Thomas Alan Waits is an American singer, musician and actor. Waits' music is characterized by his distinctive deep, gravelly singing voice and lyrics focusing on the underside of U. S. society. During the 1970s, he worked in jazz, but since the 1980s his music has reflected greater influence from blues and experimental genres. Waits was raised in a middle-class family in California. Inspired by the work of Bob Dylan and the Beat Generation, as a teenager he began singing on the San Diego folk music scene. Relocating to Los Angeles in 1972, he worked as a songwriter before signing a recording contract with Asylum Records, his first albums, the jazz-oriented Closing Time and The Heart of Saturday Night, reflected his lyrical interest in nightlife and criminality. Touring the U. S. Europe, Japan, he attracted greater critical recognition and commercial success with Small Change, which he followed with Blue Valentine and Heartattack and Vine, he produced the soundtrack for Francis Ford Coppola's 1981 film One from the Heart and subsequently made cameo appearances in several Coppola films.
During the 1970s, he had relationships with two prominent performers, Bette Midler and Rickie Lee Jones. In the early 1980s, Waits married Kathleen Brennan, broke from his manager and record label, moved to New York City. Under Brennan's encouragement, he pursued a new, more experimental and eclectic musical aesthetic influenced by the work of Harry Partch and Captain Beefheart; this was reflected in a series of albums released by Island Records: Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs, Franks Wild Years. He continued taking a leading role in Jim Jarmusch's Down by Law. In the 1990s, his albums Bone Machine, The Black Rider, Mule Variations earned him increasing critical acclaim and various Grammy Awards. In the late 1990s, he switched to the record label Anti-, who released Blood Money, Real Gone, Bad as Me. Waits' albums have met with mixed commercial success in the U. S. although they have achieved gold status in other countries. He has a cult following and has influenced many singer-songwriters, despite having little radio or music video support.
In 2011, Waits was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. He was included among the 2010 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Singers, as well as the 2015 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. Thomas Alan Waits was born on December 1949, in Pomona, California, he has one younger sister. His father, Jesse Frank Waits, was a Texas native of Scots-Irish descent, while his mother, Alma Fern, hailed from Oregon and had Norwegian ancestry. Alma was regular church-goer. Jesse was an alcoholic; the family lived at 318 North Pickering Avenue in California. He described having a "very middle-class" upbringing and "a pretty normal childhood", he attended Jordan Elementary School. There, he learned to play the guitar, while his father taught him to play the ukulele. During the summers, he visited maternal relatives in Marysville, he recalled that it was an uncle's raspy, gravelly voice that inspired the manner in which he sang. In 1959, his parents separated and his father moved away from the family home, a traumatic experience for 10-year-old Waits.
Alma relocated to Chula Vista, a middle-class suburb of San Diego. Jesse visited the family there. In Chula Vista, Waits attended O'Farrell Community School, where he fronted a school band, the Systems describing the group as "white kids trying to get that Motown sound", he developed a love of R&B and soul singers like Ray Charles, James Brown, Wilson Pickett, as well as country music and Roy Orbison. Bob Dylan became a strong influence, with Waits placing transcriptions of Dylan's lyrics on his bedroom walls, he was an avid watcher of The Twilight Zone. By the time he was studying at Hilltop High School, he related, he was "kind of an amateur juvenile delinquent", interested in "malicious mischief" and breaking the law, he described himself as a "rebel against the rebels", for he eschewed the hippie subculture, growing in popularity and was instead inspired by the 1950s Beat generation, having a love of Beat writers like Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs. In 1968, at age 18, he dropped out of high school.
Waits worked at Napoleone's pizza restaurant in National City and both there and at a local diner developed an interest in the lives of the patrons, writing down phrases and snippets of dialogue he overheard. He has claimed that he worked in the forestry service as a fireman for three years. For a time, he served with the Coast Guard, he enrolled at Chula Vista's Southwestern Community College to study photography, for a time considering a career in the field. He continued taking piano lessons, he began frequenting folk music venues around San Diego, becoming drawn into the city's folk music scene. In 1969, he gained employment as an occasional doorman for the Heritage coffeehouse, which held regular performances from folk musicians, he began to sing at the Heritage. In time he performed his own material as well parodies of country songs or bittersweet ballads influenced by
Barbara Buchholz was a Berlin-based German musician and composer. She was one of the leading theremin players of the world. Buchholz was born in Duisburg, she studied flute, bass guitar and singing at the Bielefeld University. She earned her first success as a bass player in the German woman jazz band Reichlich Weiblich. Since the early 1980s she worked on various interdisciplinary projects both as performer and composer, she produced e.g. Tap It Deep - „midified“ Steppdance and music, Human Interactivity and Theremin: Berlin-Moscow. At the end of the 1990s Buchholz met Lydia Kavina, the grandniece of Léon Theremin. In jazz and contemporary music she develops new playing techniques and experiments with various sound possibilities for the theremin. Together with Kavina, in 2005 Buchholz founded the Platform Touch! Don't Touch! for theremin. New compositions for the platform were worked out amongst others by Moritz Eggert, Michael Hirsch, Caspar Johannes Walter, Juliane Klein, Peter Gahn, Gordon Kampe and Sidney Corbett.
Buchholz performed in a trio with Norwegian trumpeter Arve Henriksen and live electronics performer Jan Bang, toured with Jazz Bigband Graz in the framework of ELECTRIC POETRY & Lo-Fi Cookies and conducted solo performances as well. She played the theremin in various contemporary works, like The Little Mermaid, a ballet by John Neumeier, music by Lera Auerbach, in the operas Linkerhand by Moritz Eggert and Bestmann-Opera by Alex Nowitz. In 2009 Buchholz participated in the talent show - the German version of Got Talent - and succeeded in presenting the theremin to a wide audience. Barbara Buchholz died on April 2012 in Berlin after a long battle with cancer. Touch! Don't Touch!, together with Lydia Kavina & Kammerensemble Neue Musik Berlin Theremin: Russia with Love Sonata Mix Dwarf Cosmos, together with Susanna Moonstruck Labelsite of Barbara Buchholz
Alice (Tom Waits album)
Alice is the 14th album by Tom Waits, released in 2002 on Epitaph Records. The album contains the majority of songs written for the play Alice; the adaptation was directed by Robert Wilson, whom Waits had worked with on the play The Black Rider, set up at the Thalia Theatre in Hamburg in 1992. The play has since been performed in various theatres around the world; the album was co-released with Blood Money, an album containing songs from Wilson and Waits' 2000 musical Woyzeck. Alice was ranked #2 in Metacritic's Top 30 albums of 2002; the songs had been released as a bootleg in several different versions called The Alice Demos many years before its official release. The source is believed to be studio recordings taken when Waits' car was broken into in late 1992; the song "Poor Edward" is about Edward Mordake. In 2006 it was awarded a diamond certification from the Independent Music Companies Association, which indicated sales of at least 250,000 copies throughout Europe; as of 2003, Alice has sold 140,000 copies in the U.
S. according to Nielsen Soundscan. All tracks written by Kathleen Brennan. "Alice" – 4:28 Tom Waits – Vocal, piano Eric Perney – Bass Colin Stetson – Saxophone Gino Robair – Drums Ara Anderson – Muted trumpet "Everything You Can Think" – 3:10 Tom Waits – Vocal, chamberlin vibes, pod Larry Taylor – Bass, electric guitar Matt Brubeck – Cello Bent Clausen – Swiss hand bells Bebe Risenfors – Stroh violin Nik Phelps – horn, trumpet "Flower's Grave" – 3:28 Tom Waits – Vocal, pump organ Larry Taylor – Bass Matt Brubeck – Cello Dawn Harms – Violin Bebe Risenfors – Alto viola, clarinet "No One Knows I'm Gone" – 1:42 Tom Waits – Vocal, pump organ Larry Taylor – Bass Matt Brubeck – Cello Dawn Harms – Stroh violin, violin Bebe Risenfors – Alto viola "Kommienezuspadt" – 3:10 Tom Waits – Vocals, stomp Larry Taylor – Bass, acoustic guitar, percussion Andrew Borger – Oil drums, frame drum, percussion Matt Brubeck – Cello Bebe Risenfors – Baby bass, bass clarinet, percussion Colin Stetson – Baritone saxophone Tim Allen – Scraper "Poor Edward" – 3:42 Tom Waits – Vocal, piano Larry Taylor – Bass Matt Brubeck – Cello Dawn Harms – Stroh violin Bebe Risenfors – Viola "Table Top Joe" – 4:14 Tom Waits – Vocal, pump organ Larry Taylor – Bass, acoustic guitar Stewart Copeland – Trap kit Bent Clausen – Piano Joe Gore – Electric guitar Bebe Risenfors – Baby bass "Lost in the Harbour" – 3:45 Tom Waits – Vocal, pump organ Larry Taylor – Bass Matt Brubeck – Cello Dawn Harms – Stroh violin Bebe Risenfors – Fiddle Carla Kihlstedt – Violin "We're All Mad Here" – 2:31 Tom Waits – Vocal, circular violin Matthew Sperry – Bass Gino Robair – Percussion Colin Stetson – Bass clarinet Carla Kihlstedt – Violin "Watch Her Disappear" – 2:33 Tom Waits – Vocal, pump organ Dawn Harms – Violin Matt Brubeck – Cello "Reeperbahn" – 4:02 Tom Waits – Vocal, chamberlin Matthew Sperry – Bass Gino Robair – Percussion Carla Kihlstedt – Violin Colin Stetson – Bass clarinet Ara Anderson – Baritone horn Myles Boisen – Banjo "I'm Still Here" – 1:49 Tom Waits – Vocal, piano Dawn Harms – Violin Matt Brubeck – Cello Colin Stetson – Clarinet "Fish & Bird" – 3:59 Tom Waits – Vocal, toy glockenspiel, pump organ Larry Taylor – Bass Matt Brubeck – Cello Bebe Risenfors – Clarinet Ara Anderson – Trumpet, baritone horn Dawn Harms – Stroh violin, violin "Barcarolle" – 3:59 Tom Waits – Vocal, chamberlin vibes, cymbals Matthew Sperry – Bass Matt Brubeck – Bass Colin Stetson – Saxophone Bent Clausen – Piano solo Dawn Harms – Violin "Fawn" – 1:43 Tom Waits – Piano Matthew Sperry – Bass Gino Robair – Marimba Colin Stetson – Bass clarinet Carla Kihlstedt – Violin
The Moscow Conservatory officially Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory is an educational music institution located in Moscow, Russia. It grants graduate diplomas in musical performance and musical research; the conservatory offers various degrees including Bachelor of Music Performance, Master of Music and PhD in research. It was co-founded in 1866 as the Moscow Imperial Conservatory by Nikolai Rubinstein and Prince Nikolai Troubetzkoy, it is the second oldest conservatory in Russia after the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was appointed professor of harmony at its opening. Since 1940 the conservatory bears his name. Prior to the October Revolution the choral faculty of the conservatory was second to the Moscow Synodal School and Moscow Synodal Choir, but in 1919 both were closed and merged into the choral faculty; some of the students now listed as being of the conservatory were in fact students of the Synodal School. The renovation of the hall was completed in 2011; the Moscow Conservatory.
Information Booklet. Second Edition. Moscow, 2001. ISBN 5-89598-111-9. Moscow Conservatoire. Moscow, 1994. ISBN 5-86419-006-3. Moscow Conservatory: Traditions of Music Education and Science 1866–2006. Moscow: "Moskovskaya Konservatoriya" Publishing House, 2006. Loomis, George, "Moscow's Great Hall Turns 100", International Herald Tribune Moscow Conservatory website Moscow Conservatory website
Ed Wood (film)
Ed Wood is a 1994 American biographical comedy-drama film directed and produced by Tim Burton and starring Johnny Depp as the eponymous cult filmmaker. The film concerns the period in Wood's life when he made his best-known films as well as his relationship with actor Bela Lugosi, played by Martin Landau. Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette, Jeffrey Jones, Lisa Marie, Bill Murray are among the supporting cast; the film was conceived by writers Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski when they were students at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Irritated at being thought of as writers for family films with their work on Problem Child and its sequel and Karaszewski struck a deal with Burton and Denise Di Novi to produce the Ed Wood biopic, Michael Lehmann as director. Due to scheduling conflicts with Airheads, Lehmann had to vacate the director's position, taken over by Burton. Ed Wood was in development at Columbia Pictures, but the studio put the film in "turnaround" over Burton's decision to shoot in black-and-white.
Ed Wood was taken to the Walt Disney Studios, which produced the film through its Touchstone Pictures division. The film was well-received, but was a disappointment at the box-office, returning only $5.9 million against an $18 million budget. It won two Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actor for Landau and Best Makeup for Rick Baker, Ve Neill and Yolanda Toussieng. In 1952, Ed Wood is struggling to enter the film industry. Upon hearing of an announcement in Variety magazine that producer George Weiss is trying to purchase Christine Jorgensen's life story, Wood wants to meet Weiss. Weiss explains that Variety's announcement was a news leak, it is impossible to purchase Jorgensen's rights; the producer decides to fictionalize the film, titled I Changed My Sex!. Wood tries to convince Weiss that he is perfect to direct the film, owing to the fact that he himself is a closeted transvestite and knows what it is like to live with a secret and worry what people might think, but is unsuccessful since Weiss wants a director with experience.
Wood meets the two become friends. Wood persuades Weiss to let him direct the film by convincing him that having a star in the film would sell tickets, they could sign Lugosi for a low price. Wood and Weiss argue over the film's title and subject matter: Weiss has the poster printed, which Wood changes to Glen or Glenda and writes the film about a transvestite rather than a sex change. Weiss allows Wood to shoot. Wood takes to film production with an unusual approach; the movie is released to commercial failure. Because of this, Wood is unsuccessful in getting a job at Weiss' Screen Classics or making a partnership with Warner Bros. executive Feldman, but his girlfriend, Dolores Fuller, tells him that he should try financing his next film independently. Wood is unsuccessful in finding money for Bride of the Atom, but is introduced to the psychic The Amazing Criswell who gives him advice on how to sell himself better. Wood meets Loretta King, whom he thinks has enough money to fund Bride of the Atom and ends up casting her as the lead instead of Fuller as planned.
Filming begins, but is halted when it is revealed that King is poor, Wood has no money to continue production. Wood convinces meat packing industry tycoon Don McCoy to take over funding the film, who agrees as long as the film stars his son Tony as the leading man and the film ends with an explosion; the filming finishes with the title being changed to Bride of the Monster, but Fuller breaks up with Wood after the wrap party because of his circle of misfit friends, his work, transvestism. Lugosi attempts to conduct a double suicide with Ed after the government cuts off his unemployment benefit, but is talked out of it. Lugosi checks himself into rehab, Wood meets Kathy O'Hara, visiting her father there, he reveals to her his transvestism, which she accepts. Wood shoots a film with Lugosi outside his home; when Wood and company attend the premiere for Bride of the Monster, an angry mob chases them out of the theater. Lugosi passes away. Wood convinces his landlord, a church leader named Reynolds, that funding Wood's script for Grave Robbers from Outer Space would result in a box-office success, generate enough money for Reynolds' dream project.
Dr. Tom Mason, O'Hara's chiropractor, is chosen to be Lugosi's stand-in for resembling Lugosi. Wood and the Baptists have conflicts over the title and content of the script which they want to have changed to Plan 9 from Outer Space, along with Ed's B movie directing style, his casting decisions and his transvestism. Wood leaves the set to go to the nearest bar, where he encounters Orson Welles. Filming for Plan 9 finishes with Ed taking action against his producers. After attending the premiere of Plan 9, Wood and O'Hara go to Las Vegas to get married. Johnny Depp as Ed Wood: Burton approached Depp and "within 10 minutes of hearing about the project, I was committed," the actor remembers. At the time, Depp was depressed about films and filmmaking. By accepting this part, it gave him a "chance to stretch out and have some fun", working with Martin Landau, "rejuvenated my love for acting". Depp was familiar with some of Wood's films through John Waters, who had shown him Plan 9 from Outer Space and Glen or Glenda.
To get a handle on how to portray Wood, Depp studied the performance of Jack Haley as the Tin Man in The Wizard of Oz, the acting of Mickey Rooney, Ronald Reagan and Casey Kasem. He watched seve
Existenz is a 1999 science fiction body horror film produced and directed by the Canadian filmmaker David Cronenberg. It stars Jude Law. EXistenZ was his last original screenplay until Cosmopolis. In the near-future, biotechnological virtual reality game consoles known as "game pods" have replaced electronic ones; the pods present "UmbyCords" that attach to "bio-ports", connectors surgically inserted into players' spines. Two game companies, Antenna Research and Cortical Systematics, compete against each other. In addition, the Realists fight both companies to prevent the "deforming" of reality. Antenna Research's Allegra Geller, a world renowned game designer, is demonstrating her latest virtual reality game, eXistenZ, to a focus group. A Realist named Noel Dichter shoots Allegra in the shoulder with an organic pistol he smuggled past security; as Dichter is gunned down by the security team, security guard Ted Pikul rushes to Geller and escorts her outside. Geller discovers. Pikul reluctantly agrees to have a bio-port installed in his spine so they can test the integrity of the game together.
Allegra takes him to a gas station run by a black-marketeer named Gas, who deliberately installs a faulty bio-port. He reveals his intention to kill Geller for the bounty on her head. Pikul kills Gas, the two escape to a former ski lodge used by Kiri Vinokur, Geller's mentor. Vinokur and his assistant give Pikul a new bio-port. Geller and Pikul enter the game, meet with D'Arcy Nader, a video game shop owner, who provides them with new "micro pods", they enter a deeper layer of virtual reality. They assume new identities as workers in a game pod factory. Another worker in the factory, Yevgeny Nourish, claims to be their Realist contact. At a Chinese restaurant near the factory, Nourish recommends. Pikul eats the unappetizing special, constructs a pistol out of the inedible parts. In jest, he threatens Geller shoots the Chinese waiter; when the pair return to the game store, Hugo Carlaw informs them that Nourish is a double agent for Cortical Systematics, the waiter Pikul murdered was the actual contact.
At the factory, they find a diseased pod. Geller connects it to her bio-port as part of a plan to infect the other pods and sabotage the factory; when Geller becomes ill, Pikul cuts the UmbyCord, but she begins to bleed to death. Nourish appears with a flamethrower and blasts the diseased pod, which bursts into deadly spores. Geller and Pikul awaken back at the ski lodge, where they discover Allegra’s game pod is diseased. Allegra surmises, she inserts a disinfecting device into Pikul's bioport. Unexpectedly, Carlaw reappears as a Realist resistance fighter and escorts Geller and Pikul outside to witness the death of eXistenZ. Before Carlaw can kill Geller, he is shot in the back by Vinokur, a double agent for Cortical Systematics, he informs Geller. In revenge, she kills Vinokur. Pikul reveals that he himself is a Realist sent to kill her. Geller tells Pikul she had known his intentions since he pointed the gun at her in the Chinese restaurant, she remotely detonates the disinfecting device in his bioport, killing him.
Pikul and Geller are on stage together with the other members of the cast, wearing electronic virtual reality devices. Nourish explains that the story was all part of a virtual reality game he designed called transCendenZ, he tells his assistant Merle that he feels uneasy, because the anti-game plot elements may have originated from the thoughts of one of the testers. Pikul and Geller approach Nourish and accuse him of distorting reality, before shooting him and Merle to death; as Pikul and Geller leave, they aim their guns at the person who played the Chinese waiter, who first pleads for his life asks if they are still in the game. Pikul and Geller stand together in silence, not answering; the film's plot came about after Cronenberg conducted an interview with Salman Rushdie for Shift magazine in 1995. At the time, Rushdie was in hiding due to a Fatwa being put on his life by Muslim extremists due to his controversial book The Satanic Verses. Rushdie's dilemma gave Cronenberg an idea of "a Fatwa against a virtual-reality game designer".
Existenz was pitched to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, but they did not green-light the film due to its complex structure. Christopher Priest wrote the tie-in novel to accompany the movie Existenz, the theme of which has much in common with some of Priest's own novels. In 1999, a graphic novel credited to David Cronenberg and Sean Scoffield was published; the film received positive reviews, with a 71% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes. The site's summary stated of the film: "Gooey, grotesque fun." Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film three stars in his review of the film. Noting its release after fellow science-fiction film The Matrix, he compared the two, stating that while both have special effects, he stated that Cronenberg's film was stranger along with having his best effects involve "gooey, indescribable organic things". Conversely, James Berardinelli gave the film a two star rating in his review, he cites the disjointed feel of the film, calling it a "missed opportunity" that suffers from being released near The Matrix and Open Your Eyes, which he states did similar things that were accomplished better in those films.
49th Berlin International Film Festival Won, Silver Bear for outstanding artistic contribution David Cronenberg Nominated, Golden Bear: David CronenbergAmsterdam Fantastic
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo