Lydian mode

The modern Lydian mode is a seven-tone musical scale formed from a rising pattern of pitches comprising three whole tones, a semitone, two more whole tones, a final semitone. Because of the importance of the major scale in modern music, the Lydian mode is described as the scale that begins on the fourth scale degree of the major scale, or alternatively, as the major scale with the fourth scale degree raised half a step; this sequence of pitches describes the scale underlying the fifth of the eight Gregorian modes, known as Mode V or the authentic mode on F, theoretically using B♮ but in practice more featuring B♭. The name Lydian refers to the ancient kingdom of Lydia in Anatolia. In Greek music theory, there was a Lydian scale or "octave species" extending from parhypate hypaton to trite diezeugmenon, equivalent in the diatonic genus to the medieval and modern Ionian mode. In the chromatic and enharmonic genera, the Lydian scale was equivalent to C D♭ E F G♭ A B C, C C E F F A B C where "" signifies raising the pitch by a quarter tone.

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, this mode was described in two ways. The first way is the diatonic octave species from F up to F an octave above, divided at C to produce two segments: The second is as a mode with a final on F and an ambitus extending to F an octave higher and in which the note C was regarded as having an important melodic function. Many theorists of the period observed that B♭ is used more than B♮ in compositions in Lydian mode; the Lydian scale can be described as a major scale with the fourth scale degree raised a semitone, making it an augmented fourth above the tonic, e.g. an F-major scale with a B♮ rather than B♭. This mode's augmented fourth and the Locrian mode's diminished fifth are the only modes to have a tritone above the tonic. In Lydian mode, the tonic and supertonic triads are all major; the subdominant is diminished. The triads built on the remaining three scale degrees are minor; the Paean and Prosodion to the God, familiarly known as the Second Delphic Hymn, composed in 128 BC by Athénaios Athenaíou is predominantly in the Lydian tonos, both diatonic and chromatic, with sections in Hypolydian.

The 12th-century "Hymn to St. Magnus" from the Orkney Islands, referencing Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, is in Gregorian mode or church mode V, extending from the E below to the octave above, with B♮'s throughout, in two-part harmony of parallel thirds; the Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite, missa est of Guillaume de Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame feature extensive use of F♮ and B♮, as well as F♯ and B♭. A rare, extended use of the Lydian mode in the Classical repertoire is Simon Sechter's 1822 Messe in der lydischen Tonart. A more famous example from around the same time is the third movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's String Quartet No. 15 in A minor, Op. 132, titled by the composer "Heiliger Dankgesang eines Genesenen an die Gottheit, in der lydischen Tonart". The alternating passages in F use the Lydian scale with sharp fourth scale degree exclusively. Charles-Valentin Alkan's Allegro barbaro is written in F Lydian, with no B♭'s present at all. Anton Bruckner employed the sharpened fourth of the Lydian scale in his motet Os justi more than Renaissance composers did when writing in this mode.

In the 20th century, composers began once again to exploit modal scales with some frequency. George Enescu, for example, includes Lydian-mode passages in the second and third movements of his 1906 Decet for Winds, Op. 14. An example from the middle of the century is the scherzo movement of Carlos Chávez's Symphony No. 3. The movement opens with a fugue subject, featuring wide leaps, in C Lydian with following entries in F and G Lydian. In Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization, George Russell developed a theory that became influential in the jazz world, inspiring the works of people such as Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman, Woody Shaw "Waltz #1" from the 1998 album XO by Elliott Smith. Passage beginning at the words "Much as I enjoy solitude" in the song "Possibly Maybe" by Björk. XTC's "the Argonauts" from their English Settlement album. Many Polish folksongs, including the mazurka, are in the Lydian mode. Lydian chord, a chord, related to the Lydian scale Lydian dominant scale Kalyani, the equivalent scale in Carnatic music Anon. n.d.

"Frequently Asked Questions about George Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization". Barbera, André. 1984. "Octave Species". The Journal of Musicology 3, no. 3: 229–41. JSTOR 763813. Doi:10.1525/jm.1984.3.3.03a00020 Barker, Andrew. 1984–89. Greek Musical Writings. 2 vols. Cambridge Readings in the Literature of Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Carver, Anthony F. 2005. "Bruckner and the Phrygian Mode". Music & Letters 86, no. 1:74–99. Doi:10.1093/ml/gci004. Hein, Ethan. 2012. "The Major Scale Modes". Ethan Hein's Blog: Music, Evolution. Hoffman and Adrian Rațiu. 1971. "Succese ale simfonistului". In George Enescu: Monografie, 2 vols. Edited by Mi


Preparis Island is an island located between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea, 77 km to the NNE of the Coco Islands and 133 km to the SSW from Cape Negrais, the nearest point in the coast of Burma. It is 340 km south of the city of Yangon. To the south of Preparis lies the Coco Islands group of 5 small islands, further south lies the Landfall Island belonging to India. According to 19th century visitors, the island was uninhabited by humans, but many monkeys were observed; the island was host to the 78th Highlanders regiment when on 5 November 1816 their transport ship Frances Charlotte hit an off-shore rock. Most passengers and crew survived as a freshwater supply was discovered and their stay remained short; the merchant ship Prince Blucher arrived on 10 November and between 11 and 14 November was able to rescue some 316 men and children. The weather and damage to Prince Blucher prevented her from rescuing another hundred; the Government of Bengal sent two cruisers that rescued the remainder.

Preparis island makes up the northern end of the Andaman Islands chain. The island has a maximum width of 1.8 km. It has gentle slopes rising to a maximum height of 81 metres. Cow and Calf IsletsA group of 3 Flat-topped islets, 23 metres, 3.4 km to the north. West Reef IsletsA group of 3 islets, 1 metre, 4.2 km to the west. Preparis PinncaleA rock, 12 metres high, 3 km to the south; the island is covered with low trees and bush. The island is subject to the Cocokyun township of Myanmar, along the Coco Islands; the island has about 50 inhabitants who engage in small scale farming and fishing for the local consumption. These inhabitants are part of a military unit that inhabits remote border outposts; the island has a small helipad in the village. Indira Point List of islands of Burma Rondo Island Official Nautical Chart


XHTJB-TDT is a television station in Tijuana, Baja California. Broadcasting on digital channel 15 from Cerro Colorado within the city limits of Tijuana, XHTJB is a repeater of the Canal Once public network owned and operated by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional. In analog, the channel 3 allocation was not awarded to either San Diego or Tijuana—despite a severe need for additional VHF television channels in the area—because any high-powered signal would be short-spaced over water to KEYT-TV in Santa Barbara, California. However, by the 1990s, Mexican stations using lower power could utilize the frequency. In 1995, Mexico notified the United States that it would be building channel 3, with a proposed 100 kW effective radiated power. Through American coordination, the power of the station was reduced and an antenna pattern was used to minimize the station's interference to the United States; as part of the IPN's program to build repeater stations to extend the reach of its then-Once TV, XHTJB-TV signed on August 2, 1999, analog channel 3, raising its power over several days to 40 kW of effective radiated power.

It was the fourth repeater station built by the IPN itself, after stations in Cuernavaca, San Luis Potosí and Valle de Bravo. When XHTJB signed on in mid-1999, it caused interference to those in San Diego who had their VCRs and other devices with output set to channel 3. Cox Communications and other San Diego stations mounted an unsuccessful campaign to move XHTJB to another channel; the station's digital channel is multiplexed: XHTJB transitioned to digital in the late 2000s. Physical channel 46 remained after Tijuana's first-in-Mexico digital conversion occurred on July 18, 2013, using PSIP to display XHTJB's virtual channel as 3 on digital receivers. On October 27, 2016, in line with a major realignment of Mexican virtual channels, XHTJB and other Canal Once transmitters adopted virtual channel 11 nationwide; the station was able to do so because XHTJB's signal pattern does not overlap with Los Angeles stations. The move freed channel 3 for use by Imagen Televisión's Tijuana transmitter. In late 2017, XHTJB was approved to move to RF channel 15 for repacking purposes