Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide
Replicant (operating system)
Replicant is a free operating system based on the Android mobile platform that aims to replace all proprietary Android components with free-software counterparts. It is available for several smartphones and tablet computers, it is written in the same programming languages as Android, while the modifications are in the C language, as the changes are to the lower-level parts of the OS, such as the Linux kernel and drivers that use it. The name Replicant is drawn from the fictional replicant androids in the Blade Runner movie. Replicant is supported by the Free Software Foundation; the Replicant project started in mid-2010 with an effort to consolidate various initiatives attempting to produce a free-as-in-freedom Android derivative for the HTC Dream device. The original team consisted of Bradley M. Kuhn, Aaron Williamson, Graziano Sorbaioli and Denis ‘GNUtoo’ Carikli; the project led to the writing of replacement code for the non-free parts that were required to make HTC Dream functional. The first component to be replaced permitted audio to work without a proprietary library.
Replicant provided its own FOSS application repository, replaced by F-Droid. The Radio Interface Layer, that handles communication with the modem, was replaced by free code, thus making the telephony part usable. A library handling GPS was adapted from free code, written for another phone and permitted HTC Dream to have GPS working with Replicant. Early versions of Replicant were based on Android Open Source Project code, while versions 2.2 and used CyanogenMod as their base, in order to make supporting more devices easier. In a blog post on February 1, 2017, the Replicant project said, that the future versions of Replicant will be based on LineageOS, as the CyanogenMod project was discontinued; as development continued, many members of the original Replicant team retired from the project, making Denis "GNUtoo" Carikli the only remaining member from the original team still working on the project. In April 2011, Paul Kocialkowski decided to get involved with the project, became the main Replicant developer, after porting it to the Nexus S and Galaxy S devices.
In 2014, Replicant was criticized for lagging behind. "While CyanogenMod is up to 4.4.4, Replicant is still stuck on Android 4.2. CM runs on just about everything, but Replicant is only supported by a handful of devices ranging from two to four years old. Plus, while Replicant aims to replace the proprietary drivers, it doesn't have a complete stack of drivers for any device." When the smartphone operating systems efforts of others, like Mozilla, failed to gain traction, Replicant continued. Replicant is sponsored and supported by the Free Software Foundation, which hosts Replicant's source code; the following table lists the major releases of Replicant: In March 2014, Replicant developers found and closed a vulnerability present in a wide range of Samsung Galaxy products that allowed the baseband processor to read and write the device's storage, sometimes with normal user privileges and sometimes as the root user depending on device model. Replicant's lead developer Paul Kocialkowski claimed it was a backdoor, but this was contested by Dan Rosenberg, a senior security researcher at Azimuth Security, who said there was "virtually no evidence for the ability to remotely execute this functionality".
There is some evidence of similar exploits of Apple hardware that did not involve operating system software, the "methods detailed take direct advantage of Apple’s “firmware” or permanent software programmed onto the device by the manufacturer." The founder of Ubuntu expressed similar concerns. On January 3, 2013, the project released Replicant 4.0 SDK as a libre replacement to Android SDK. The Replicant SDK was released in response to Google updating the license for add-ons and binaries under a proprietary agreement. Replicant's SDK was discontinued on April 2017 in favour of the free SDK packaged by Debian. Scope of the Replicant project has been expanded to include support for new devices, starting with the Nexus One, Nexus S and Galaxy S; as of January 2014, the following devices are supported, with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth requiring proprietary firmware in order to work: Additional target devices are evaluated, based on the suitability of their hardware platforms and required device drivers.
In November 2013, it was announced that Replicant could work on a Fairphone device and that the bootloaders may be free software. The Fairphone team seemed "definitely interested" in helping to get Replicant ported to the device. In December 2014, Fairphone admitted that it had failed to convince chipset vendor MediaTek to open up the source code for first-generation Fairphones. Based on either the unsuitability of their hardware platforms or the lack of available free software drivers, porting Replicant to the devices listed below has been considered and rejected. Replicant lists their minimal requirements as: The device must be supported by LineageOS/CyanogenMod or via 3rd party repos There must be a way to flash images using a free program The kernel must not be signed: the bootloader must not check the kernel signature The kernel sources must have been released The network type must be GSM, no CDMA phone can be supported for now Official website
AntiX is a Linux distribution built directly on Debian Stable. It is comparatively lightweight and suitable for older computers, while providing cutting edge kernel and applications, as well as updates and additions via the apt-get package system and Debian-compatible repositories. Preferred: 256 MB of RAM and 1 GB of hard drive space. Minimum: 128 MB of RAM and 1 GB of hard drive space. Installation: 2.7 GB of hard drive space. Besides the standard LIVE release, other versions of antiX are available, allowing installations with lower amounts of RAM, hard drive space, overall hardware limitations. AntiX is available for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, comes in 3 versions: Full, which installs a full range of applications Base, which allows the user to choose their own application suite. Core-libre, which enables the user to have total control over the installThese three versions were joined by antiX MX in 2014, developed in cooperation with the MEPIS Community, it uses Xfce as the default desktop environment, is based directly on Debian Stable, is stable and gives solid performance from a medium-sized footprint.
As of November 2016, MX Linux is now listed as a separate distro on DistroWatch. AntiX is a Linux distribution based on MEPIS, which itself is based on the Debian stable distribution, it replaced the MEPIS KDE desktop environment with the Fluxbox and IceWM window managers, making it suitable for older, less powerful x86-based systems. Unlike Debian, antiX is "proudly systemd-free". Systemd does not support old hardware well due to its virtualization-based development. Lightweight Linux distribution Official website antiX on OpenSourceFeed gallery
Astra Linux is a Russian Linux-based computer operating system developed to meet the needs of the Russian army, other armed forces and intelligence agencies. It provides data protection up to the level of "top secret" in Russian classified information grade, it has been certified by Russian Defense Ministry, Federal Service for Technical and Export Control and Federal Security Service. The creator of the OS is the Scientific/Manufacturing Enterprise Rusbitech, applying solutions according to Russian Government decree №2299-р of 17/10/2010 that orders federal authorities and budget institutions to implement Free Software usage; the OS releases are named after Hero Cities in Russia and CIS. There is one release for "general purpose" code named "Oryol" aimed at "achieving small and mid-business goals". Other releases are marked "special purpose" — the "Smolensk" for x86-64 PCs, "Tula" for networking hardware, "Novorossiysk" for ARM mobile devices and "Murmansk" for IBM System Z mainframes. Rusbitech manufactures a "soft/hardware trusted boot control module" MAKSIM-M1 with PCI bus.
It offers some other raised digital security features. The module, besides Astra Linux supports OSes with Linux kernel 2.6.x and 3.x.x, as well as several Microsoft Windows OSes. It is declared the Astra Linux licenses correspond with Russian and international laws and "don't contradict with the spirit and demands of GPL license"; the system uses.deb packages. Astra Linux is considered a recognized Debian derivetive, Rusbitech has partnership relations with The Linux Foundation and The Document Foundation; the Special Edition version is used in many Russian state-related organizations. It is used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control. There are talks to deploy mass usage of Astra Linux in numerous state institutions of the Republic of Crimea — legitimate usage of other popular OSes is questionable because of international sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis. There are plans on cooperation of Rusbitech and Huawei. In January 2018, it was announced that Astra Linux was going to be deployed to all Russian Army computers, Microsoft Windows will be dropped.
In February 2018 Rusbitech announced it has ported Astra Linux to Russian-made Elbrus microprocessors. In February 2019 Astra Linux was announced to be implemented at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in China
SCO, The SCO Group, The TSG Group, Caldera Systems, Caldera International are the various names of an American software company that became known for acquiring the Santa Cruz Operation's Server Software and Services divisions, UnixWare and OpenServer technologies, under CEO Darl McBride, pursuing a series of legal battles known as the SCO-Linux controversies. The company was part of the Canopy Group, but became independent in March 2005, after the settlement of a lawsuit between the Noorda family and a chairman of the group, Ralph Yarro former CEO of the Canopy Group; as part of the settlement, Canopy transferred all of its shares to Yarro. On, Caldera International changed its name to "SCO" and to "The SCO Group" to reflect that change in focus. In January 2004, their website, www.sco.com, was attacked by the Mydoom computer virus, which took down the website for 2 weeks using a DDoS attack. In September 2007, SCO filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In April 2011, UnXis, Inc. bought The SCO Group, Inc. operating assets and intellectual property rights after having been approved by the bankruptcy court in Delaware.
The SCO Group, Inc. renamed itself TSG Group, Inc. In August 2012, TSG Group, Inc. filed to convert from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection to Chapter 7 stating "There is no reasonable chance of rehabilitation". On June 14, 2013, Judge David Nuffer ruled on SCO v. IBM motions, granting SCO's motion for reconsideration and reopening the case. Santa Cruz Operation was a software company based in Santa Cruz, California, best known for selling three UNIX variants for Intel x86 processors: Xenix, SCO UNIX, UnixWare. In his book The Art of Unix Programming, Eric Raymond calls SCO the "first UNIX company". Prior to this UNIX vendors were either computer hardware manufacturers or telephone companies. In 1993, SCO acquired two smaller companies and developed the product line, named Tarantella. In 2001, SCO sold its rights to the related divisions to Caldera Systems. After selling its UNIX interests, SCO retained only its Tarantella product line, therefore changed its name to Tarantella, Inc. Caldera, Inc. based in Utah, was founded in 1994 by Bryan Sparks and Ransom Love, receiving start-up funding from Ray Noorda's Canopy Group.
Its main product was Caldera Network Desktop, a Linux distribution targeted at business customers and containing some proprietary additions. Caldera, Inc. purchased the German LST Software GmbH and its LST Power Linux distribution, made the basis of their following product Caldera OpenLinux. Caldera, Inc. inherited a lawsuit against Microsoft when it purchased DR-DOS from Novell in 1996. This lawsuit related to Caldera's claims of monopolization, illegal tying, exclusive dealing, tortious interference by Microsoft. In August 1998, the original Caldera, Inc. company split into two daughter companies named Caldera Systems, Inc. and Caldera Thin Clients, Inc. Caldera Systems took over the Linux business, while Caldera Thin Clients took over the DOS and embedded business; the shell company Caldera, Inc. remained responsible for the lawsuit only. Microsoft reached a settlement in January 2000 with Caldera, Inc. after which Caldera, Inc. stopped its operation. The payments involved in this settlement were revealed inadvertently to be $280 million during the Novell v. Microsoft antitrust lawsuit as documented on Groklaw.
Caldera Systems reincorporated in Delaware on March 2, 2000 and completed an IPO of its common stock. By way of a temporary Caldera Holdings, Inc. the company reorganized in August 2000. On 2 August 2000, Santa Cruz Operation announced that it would sell its Server Software and Services Divisions, as well as OpenServer and UnixWare, to Caldera Systems, Inc. proprietary operating systems for PCs that would be expected to compete directly with Linux. In March 2001, Caldera Systems became Caldera International, Inc. and the SCO purchase was completed in May 2001. In 2002, Caldera International joined with SuSE Linux and Conectiva to form United Linux in an attempt to standardize Linux distributions; that year, CEO Ransom Love left the company and was replaced by Darl McBride, the company changed its name to The SCO Group in August 2002. Caldera International's name-change to The SCO Group created some confusion between The SCO Group and Tarantella; the company described here is The SCO Group. Although referred to as "SCO" up to 2001, the parent company is sometimes referred to as "old SCO" or "Santa Cruz" to distinguish it from "The SCO Group" to whom the U.
S. trademark "SCO" was transferred. In or around 2003, SCO began to claim that Linux "contained SCO's UNIX System V source code and that Linux was an unauthorized derivative of UNIX". SCO filed suit against IBM for an unprecedented US$1 billion and demanded that Linux end-users pay license fees. Microsoft bolstered SCO's financial situation in 2003 by purchasing a license to UNIX technology and by helping to arrange funding. A new division called; these claims provoked outrage among Linux users, who denied that Linux had copied SCO's intellectual property. Linux distributor Red Hat filed suit against SCO in Delaware. Novell, from whom SCO claimed to have acquired its UNIX IP, announced that it had not sold the copyrights to SCO and that it retained them. In response, SCO sued Novell for slander of title in home state of both SCO and Novell. Subsequently, the SCO Group sued two former customers. In SCO v. AutoZone, SCO claimed that AutoZone violated SCO copyrights by usi
Android-x86 is an unofficial initiative to port Google's Android mobile operating system to run on devices powered by AMD and Intel x86 processors, rather than RISC-based ARM chips. The project began as a series of patches to the Android source code to enable Android to run on various netbooks and ultra-mobile PC. Chih-Wei Huang and Yi Sun originated the project in 2009. Yi Sun quit due to personal affairs. Chih-Wei Huang is the current project maintainer, that has collaborated with Jide technology, prior to joining that company; the OS is based on the Android Open Source Project with some improvements. Some components are developed by the project. For instance, some low-level components are replaced to better suit the platform, such as the kernel and HALs; the OS enables OpenGL ES hardware acceleration via Mesa if supported GPUs are detected, including Intel GMA, AMD's Radeon, Nvidia's chipsets, VMware and QEMU. Without supported GPUs the OS can run in non-accelerated mode via software rendering.
Since 7.1 the software renderer was implemented via the SwiftShader project. Like a normal Linux distribution, the project releases prebuilt ISO images which can run under live mode or install to the harddisks of the target devices. Since the 4.4-r2 the project releases efi_img which could be used to create a live USB, bootable from UEFI devices. Since 4.4-r4, the UEFI support was united into the ISO images and efi_img was marked as deprecated. Except AOSP, the following incomplete list of components are developed from scratch or derived from other open source projects to form the entire Android-x86 codebase: Kernel Installer Drm_gralloc and gbm_gralloc Mesa SwiftShader Audio Camera GPS Lights Ril SensorsMore and more components may be added to the updated version. A related project, Android-IA has been produced by Intel; the Android-IA project states that its intention is to drive Android support and innovation on Intel Architecture in addition to providing a venue for collaboration. Android-IA re-used the drm_gralloc graphics HAL module from Android-x86 in order to support Intel HD Graphics hardware.
The Android-IA project provides a FAQ with more detailed information. Jide Technologies announced Remix OS, a closed-source derivative of Android-x86 designed for use on conventional PCs, is partnering with Chih-Wei Huang, the main developer of Android-x86. Remix OS's first beta was made available on March 1, 2016; the project was discontinued in July 17, 2017. Linux Chromium OS Ubuntu BlueStacks DuOS-M List of operating systems Official website
Debian is a Unix-like operating system consisting of free software. Ian Murdock started the Debian Project on August 16, 1993. Debian 0.01 was released on September 15, 1993, the first stable version, 1.1, was released on June 17, 1996. The Debian stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and network servers, is used as the basis for many other distributions. Debian is one of the earliest operating systems based on the Linux kernel; the project's work is carried out over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze. Debian has been developed and distributed according to the principles of the GNU Project, this drew the support of the Free Software Foundation which sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995; when the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.
Debian has access to online repositories that contain over 51,000 packages Debian contains only free software, but non-free software can be downloaded and installed from the Debian repositories. Debian includes popular free programs such as LibreOffice, Firefox web browser, Evolution mail, K3b disc burner, VLC media player, GIMP image editor, Evince document viewer. Debian is a popular choice for servers, for example as the operating system component of a LAMP stack. Debian supports Linux having offered kFreeBSD for version 7 but not 8, GNU Hurd unofficially. GNU/kFreeBSD was released as a technology preview for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, lacked the amount of software available in Debian's Linux distribution. Official support for kFreeBSD was removed for version 8, which did not provide a kFreeBSD-based distribution. Several flavors of the Linux kernel exist for each port. For example, the i386 port has flavors for IA-32 PCs supporting Physical Address Extension and real-time computing, for older PCs, for x86-64 PCs.
The Linux kernel does not contain firmware without sources, although such firmware is available in non-free packages and alternative installation media. Debian offers CD images built for Xfce, the default desktop on CD, DVD images for GNOME, KDE and others. MATE is supported, while Cinnamon support was added with Debian 8.0 Jessie. Less common window managers such as Enlightenment, Fluxbox, IceWM, Window Maker and others are available; the default desktop environment of version 7.0 Wheezy was temporarily switched to Xfce, because GNOME 3 did not fit on the first CD of the set. The default for the version 8.0 Jessie was changed again to Xfce in November 2013, back to GNOME in September 2014. Several parts of Debian are translated into languages other than American English, including package descriptions, configuration messages and the website; the level of software localization depends on the language, ranging from the supported German and French to the hardly translated Creek and Samoan. The installer is available in 73 languages.
Debian offers CD images for installation that can be downloaded using BitTorrent or jigdo. Physical disks can be bought from retailers; the full sets are made up of several discs, but only the first disc is required for installation, as the installer can retrieve software not contained in the first disc image from online repositories. Debian offers different network installation methods. A minimal install of Debian is available via the netinst CD, whereby Debian is installed with just a base and added software can be downloaded from the Internet. Another option is to boot the installer from the network. Installation images can be used to create a bootable USB drive; the default bootstrap loader is GNU GRUB version 2, though the package name is grub, while version 1 was renamed to grub-legacy. This conflicts with e.g. Fedora, where grub version 2 is named grub2; the default desktop may be chosen from the DVD boot menu among GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce and LXDE, from special disc 1 CDs. Debian releases live install images for CDs, DVDs and USB thumb drives, for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, with a choice of desktop environments.
These Debian Live images allow users to boot from removable media and run Debian without affecting the contents of their computer. A full install of Debian to the computer's hard drive can be initiated from the live image environment. Personalized images can be built with the live-build tool for discs, USB drives and for network booting purposes. Debian was first announced on August 16, 1993, by Ian Murdock, who called the system "the Debian Linux Release"; the word "Debian" was formed as a portmanteau of the first name of his then-girlfriend Debra Lynn and his own first name. Before Debian's release, the Softlanding Linux System had been a popular Linux distribution and the basis for Slackware; the perceived poor maintenance and prevalence of bugs in SLS motivated Murdock to launch a new distribution. Debian 0.01, released on September 15, 1993, was the first of several internal releases. Version 0.90 was the first public release, providing support through mailing lists hosted at Pixar. The release included the Debian Linux Manifesto, outlining Murdock's view for the new operating system.
In it he called for the creation of a distribution to be maintained in the spirit of Linux and GNU. The Debian project released the 0.9x versions in 1994 and 1995. During this time it was sponso