François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg
François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, Duke of Piney-Luxembourg, called Luxembourg, was a French general, marshal of France, famous as the comrade and successor of the great Condé. François Henri de Montmorency was born at Paris, his father, the François de Montmorency-Bouteville, had been executed six months before his birth for participating in a duel against the Marquis de Beuvron. His aunt, Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, Princess of Condé, took charge of him and educated him with her son, the Duke of Enghien; the young Montmorency attached himself to his cousin, shared his successes and reverses throughout the troubles of the Fronde. He returned to France in 1659 and was pardoned, Condé much attached to the Duchess of Châtillon, Montmorency's sister, contrived the marriage of his adherent and cousin to the greatest heiress in France, Madeleine de Luxembourg, Princess of Tingry and heiress of the Luxembourg dukedom, after which he was created Duke of Luxembourg and peer of France.
At the opening of the War of Devolution, Condé, Luxembourg, had no command, but during the second campaign he served as Condé's lieutenant general in the conquest of Franche-Comté. During the four years of peace which followed, Luxembourg cultivated the favour of Louvois, in 1672 held a high command against the Dutch during the Franco-Dutch War, he defeated a counterattack by the forces of Prince William III of Orange at Woerden but was blocked by the Dutch Water Line. On 27 December the inundations were frozen over and he began to cross over the ice, but a sudden thaw cut his force in half. Retreating, de Luxembourg found the fortress town of Bodegraven abandoned by its garrison and ordered the entire civilian population to be burned alive with their houses; the Dutch anti-French propaganda exploited this massacre and when de Luxembourg bragged to Louis XIV that he had roasted any Dutchman he could find in the town, he was surprised to find that some at court considered such cruelties unnecessary.
In 1673 he made his famous retreat from Utrecht to Maastricht with only 20,000 men in face of 70,000, an exploit which placed him in the first rank of generals. In 1674 he was made captain of the Garde du Corps, in 1675 Marshal of France. In 1676 he was placed at the head of the army of the Rhine, but failed to keep the Duke of Lorraine out of Philipsburg. In 1677 he stormed Valenciennes, his reputation was now high and it is reputed that he quarrelled with Louvois, who managed to involve him in the "affair of the poisons" and get him sent to the Bastille. Rousset in his Histoire de Louvois has shown that this quarrel is apocryphal. Luxembourg doubtlessly spent some months of 1680 in the Bastille, but on his release took up his post at court as capitaine des gardes. By 1690, during the War of the Grand Alliance, Luxembourg was entrusted with the command of King Louis' army in the Spanish Netherlands, superseding Louis de Crevant, Duke of Humières. On 1 July 1690 he won a great victory over William's allied commander, the Prince of Waldeck, at Fleurus.
In the following year he was again victorious at Leuze on 18 September 1691. In the next campaign he covered the king's 1692 Siege of Namur, defeated William at Steenkerque in 1692, he was received with enthusiasm at Paris by all but the king, who looked coldly on a relative and adherent of the Condés. St-Simon describes in the first volume of his Memoirs how, instead of ranking as eighteenth peer of France according to his patent of 1661, he claimed through his wife to be duc de Piney of an old creation of 1571, which would place him second on the roll; the affair is described with St-Simon's usual interest in the peerage, was chiefly checked through his assiduity. In the campaign of 1694, Luxembourg did little in Flanders, except that he conducted a famous march from Vignamont to Tournai in face of the enemy. On his return to Versailles for the winter he fell ill, died. In his last moments he was attended by the famous Jesuit priest Bourdaloue, who said on his death, "I have not lived his life, but I would wish to die his death."
Luxembourg was considered immoral in those times, but as a general he was Condé's grandest pupil. Though slothful like Condé in the management of a campaign, at the moment of battle he seemed seized with happy inspirations, against which no ardour of William's and no steadiness of Dutch or English soldiers could stand, his death and Catinat's disgrace close the second period of the military history of the reign of Louis XIV, Catinat and Luxembourg, though inferior to Condé and Turenne, were far superior to Tallard and Villeroi. St-Simon said of Luxembourg:...in his final calculations no one was more conscientious than M. de Luxembourg. He had daring and confidence, at the same time a cool-headedness that allowed him to observe and foresee in the midst of the fiercest cannonade, in dangerously critical moments; that was when he was great. At all other times he was idleness itself, he was distinguished for a pungent wit. One of his retorts referred to his deformity. "I never can beat that cursed humpback", William was
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C
County of Luxemburg
The County of Luxemburg was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. It arose from medieval Lucilinburhuc Castle in the present-day City of Luxembourg, purchased by Count Siegfried in 963, his descendants of the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty began to call themselves Counts of Luxembourg from the 11th century onwards. The House of Luxembourg, a cadet branch of the Dukes of Limburg, became one of the most important political forces of the 14th century, contending with the House of Habsburg for supremacy in Central Europe; the historic region of Luxembourg was settled by Celtic tribes in the 2nd Century. After the conquests of Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars from 58 to 51 BC, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Upon the invasion of Germanic Franks from the East during the Migration Period in the 5th century, the Luxembourg region became part of Francia and the Carolingian Empire. In 843, Luxembourg became part of Middle Francia Lotharingia in 855 and of Upper Lorraine in 959.
Since 925, it has belonged to East Francia, predecessor of the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, large parts were held by the Abbey of Echternach. From the Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance, authors attributed different names to Luxembourg, such as: Lucilinburhuc, Lutzburg, Lützelburg, Lichtburg; the name is translated from the Latin as "little castle". However, modern historians believe that the etymology of the word Luxembourg is a derivation of the word Letze, meaning fortification, which might have referred to either the remains of a Roman watchtower or to a primitive refuge of the Early Middle Ages; the first known reference to the territory was by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War The ruined Roman, fortification called Lucilinburhuc was first mentioned in 963, when Count Siegfried acquired it from Wikerus, Abbot of St. Maximin's Abbey in Trier. Siegfried first appeared about 950, he was a son of Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine, his mother Cunigunda was a granddaughter of the West Frankish King Louis the Stammerer.
In the following years, Siegfried built a new castle on the site of the ruins, on a rock called "Bockfiels". The castle dominated a stretch of the old Roman road linking Reims and Trier that provided prospects for trade and taxation. Although the history of Luxembourg began with the castle's construction, it seems that Siegfried and his immediate successors did not make the castle their primary residence. During the following years, a small town and market grew around the new castle, its first inhabitants were servants of Count Siegfried and clergy of Saint Michael's Church. The settlement soon received additional protection by the construction of a partial city wall and moat. In addition to the small town near the Bockfiels and the Roman road, a further settlement was established in the Alzette Valley, today the Grund quarter of Luxembourg. By 1060 the fortress had been extended by Siegfried's descendants. Conrad I was the first to call himself a "Count of Luxembourg", his son, Henry III, was the first count known to have established his permanent residence there, as in a 1089 document, he is referred to as "comes Henricus de Lutzeleburg".
By 1083, this lower town contained two bridges over the Alzette and Petruss rivers. Its inhabitants' occupations included fishing and milling. In the same year, the Benedictine abbey of Altmünster was founded on the hill behind the castle by Conrad I, Count of Luxembourg. In 1136 when Count Conrad II of Luxembourg died without heirs, the Ardennes-Luxembourg branch became extinct and the county, by order of Emperor Lothair II, passed to Conrad's maternal cousin Henry the Blind from the House of Namur; when Henry the Blind died in 1196, Count Otto I of Burgundy raised claims to the throne. Henry the Blind's daughter, married Count Theobald I of Bar, thus securing her own succession as Countess of Luxembourg; the town of Luxembourg became the centre of a state of strategic value in the Low Countries. Its fortifications were enlarged and strengthened over the years by successive owners, which made it one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Through its formidable defences it became known as the "Gibraltar of the North".
The Luxembourg counts lost the Limburg heritage when they were defeated by the Dukes of Brabant in the 1288 Battle of Worringen. Count Henry VII, whose father Henry VI had been killed in battle, settled the quarrel by marrying Margaret of Brabant in 1292. In 1308, he was elected King of the Romans and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312, the first of three emperors provided by the House of Luxembourg, his son, John the Blind, became King of Bohemia in 1310, whereafter the dynasty moved their seat of power to Prague Castle. The Duchy of Luxembourg was formed when the counties of Luxembourg, Durbuy and Vianden, the Marquisat of Arlon, the districts of Thionville and Marville were combined. Luxembourg was an independent fief of the Holy Roman Empire until 1353, when the Luxembourg emperor Charles IV elevated it to the status of a duchy for his half-brother, Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg. Upon the extinction of the Luxembourg dynasty, the duchy passed to the House of Valois-Burgundy in 1443, to the Archduchy of Austria in 1482.
It was integrated into the Burgundian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, by Emperor Charles V in the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Luxembourg was annexed to the department of Forêts. Following agreement at the 1815 Congress of Vienna, some of the former duch
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Musée du Luxembourg
The Musée du Luxembourg is a museum at 19 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. Established in 1750, it was an art museum located in the east wing of the Luxembourg Palace and in 1818 became the first museum of contemporary art. In 1884 the museum moved into the former orangery of the Palace; the museum was taken over by the French Ministry of Culture and the French Senate in 2000, when it began to be used for temporary exhibitions, became part of the Réunion des Musées Nationaux in 2010. From 1750 to 1780 it was the first public painting gallery in Paris, displaying the King's collection which included Titian's The Madonna of the Rabbit, Da Vinci's Holy Family and nearly a hundred other Old Master works now forming the nucleus of the Louvre. In 1803, it reopened showing paintings by a range of artists from Nicolas Poussin to Jacques-Louis David, was devoted to living artists from 1818 to 1937. Much of the work first shown here has found its way into other museums of Paris including the Jeu de Paume, the Orangerie, the Musée National d'Art Moderne and the Musée d'Orsay.
In 1861, James Tissot showed The Meeting of Faust and Marguerite, purchased by the state for the Luxembourg Gallery. The illustrator André Gill was named curator of the Musée du Luxembourg on May 15, 1871, in which capacity he reassembled the scattered collections of art and reestablished the museum of sculpture, he had scarcely begun his work when it was interrupted by the upheaval associated with the Paris Commune. When Ernest Hemingway paid a call on Gertude Stein at the nearby Rue de Fleurus, he stopped to see the work of the Impressionists which in 1921 were still in the Musée du Luxembourg. Les Grands du Dessin de Press: André Gill "Quand ouvrira-t-on des maisons pour imbeciles?" Ochterbeck, Cynthia Clayton, editor. The Green Guide Paris. Greenville, South Carolina: Michelin Maps and Guides. ISBN 9781906261375. Official site
Duchy of Luxemburg
The Duchy of Luxemburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, the ancestral homeland of the noble House of Luxembourg. The House of Luxembourg, now Duke of Limburg, became one of the most important political forces in the 14th century, competing against the House of Habsburg for supremacy in Central Europe, they would be the heirs to the Přemyslid dynasty in the Kingdom of Bohemia, succeeding the Kingdom of Hungary and contributing four Holy Roman Emperors until their own line of male heirs came to an end and the House of Habsburg got the pieces that the two Houses had agreed upon in the Treaty of Brünn in 1364. In 1443, the duchy passed to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy of the French House of Valois, and, in 1477, by marriage to Archduke Maximilian I of Austria of the House of Habsburg; the Seventeen Provinces of the former Burgundian Netherlands were formed into an integral union by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549. In 1795, French revolutionaries ended this situation.
The first known reference to the territory was made by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War. The historical region of Luxembourg belonged to the Roman province of Belgica Prima. After the invasion of the Germanic tribes from the East, Luxembourg became part of the Frankish Empire. By the 843 Treaty of Verdun, it became part of the Lotharingian province of Middle Francia. According to the Treaty of Ribemont in 880, it had fallen to East Francia. Modern historians explain the etymology of the word Luxembourg as coming from the word Letze, meaning fortification, which might have referred to either the remains of a Roman watchtower or a primitive refuge of the Early Middle Ages. By the 959 partition of Lotharingia, the Luxembourg region had passed to Duke Frederick I of Upper Lorraine of the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty, a son of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia. In 963, Count Siegfried a younger brother of Duke Frederick I, purchased some land from Abbot Wikerus of Saint Maximin's in Trier.
This land was centered on a ruined fort by the Old High German name of Lucilinburhuc. In the following years, Count Siegfried had a new castle built on the site of these ruins, on a rock that would be called Bock Fiels; this castle dominated a stretch of the old Roman road linking Reims and Trier, opened some prospects for trade and taxation. Despite this new construction, it seems that Siegfried and his immediate successors did not make the castle their primary residence; the history of Luxembourg proper began with the construction of this castle. In the following years, a small town and market grew around the new castle; the first inhabitants were servants of Count Siegfried and clergy of Saint Michael's church. This settlement soon received additional protection by the construction of a first, partial city wall and moat. In addition to the small town near Bock Fiels and the Roman road, another settlement was formed in the Alzette Valley. By 1083, this lower town contained two churches, two bridges of the rivers Alzette, Petruss.
Its inhabitants pursued various professions, including fishing and milling. That same year, the Benedictine abbey of Altmünster was founded by Count Conrad on the hill behind Luxembourg castle. Henry III was the first count known to have established his permanent residence in Luxembourg castle. In a document from the year 1089, he is referred to as comes Henricus de Lutzeleburg, which makes him the first documented count of Luxembourg. Around this fort, the town developed and became the center of a small, but important state of great strategic value to France and the Low Countries. Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened over the years by successive owners, making the Fortress of Luxembourg one of the strongest in continental Europe, its formidable defenses and strategic location caused it to become known as the Gibraltar of the North. The House of Luxembourg provided several Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Bohemia, archbishops of Trier and Mainz. From the Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance, Luxembourg bore multiple names, including Lucilinburhuc, Lutzburg, Lützelburg and Lichtburg, among others.
Luxembourg remained an independent fief of the Holy Roman Empire, when, in 1354, Emperor Charles IV elevated it to the status of a duchy for his brother Wenceslaus. The ducal lands had been formed in 1353 by integration of the old County of Luxembourg, the marquisat of Arlon, the counties of Durbuy and Laroche, the districts of Thionville and Marville; the county of Vianden can be included as it had been a vassal of the counts and dukes of Luxembourg since about 31 July 1264. In 1411, Sigismund of Luxembourg lost the duchy to his niece Elisabeth because he defaulted on a loan. Elizabeth sold the duchy to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good of the House of Valois-Burgundy, who paid her off in 1444; the dukes of Burgundy had acquired a number of other possessions in the Low Countries, including Flanders, Hainaut, Zeeland and Namur. The male line of the dukes of Burgundy died out in 1477 when Philip's son Charles the Bold died at the Battle of Nancy, leaving Mary of Burgundy, his only child, as his heiress.
After his death, Mary married Archduke Maximilian I of the House of Habsburg, who became Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian Netherlands came under the rule of the House of Habsburg, beginning the period of the Habsburg Netherlands (1