South Africa at the 2000 Summer Olympics
South Africa competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. The South African Airways had one of their Boeing 747-300s specially painted in rainbow colours to transport the South African Olympic team to Sydney; the aircraft was fondly dubbed the Ndizani. South Africa returned two of the archers. Again, Lewis had the nation's only victory. Women Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road eventsField events South Africa's first appearance in the Olympic baseball tournament resulted in a last-place finish; the baseball team finished the preliminary round with a 1-6 record, having lost by 10 runs or more four times. The only team that South Africa defeated was the Netherlands. Men Team Roster Men MenWomen Team Roster Advanced to medal round Team Roster One female pentathlete represented South Africa in 2000. Women MenOpen MenWomen South Africa has qualified a single taekwondo jin
Alwin de Prins
Alwin de Prins is a former competitive swimmer who represented Luxembourg. Born in Dendermonde, Belgium, he first represented Luxembourg in 1995 at the European Championships in Vienna, he swam in the 50 metre, 100 metre and 200 metre breaststroke and represented Luxembourg at the Sydney Olympics in 2000, the Athens Olympics in 2004 and the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. His trainers were Ingolf Bender. De Prins is a member of the Board of Directors and the Technical Commission of the Luxembourg Swimming Federation as well as member of the Athletic Commission of the Luxembourg National Olympic Committee, he is Secretary-General of the Luxembourg Association of Olympians. In September 2008 he announced his retirement from competitive swimming on his blog. Alwin de Prins website
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Luxembourg at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Luxembourg competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The Luxembourgish Olympic and Sporting Committee sent a delegation of nine athletes to the event—five men and four women—who competed in 7 sports. Luxembourg's delegation consisted of the Schleck brothers, who were meant to participate in road cycling. However, they both had to withdraw from the event after a failed drugs test. Five athletes had competed in the Olympic Games for Luxembourg, including swimmers Laurent Carnol and Raphaël Stacchiotti in 2008. Ni Xialian competed at her third Olympics. Luxembourg's delegation failed to win an Olympic medal in London. Judoka Marie Müller, who became Luxembourg's flag bearer at the opening ceremony, was unable to obtain the nation's first Olympic medal in 60 years, after losing out to Italy's Rosalba Forciniti during the bronze medal match. Five months before the 2012 Summer Olympics began, the Luxembourgish Olympic and Sporting Committee was struck by the resignation of Deputy Head of Delegation and Chairman of the Technical Office Fernand Guth, after a disagreement with Head of Delegation Heinz Thews.
A few days President of the COSL Marc Theisen announced his resignation from his position after his law firm was threatened with prosecution by Luxembourg tax authorities. The Luxembourg delegation consisted of nine athletes competing in seven different sports, with Heinz Thews serving as Head of Delegation. For the first time, the nation did not compete in the triathlon, unlike in 2008, Luxembourg did not send athletes to the sailing or gymnastics. Luxembourg was not fencing, unlike in 2004 and 1996, respectively. André Hoffmann was elected as President of the COSL to replace Marc Theisen. Hoffmann did not speak of a medal target, but said that a medal would be a bonus Luxembourg would not refuse. Despite the nation not winning a medal since 1952 with Josy Barthel, who achieved gold in the men's 1500 metres. Eight of the nine Luxembourg athletes stayed in the Olympic Village, they shared four apartments in Block E, which hosted the German delegation. Only tennis player Gilles Müller chose to stay elsewhere — he chose a hotel near the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the site of the tennis events.
Jeff Henckels, aged 27, was the only representative of archery for Luxembourg in the 2012 Summer Olympics, after competing in the 2004 Games, where he finished in 56th overall position. The Olympic Games involve 64 athletes in each event; the top archers qualified by participating in the 2011 World Archery Championships, achieving a high score. The places in the Olympic Games, except three of them which are invitations from a tripartie commission composed of the International Olympic Committee, the Association of National Olympic Committees, the World Archery Federation, are distributed according to the results. By reaching the quarterfinals of the 2011 World Champtionships, Henckels qualified for the 2012 London Olympics. On 27 July, Henckels achieved a score of 654 in the preliminary round, placing him in forty-ninth position. In the following round, he was against Dutch archer Rick van der Ven. Van der Ven won the first set, tied with Henckels in the set, won the third, tied in the last set, leaving a score of Henckels 2 — 6 Van der Ven.
Laurent Didier was 28 at the time of the Olympics, the 2012 Games were his first time at the Olympics. After becoming professional in 2006, he became a member of the 2012 Trek Factory Racing team, he has participated in several editions of the UCI Road World Championships, finished in 98th position in 2010. He achieved gold in the 2012 Luxembourgish National Road Race Championships. Christine Majerus, aged 25 made her Olympics debut in 2012. Since the introduction of women's cycling at the 1984 Summer Olympics, she was the first female to participate in the sport from Luxembourg, she won the female Luxembourgish National Road Race Championships in 2010, 2011, 2012. Road cycling places in the Olympics are allocating according to the performance of National Olympic Committees, not just athletes. For male racers, quotas are allocated based on the nation's ranking in the 2011 Road World Championships — the top ten countries received five quotas, the following five received four; the World Championship ranking was calculated by adding up the points if the top five riders per country.
However, if a country achieved its ranking with a low number of athletes, the number of athletes participating in the Olympics cannot go above that. Luxembourg achieved ninth place in the 2011 UCI World Tour, but only qualified two men for the road cycling, based on the points of brothers Andy and Fränk Schleck; the Schleck brothers were planned to represent the country, but Andy withdrew after an injury, was replaced by Laurent. Fränk was unable to participate after testing positive for a substance during a diuretic urine test for drugs in the Tour de France, was not replaced. For the female road cycling, the fifteen highest-ranking nations in the 2012 UCI World Tour qualified an athlete. Christine Majerus was qualified in June 2012; the 2012 men's road race was over a distance of 250 km. Didier took 5 hours, 46 minutes, 37 seconds to complete the race, finished in 64th position; the women's road race took place the following day, it was planned for Majerus to finish in the top twenty. The race was over 140 km, Majerus finished after 3 hours, 35 minutes, 56 seconds, in twenty-first position.
Luxembourg's delegation for the judo event consisted of Marie Muller, who participated in the 2008 Olympic Games. She was elected as the Luxembourg Sportswoman of the Year in 2008 and 2010. There are 14 categorie
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Iva Majoli Marić is a former professional tennis player from Croatia. She upset Martina Hingis to win the women's singles title at the French Open in 1997. Majoli won seven other singles titles and one doubles title during her career, she reached a career-high singles ranking of world No. 4 in February 1996. Majoli was born in Zagreb, SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia and turned professional in 1991 at the age of 14. At age 19, Majoli won the 1997 French Open singles title, defeating Sandra Kleinová, Alexandra Fusai, Ann Grossman, Lindsay Davenport, Ruxandra Dragomir and Amanda Coetzer before defeating Martina Hingis in straight sets 6–4, 6–2. Most had expected Hingis, 16 years old. Majoli, played aggressively from the baseline and ended Hingis's 37-match winning streak and handed Hingis her first sound defeat in a final of a Grand Slam, her adept ground-strokes kept Hingis moving, therefore Hingis was not allowed to control the rallies. Majoli played her best tennis as a teenager, reaching her career high ranking of World No. 4 in 1996.
After a quarterfinal appearance at the 1998 French Open, she failed to reach the fourth round of any subsequent Grand Slam singles tournament. Her game declined, with her ranking plummeting to World No. 131 in 2003. In the final years of her tennis career, Majoli suffered from a series of injuries – most notably a shoulder injury – and struggled to play consistently, her jet-setting lifestyle, well documented by the press, may have contributed. In 2002, ranked World No. 58, defeated Patty Schnyder, ranked World No. 30, in the final of the Family Circle Cup in Charleston, South Carolina. The victory increased Majoli's ranking to World No. 33. She reached another final shortly thereafter, prompting some to believe that she was climbing back to the top of the game. This, was wishful thinking, as Majoli's ranking plummeted further. On June 12, 2004, Majoli announced her retirement from the game. In 2006, she announced that she was pregnant with her first child, she married a local businessman, Stipe Marić, on 9 September 2006, with Jennifer Capriati and Mary Pierce attending the wedding.
She gave birth to her daughter Mia on 31 October 2006. In 2007, Majoli participated in the second season of the Croatian version of Dancing with the Stars, her partner was Marko Herceg. She was eliminated in the fourth episode. In 2012, she was selected to be the non-playing captain of the Croatian Fed Cup team. Majoli made a comeback in professional tennis at the 2015 Kremlin Cup, where she received a wildcard with Anastasia Bukhanko in doubles. Iva Majoli at the Women's Tennis Association Iva Majoli at the International Tennis Federation Iva Majoli at the Fed Cup Majoli announces retirement More about her French Open Win
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll