Calvary, or Golgotha, according to the Gospels, a site outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified. Matthew's and Mark's gospels translate the term to mean "place of skull", in Latin rendered Calvariæ Locus, from which the English word Calvary derives, its traditional site, identified by Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Constantine I, in 325, is at the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. A 19th-century suggestion places it at the site now known as some 500 m to the north. Historian Joan Taylor bases a location c. 175 metres south-southeast of the traditional site on her reading of textual evidence. The recorded form Γολγοθα may be a simplified pronunciation of an Aramaic golgolta, corresponding to Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull". English Calvary is the anglicized form of the Latin gloss from the Vulgate, to refer to Golgotha in Luke 23:33, where the Greek text gives Κρανίον rather than the explicit Κρανίου Τόπος of Matthew 26:33 and Mark 15:22; the adoption the Latin form has a long tradition in English Bible translations, going back to at least the late 10th century, is retained in Wycliffe's Bible and Tyndale's Bible as well as in the King James Version.
By contrast, Luther is translating Luke's Κρανίον, as German Schädelstätte. The Latinism is current in various other languages within the Latin sphere of influence, including Spanish and Italian Calvario, French Calvaire, Polish Kalwaria, Lithuanian Kalvarijos; the church fathers offer different interpretations for the name. The association of the site with the "skull of Adam" is expanded in a number of noncanonical Christian writings, including the Kitab al-Magall, the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, the Cave of Treasures, as well as by Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria. According to these accounts and Melchizedek traveled to the resting place of Noah's Ark, retrieved the body of Adam from it, were led by Angels to Golgotha – described as a skull-shaped hill at the centre of the Earth, where the serpent's head had been crushed following the Fall of Man. While the Gospels identify Calvary as a "place", Christian tradition since at least the 6th century has described the location as "mountain" or "hill",The location itself is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels: Matthew 27:33: "And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, to say, a place of a skull " Mark 15:22: "And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull " Luke 23:33: "And when they were come to the place, called Calvary, there they crucified him, the malefactors, one on the right hand, the other on the left."
John 19:17: "And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, called in the Hebrew Golgotha." An alternative suggestion, due to Krafft proposes that the reported association with the word "skull" is a popular etymology of an original name Gol Goatha, interpreted as meaning "heap of death", or "hill of execution". There is no consensus as to the location of the site. John describes the crucifixion site as being "near the city". According to Hebrews, it was "outside the city wall". Matthew 27:39 and Mark 15:29 both note that the location would have been accessible to "passers-by". Thus, locating the crucifixion site involves identifying a site that, in the city of Jerusalem some four decades before its destruction in AD 70, would have been outside the city walls and well visible to passers-by. Christian tradition since the 4th century has favoured a location now within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; this places it well within today's Jerusalem's Old City Walls. Proponents of the traditional Holy Sepulchre location point out at the fact that 1st-century Jerusalem had a different shape and size from the 16th-century city, leaving the church's site outside the pre-AD 70 city walls.
Those opposing it doubt this. Defenders of the traditional site have argued that the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was only brought within the city limits by Herod Agrippa, who built the so-called Third Wall around a newly-settled northern district, while at the time of Jesus' crucifixion around AD 30 it would still have been just outside the city. Henry Chadwick argued that when Hadrian's builders replanned the old city, they "incidentally confirm the bringing of Golgotha inside a new town wall."In 2007 Dan Bahat, the former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem and Professor of Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University, stated that "Six graves from the first century were found on the area of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. That means, this place outside of the city, without any doubt…", thus maintaining that there are no scientific, archaeological grounds for rejecting the traditional location for Calvary; some Protestant advocates of an alternative site claim that a wall would imply the existence of a defensive ditch outside it, so a
Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus from the dead after his crucifixion. According to the Apostle Paul, as stated by Newbigin, "in the ministry and resurrection of Jesus God has acted decisively to reveal and effect his purpose of redemption for the whole world." According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God. The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50-57 AD. In one of these, his First Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes on what he has been told of how, after his death and burial, the resurrected Jesus appeared to Peter to "the Twelve," to five hundred followers to James to "all the Apostles." He claims that Jesus subsequently appeared to him in the same way he did to the others, in 2 Corinthians 12 he tells of "a man in Christ who... was caught up to the third heaven", while the language is obscure it is plausible that he saw Jesus enthroned at the right hand of God.
In the Epistle to the Philippians he describes how the body of the resurrected Christ is utterly different to the one he wore when he had "the appearance of a man," and holds out a similar glorified state, when Christ "will transform our lowly body," as the goal of the Christian life - "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," and Christians entering the kingdom will be "putting off the body of the flesh". According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection, he stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans. Habermas argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body: Paul is a Pharisee and therefore believes in a physical resurrection. In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma to be like unto his soma".
According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma. According to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death and resurrection of Jesus"; the creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 " after his conversion.
All four gospels climax with the resurrection, preparing the reader by having Jesus predict it, or through allusions that only the reader will understand. The moment of resurrection is not described; the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown. When women followers of Jesus came to the tomb early on the third day they found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. An angel told them that they should inform the remaining disciples. In Matthew and John, although not in Mark, the resurrection announcement is followed by post-resurrection appearances of Jesus to his followers - the number and location of these varies, from a single appearance in Galilee in Matthew to several appearances in Jerusalem in Luke to appearances in both Jerusalem and Galillee in John; the Apostle Paul records a series of post-resurrection appearances, the last being to himself - an appearance to Paul is recorded in detail in Acts, but it differs from that in the Pauline epistles.
These end with the ascension of Jesus to heaven - this is assumed in all the gospels and in other New Testament literature but described only in Acts, where it prepares the reader for the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and for the missionary task of the early church. Paul's proof of the resurrection is the appearances of the risen Lord to himself. At some point such appearances ceased - after a single day according to Luke, after forty according to Acts, although the Paul's experience was many years after that. In any event, the end of personal appearances meant that for the gospel-authors alternative proofs were needed; these were found in the narratives of the empty tomb, angelic announcement, witnesses to post-resurrection appearances on Earth rather than in heaven. In the process they moved from a Jewish to a Hellenistic and Roman paradigm in which Jesus dies and is buried, his body disappears, he returns in an immortalised physical body, able to appear and disappear at will like a
St Edmundsbury Cathedral
St Edmundsbury Cathedral is the cathedral for the Church of England's Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich. It is in Bury St Edmunds. Originating in the 11th century, it was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries as a parish church and became a cathedral in 1914. A church has stood on the site of the cathedral since at least 1065, when St Denis's Church was built within the precincts of Bury St Edmunds Abbey. In the early 12th century the Abbot, Anselm had wanted to make a pilgrimage along the Way of St James to Santiago de Compostela, he was unsuccessful and instead rebuilt St Denis's and dedicated the new church to Saint James, which served as the parish church for the north side of Bury St Edmunds. Anselm was responsible for building the abbey gate tower, known today as the Norman Tower, alongside St James's, which served as the church's belfry and it continues in this function to the present day; this church was rebuilt, starting in 1503, in the Perpendicular style by John Wastell, a master mason who worked on King's College, Cambridge.
Further alterations to the building were undertaken in the 18th and 19th centuries, notably a new chancel and a hammerbeam roof by George Gilbert Scott. When the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich was created in 1914, St James's Church was made the cathedral. In 1959 Benjamin Britten wrote the Fanfare for St Edmundsbury for a "Pageant of Magna Carta" held in the cathedral grounds. From 1959 onwards there was renewed building work designed to transform the former parish church into a cathedral building. Between 1959 and 1970, the Victorian chancel was demolished and replaced with a new quire, a cloister was added on the west side; the cathedral architect from 1943 to 1988 was Stephen Dykes Bower and he left £2 million for the completion of the cathedral. In the cathedral grounds a new choir school and visitor's centre were which were opened in 1990, built by Dykes Bower's successor, Alan Rome. Work started on a Gothic revival style tower in 2000; the 150 foot structure was faced with Barnack and Clipsham stone.
Its completion was celebrated on 22 July 2005. Further additions are the Chapel of the Transfiguration and the East Cloister, both completed in 2009, the Crypt Treasury in 2012; the font was designed in 1870 by George Gilbert Scott, constructed on a medieval shaft, with a cover by Frank Ernest Howard of Oxford. The decoration was added in 1960. A painting, "The Martyrdom of St Edmund" by Brian Whelan hangs in the Lady Chapel. A sculpture by Elizabeth Fink entitled Crucifixion stands by the Treasury steps. Stained glass in the cathedral includes the medieval Susanna Window which has Flemish glass in the lower section and English glass at the top; the west window depicts the Last Judgement and dates from about 1900. In addition to guided tours of the cathedral itself, visitors can view changing exhibits of art in the Edmund Gallery, an exhibit of historic and religious regalia and artefacts in the Cathedral Treasures display; the Dean of St Edmundsbury is the head and chair of the chapter of canons, the ruling body of the cathedral.
Before 2000 the post was designated as a provost, the equivalent of a dean at most English cathedrals. The first provost was John Orpen; as of February 2019, the clergy are: Dean — Joe Hawes Sub-Dean & Canon Pastor — Matthew Vernon Canon Precentor — Philip Banks Archdeacon for Rural Mission and Diocesan Canon — Sally Gaze Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register 1896 Charles John Harold Shane 1937 Edward Percy Hallam 1958 Harrison Oxley 1985 Paul Trepte 1990 Mark Blatchly 1993 Mervyn Cousins 1997 James Thomas A peal of 12 bells are located in the Norman Tower. The original ten bells were cast in 1785 by Thomas Osborn of Downham Market. In 1973 the bells were rehung in an iron frame at a lower level in the tower. Following a public appeal, a further two bells were added at Easter 2012. A thirteenth bell was added in 2013 which allows beginners to practice with a full octave, without having to use the three heaviest bells; the bells are rung on Sundays before the morning and evening services, for weddings and other special occasions.
List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom Official site Flickr images tagged Bury St Edmunds Cathedral Historic England. "Details from image database". Images of England
Iona was a progressive Celtic rock band from the United Kingdom, formed in the late 1980s by lead vocalist Joanne Hogg and multi-instrumentalists David Fitzgerald and Dave Bainbridge. Troy Donockley joined playing the uilleann pipes, low whistles, other instruments. By the time Iona released their first self-titled album in 1990, drummer Terl Bryant, bassist Nick Beggs, Fiona Davidson on Celtic harp, Peter Whitfield on strings, Troy Donockley on Uilleann pipes and percussionist Frank van Essen had joined the band; the first album Iona concentrated on the history of the island of Iona, from which the band got its name. Iona returned in 1992 with The Book of Kells, a concept album with several tracks based on pages from the eponymous book. Terl Bryant took over on drums and percussion for this album after the departure of Frank van Essen. Fitzgerald left the band that year to pursue a degree in music. Beyond These Shores, the band's third album, was released in 1993 and included guest musician Robert Fripp.
The album was loosely based on the legendary voyage of St. Brendan to the Americas before Christopher Columbus, but the band did not intend for it to be viewed as a "concept album". Journey into the Morn followed in 1995, a more accessible and rock-oriented album loosely based on the hymn "Be Thou My Vision", performed in Gaelic at the beginning of the album and again near the end. Máire Brennan, lead singer of Celtic/new-age band Clannad, was brought in to help Hogg with the Gaelic pronunciation, she sang backup vocals. Two live albums followed in the late 1990s: the double-disc Heaven's Bright Sun and Woven Cord, performed with the All Souls Orchestra. Terl Bryant departed the band between these two albums, Frank van Essen returned to fill the vacant spot, playing drums as well as violin, which could be heard on the band's 2000 album, Open Sky. After being released from their U. S. contract with ForeFront Records and their UK contract with Alliance Records, Iona formed Open Sky Records to release material independently.
The first new release on this label was the 2002 box set The River Flows, which featured their then-out-of-print first three albums, as well as a fourth disc of unreleased tracks and rarities called Dunes. The first three albums have since been re-released individually, with new cover art; the group has been in semi-hiatus for the better part of the current decade. However, 2006 saw the April release of a 2-disc live DVD Iona: Live in London, featuring a 5.1 Dolby Digital Surround mix by LA's John Kellogg, a November release of a new studio CD entitled The Circling Hour. In June 2009 Troy Donockley announced. A message on his website stated: "I have had a wonderful time with my friends in Iona and am very proud of the albums we made together. But, as in all life, things change. After extended periods of no activity we have found ourselves with a different musical and philosophical direction. We have parted as great friends should, with a sad-happiness and I wish the band all the best wishes for the future".
Donockley is a member of punk/folk band The Bad Shepherds. He has played in Barbara Dickson's band for a number of years and is the band's Musical Director, he is on a world tour with Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, with whom he has made many guest appearances both live and on their albums over recent years, before joining them as a full-time member in October 2013. He has been replaced in Iona by woodwind player Martin Nolan. In June 2010, Iona went to the United States for their first tour there in nine years. On 19 June 2010, they played a well received concert at NEARfest, a progressive rock festival in Bethlehem and during this show they introduced new songs for a forthcoming album, Another Realm, released in 2011, their final album to date. After several concerts throughout the U. S. and one in Canada, they ended the tour at Cornerstone Festival, a Christian music festival in Illinois, on 30 June. On Dec. 11, 2016, the band announced on its Facebook page that it was suspending recording and touring as a group, citing other commitments.
"We do not know what will happen in future years, whether we will get together again as Iona," the band said. "The door will remain open, but for the foreseeable future, the next and exciting chapters of our journey will involve other avenues." Joanne Hogg – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Dave Bainbridge – lead guitar Martin Nolan – pipes, flutes Phil Barker – bass Frank van Essen – drums, violin Iona The Book of Kells Beyond These Shores Journey into the Morn Open Sky The Circling Hour Another Realm Heaven's Bright Sun Woven Cord Live in London Edge of the World: Live in Europe The River Flows: Anthology Various Artists - Songs for Luca Various Artists - Songs for Luca 2 Iona, DVD early live concert Live in London, DVD Official website Band biography
Joanne Hogg is a Northern Irish singer and songwriter, best known for her work as the lead singer and songwriter with the Celtic Christian progressive rock and pop band Iona. Hogg was born in Northern Ireland, her father is her mother a nurse. With medicine strong in the family, it was natural for Hogg to become a doctor. Thus, she studied medicine at Queen's University Belfast. In her third year, Hogg was singing at the Christian Artists talent event and was convinced to sing in a school ministry at Youth for Christ in Denmark. After a year, Hogg returned to the University to complete her two remaining years of schooling. After graduating, Hogg interned as a junior doctor at Belfast City Hospital to complete her registration. Six months into working at the hospital, she was taken ill and stopped working for seven months to recover. After recovering, she completed her registration as a doctor, but was advised on medical grounds not to continue in full-time medical work. During her convalescence, she had been contacted by Dave Bainbridge and Dave Fitzgerald, who had considered forming a band.
In 1989, Hogg ceased practising medicine, Iona was born. Since Hogg has sung all over Europe and America. Iona's recordings have become successful worldwide, making them Europe's best-selling contemporary Christian band. Hogg recorded her first solo album in 1999, entitled Looking into Light; the tracks that feature on this album are a selection of re-arranged traditional hymns, with Iona providing the instrumental melodies. In 2001, Hogg collaborated with vocalists Máire Brennan and Margaret Becker for the release New Irish Hymns. There have been a further three volumes of the New Irish Hymns series of albums involving other vocals. Iona provided the instrumentals. In 2008, Hogg released Raphael's Journey and Personal. Raphael's Journey is available only as a download and features friend Moya Brennan of Clannad; the album is available only through Kingsway Music UK. Hogg, in her personal press release, says: Musically, this album is a collection of songs with a few instrumentals. Frank Van Essen has been working with me on this for several years not only as producer, but co-writing and playing.
There are beautiful performances from all my mates in Iona, gorgeous string arrangements from Frank, beautiful guest vocals from the amazing Moya Brennan and piano and vocals from myself......so, please download it and tell others about it." Her Personal album was released with a press release by Hogg, "to give fans the true story of the album". Her vocals were further featured in the 1998 PlayStation role-playing video game Xenogears. Composed by Yasunori Mitsuda, the ending-theme song "Small Two of Pieces", along with an extra track "Stars of Tears" were recorded. Mitsuda invited her to record the vocal themes for the spiritual prequel to Xenogears, Xenosaga: Episode One released four years in 2002. Two tracks were recorded for this game: the ending-theme "Kokoro", the song "Pain", which plays during the final cutscene of the game. Soundtracks were released for both of these videogames on the Digicube label; the song "Kokoro" was released as a CD single. Hogg's vocals were not featured in any of the Xenosaga releases, as Yasunori Mitsuda was replaced with Yuki Kajiura as the game's musical composer.
Looking into Light Celtic Hymns Raphael's Journey Personal Uncountable Stars MAP Project Road from Ruin New Irish Hymns New Irish Hymns 2 New Irish Hymns 3: Incarnation New Irish Hymns 4 Songs for Luca Veil of Gossamer Xenogears Original Soundtrack Xenosaga: Episode One Original Soundtrack Xenosaga: Episode One "Kokoro" Single The Unseen Stream The Pursuit of Illusion The Cave Sessions Vol.1 Official Iona Band biography Iona Band biography Joanne Hogg's page Profile at Square Enix Music Online
Christian music is music, written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life and faith. Common themes of Christian music include praise, worship and lament, its forms vary across the world. Like other forms of music the creation, performance and the definition of Christian music varies according to culture and social context. Christian music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or with a positive message as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Among the most prevalent uses of Christian music are in other gatherings. Most Christian music involves singing, whether by the whole congregation, or by a specialized subgroup—such as a soloist, trio, madrigal, choir, or worship band— or both, it is accompanied by instruments, but some denominations or congregations still prefer unaccompanied or a cappella singing. Some groups, such as the Bruderhof, sing songs both with religious and non-religious meanings and words.
For them, the act of singing is important. One of the earliest forms of worship music in the church was the Gregorian chant. Pope Gregory I, while not the inventor of chant, was acknowledged as the first person to order such music in the church, hinting the name "Gregorian" chant; the chant reform took place around 590–604 CE. The Gregorian chant was known for its monophonic sound. Believing that complexity had a tendency to create cacophony, which ruined the music, Gregory I kept things simple with the chant. In the West, the majority of Christian denominations use instruments such as an organ, electronic keyboard, guitar, or other accompaniment, by a band or orchestra, to accompany the singing, but some churches have not used instruments, citing their absence from the New Testament. During the last century or so several of these groups have revised this stance; the singing of the Eastern Orthodox is generally unaccompanied, though in the United States organs are sometimes used as a result of Western influence.
Some worship music may be unsung instrumental. During the Baroque period in Europe, the chorale prelude was used composed by using a popular hymn tune thematically, a wide corpus of other solo organ music began to develop across Europe; some of the most well-known exponents of such organ compositions include Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, George Frideric Handel, François Couperin, César Franck and Charles-Marie Widor to name a few. Up to the present time, various composers have written instrumental music as acts of worship, including well known organ repertoire by composers like Olivier Messiaen, Louis Vierne, Maurice Duruflé, Jean Langlais; the church sonata and other sacred instrumental musical forms developed from the Baroque period onwards. From the latter half of the 20th century to the present day in Western Christendom—especially in the United States and in other countries with evangelical churches—various genres of music often related to pop rock, have been created under the label of Contemporary Christian Music for home-listening and concert use.
It can be divided into several genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, controversial. These genres like other forms of music may be distinguished by the techniques, the styles, the context and the themes, or geographical origin. Specific subgenres of CCM may include: Christian country music, Christian pop, Christian rock, Christian metal, Christian hardcore, Christian punk, Christian alternative rock and Christian hip hop. Called Christian pop or gospel in a generalized form, this is a new musical movement and has now evolved into a large number of musical genres by region that comes in a Christian context; this movement appeared as a form of evangelization for the young but the genre is best known and seen in the Evangelical or Protestant proselytizing movements using rhythms similar to those in secular music. CCM is not a musical genre like the other genres; when a song is identified as "Christian" it takes into account the lyrics and the songwriters and performers, rather than musical style.
Therefore, one can say that CCM is diverse and there are Christian songs that are sung to the rhythm of salsa, rock, hip-hop or rap, pop, singer-songwriters and extreme music such as punk or heavy metal. In the 1980s and 1990s, contemporary Christian music played a significant role in Evangelical Christian worship. A great variety of musical styles has developed traditional praise. Similar developments took place in other language, for example the German Neues Geistliches Lied and Korean Contemporary Christian music. Christian music is supported by a segment of the general music industry which evolved as a parallel structure to the same. Beginning in the 1970s and developing out of the Jesus movement, the Christian music industry subsequently developed into a near-billion dollar enterprise. By the 1990s the genre had eclipsed classical and new-age music, artists began gaining acceptance in the general market. Today, Christian music is available through most available media. Christian music is broadcast over television, or the Internet.
Christian Albums and video recordings have b
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular