the Escondido branch and share track with Coaster Metrolink and Amtrak San Diego: The MTS blue line is used at night for freight for the SD&IV The October 6th Tram system, Egypt Haifa–Nazareth, Israel Kolkata, India Keelung–Taipei, Taiwan. Aarhus Letbane, Denmark Braunschweig, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Erlangen, Germany – an extension of Straßenbahn Nürnberg not planned to use mainline rail tracks but proposed to do so in the future.
The planned line to Herzogenaurach replicates a former mainline rail line Grenoble, France Groningen, Netherlands île de France, France. The system is called Tram Express by the transport authority STIF: 1 line exists and 2 lines are scheduled; the light train rolling stock will only roll on national rail network in western line a short section of 3.6 km is an urban tram section of the 19 km line. The southern line is a 20 km line, 10 km will be tram section and the 10 km another will roll on national rail network. Karlsruhe, Germany Kiel, Germany Kyiv, Ukraine Košice, Slovakia León, Spain Liberec — Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic Linköping, Sweden Lyon, France Manresa, Spain Metro Mondego, Portugal Midland Metro extensions in the West Midlands conurbation, England Porto Metro Lines B and C, Portugal RijnGouweLijn, Netherlands Metro de Sevilla. Seville has one metro line and one tram line that are not connected, but the long-term intention is to link the metro and tram systems. Strasbourg, France Szeged, Hungary.
The stretch between Szeged and Hódmezővásárhely is under construction, with a planned completion date of 2020. TramCamp, Camp de Tarragona, Spain Wrocław, Poland — 600 V DC/3 kV DC Riga, Latvia Tampere, Finland Turku, Finland A two-year tram-train pilot project is being undertaken between Sheffield and Rotherham. In the initial phase, from October 2017, Stadler Citylink tram-train vehicles (British Rail designation Class
Bantzenheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file