Lymphadenopathy

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Lymphadenopathy
Other namesAdenopathy
Lymphadanopathy.JPG
Neck lymphadenopathy associated with infectious mononucleosis
SpecialtyInfectious disease

Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size or consistency. Lymphadenopathy of an inflammatory type (the most common type) is lymphadenitis,[1] producing swollen or enlarged lymph nodes. In clinical practice, the distinction between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis is rarely made and the words are usually treated as synonymous. Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels is known as lymphangitis.[2] Infectious lymphadenitis affecting lymph nodes in the neck is often called scrofula.

Lymphadenopathy is a common and nonspecific sign. Common causes include infections (from minor ones such as the common cold to serious ones such as HIV/AIDS), autoimmune diseases, and cancers. Lymphadenopathy is also frequently idiopathic and self-limiting.

Causes[edit]

Retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies of testicular seminoma, embrace the aorta. Computed tomography image.

Lymph node enlargement is recognized as a common sign of infectious, autoimmune, or malignant disease. Examples may include:

Less common infectious causes of lymphadenopathy may include bacterial infections such as cat scratch disease, tularemia, brucellosis, or prevotella.[citation needed]

Benign (reactive) lymphadenopathy[edit]

Benign lymphadenopathy is a common biopsy finding, and may often be confused with malignant lymphoma. It may be separated into major morphologic patterns, each with its own differential diagnosis with certain types of lymphoma. Most cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia are easy to diagnose, but some cases may be confused with follicular lymphoma. There are seven distinct patterns of benign lymphadenopathy:[6]

These morphological patterns are never pure. Thus, reactive follicular hyperplasia can have a component of paracortical hyperplasia. However, this distinction is important for the differential diagnosis of the cause.

Diagnosis[edit]

Medical ultrasonography of a typical normal lymph node: smooth, gently lobulated oval with a hypoechoic cortex measuring less than 3 cm in thickness with a central echogenic hilum.[24]
Ultrasonography of a suspected malignant lymph node:
- Absence of the fatty hilum
- Increased focal cortical thickness greater than 3 cm
- Doppler ultrasonography that shows hyperaemic blood flow in the hilum and central cortex and/or abnormal (non-hilar cortical) blood flow.[24]

In cervical lymphadenopathy (of the neck), it is routine to perform a throat examination including the use of a mirror and an endoscope.[25]

On ultrasound, B-mode imaging depicts lymph node morphology, whilst power Doppler can assess the vascular pattern.[26] B-mode imaging features that can distinguish metastasis and lymphoma include size, shape, calcification, loss of hilar architecture, as well as intranodal necrosis.[26] Soft tissue edema and nodal matting on B-mode imaging suggests tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis or previous radiation therapy.[26] Serial monitoring of nodal size and vascularity are useful in assessing treatment response.[26]

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has sensitivity and specificity percentages of 81% and 100%, respectively, in the histopathology of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy.[25] PET-CT has proven to be helpful in identifying occult primary carcinomas of the head and neck, especially when applied as a guiding tool prior to panendoscopy, and may induce treatment related clinical decisions in up to 60% of cases.[25]

Classification[edit]

Lymphadenopathy may be classified by:

Size[edit]

Long and short axis.png
Micrograph of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, a type of lymphadenopathy. H&E stain.
CT scan of axillary lymphadenopathy in a 57-year-old man with multiple myeloma.
  • By size, where lymphadenopathy in adults is often defined as a short axis of one or more lymph nodes is greater than 10mm.[27][28] However, there is regional variation as detailed in this table:
Upper limit of lymph node sizes in adults
Generally 10 mm[27][28]
Inguinal 10[29] – 20 mm[30]
Pelvis 10 mm for ovoid lymph nodes, 8 mm for rounded[29]
Neck
Generally (non-retropharyngeal) 10 mm[29][31]
Jugulodigastric lymph nodes 11mm[29] or 15 mm[31]
Retropharyngeal 8 mm[31]
  • Lateral retropharyngeal: 5 mm[29]
Mediastinum
Mediastinum, generally 10 mm[29]
Superior mediastinum and high paratracheal 7mm[32]
Low paratracheal and subcarinal 11 mm[32]
Upper abdominal
Retrocrural space 6 mm[33]
Paracardiac 8 mm[33]
Gastrohepatic ligament 8 mm[33]
Upper paraaortic region 9 mm[33]
Portacaval space 10 mm[33]
Porta hepatis 7 mm[33]
Lower paraaortic region 11 mm[33]

Lymphadenopathy of the axillary lymph nodes can be defined as solid nodes measuring more than 15 mm without fatty hilum.[34] Axillary lymph nodes may be normal up to 30 mm if consisting largely of fat.[34]

In children, a short axis of 8 mm can be used.[35] However, inguinal lymph nodes of up to 15 mm and cervical lymph nodes of up to 20 mm are generally normal in children up to age 8–12.[36]

Lymphadenopathy of more than 1.5 cm - 2 cm increases the risk of cancer or granulomatous disease as the cause rather than only inflammation or infection. Still, an increasing size and persistence over time are more indicative of cancer.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "lymphadenitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ "lymphangitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  3. ^ Fontanilla, JM; Barnes, A; Von Reyn, CF (September 2011). "Current diagnosis and management of peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (6): 555–562. doi:10.1093/cid/cir454. PMID 21865192.
  4. ^ Klotz, SA; Ianas, V; Elliott, SP (2011). "Cat-scratch Disease". American Family Physician. 83 (2): 152–155. PMID 21243990.
  5. ^ Butler, T (2009). "Plague into the 21st century". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 49 (5): 736–742. doi:10.1086/604718. PMID 19606935.
  6. ^ a b c Weiss, LM; O'Malley, D (2013). "Benign lymphadenopathies". Modern Pathology. 26 (Supplement 1): S88–S96. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.176. PMID 23281438.
  7. ^ Sweeney, DA; Hicks, CW; Cui, X; Li, Y; Eichacker, PQ (December 2011). "Anthrax infection". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 184 (12): 1333–1341. doi:10.1164/rccm.201102-0209CI. PMC 3361358. PMID 21852539.
  8. ^ Kennedy, PG (February 2013). "Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)". Lancet Neurology. 12 (2): 186–194. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70296-X. PMID 23260189.
  9. ^ a b c Status and anamnesis, Anders Albinsson. Page 12
  10. ^ Kim, TU; Kim, S; Lee, JW; Lee, NK; Jeon, UB; Ha, HG; Shin, DH (September–October 2012). "Plasma cell type of Castleman's disease involving renal parenchyma and sinus with cardiac tamponade: case report and literature review". Korean Journal of Radiology. 13 (5): 658–663. doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.5.658. PMC 3435867. PMID 22977337.
  11. ^ Zhang, H; Wang, R; Wang, H; Xu, Y; Chen, J (June 2012). "Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in Castleman's disease: a systematic review of the literature and 2 case reports". Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 51 (12): 1537–1542. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.51.6298. PMID 22728487.
  12. ^ Bratucu, E; Lazar, A; Marincaş, M; Daha, C; Zurac, S (March–April 2013). "Aseptic mesenteric lymph node abscesses. In search of an answer. A new entity?" (PDF). Chirurgia (Bucarest, Romania: 1990). 108 (2): 152–160. PMID 23618562.
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  15. ^ Colon, NC; Chung, DH (2011). "Neuroblastoma". Advances in Pediatrics. 58 (1): 297–311. doi:10.1016/j.yapd.2011.03.011. PMC 3668791. PMID 21736987.
  16. ^ Sagatys, EM; Zhang, L (January 2011). "Clinical and laboratory prognostic indicators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Cancer Control. 19 (1): 18–25. PMID 22143059.
  17. ^ Melikoglu, MA; Melikoglu, M (October–December 2008). "The clinical importance of lymphadenopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus" (PDF). Acta Reumatologia Portuguesa. 33 (4): 402–406. PMID 19107085.
  18. ^ Lederman, MM; Margolis, L (June 2008). "The lymph node in HIV pathogenesis". Seminars in Immunology. 20 (3): 187–195. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2008.06.001. PMC 2577760. PMID 18620868.
  19. ^ Quan, D (October 2012). "North American poisonous bites and stings". Critical Care Clinics. 28 (4): 633–659. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2012.07.010. PMID 22998994.
  20. ^ Komagamine, T; Nagashima, T; Kojima, M; Kokubun, N; Nakamura, T; Hashimoto, K; Kimoto, K; Hirata, K (September 2012). "Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: case report and literature review". BMC Neurology. 12: 187–195. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-112. PMC 3570427. PMID 23020225.
  21. ^ Noguchi, S; Yatera, K; Shimajiri, S; Inoue, N; Nagata, S; Nishida, C; Kawanami, T; Ishimoto, H; Sasaguri, Y; Mukae, H (2012). "Intrathoracic Rosai-Dorfman disease with spontaneous remission: a clinical report and a review of the literature". The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 227 (3): 231–235. doi:10.1620/tjem.227.231. PMID 22789970.
  22. ^ Weiss, PF (April 2012). "Pediatric vasculitis". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 59 (2): 407–423. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.03.013. PMC 3348547. PMID 22560577.
  23. ^ Koh, H; Kamiishi, N; Chiyotani, A; Takahashi, H; Sudo, A; Masuda, Y; Shinden, S; Tajima, A; Kimura, Y; Kimura, T (April 2012). "Eosinophilic lung disease complicated by Kimura's disease: a case report and literature review". Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 51 (22): 3163–3167. PMID 23154725.
  24. ^ a b Dialani, V.; James, D. F.; Slanetz, P. J. (2014). "A practical approach to imaging the axilla". Insights into Imaging. 6 (2): 217–229. doi:10.1007/s13244-014-0367-8. ISSN 1869-4101. PMC 4376818. Creative Commons attribution license
  25. ^ a b c Balm, A. J. M.; van Velthuysen, M. L. F.; Hoebers, F. J. P.; Vogel, W. V.; van den Brekel, M. W. M. (2010). "Diagnosis and Treatment of a Neck Node Swelling Suspicious for a Malignancy: An Algorithmic Approach". International Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2010: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2010/581540. ISSN 2090-1402. PMC 3265261.
  26. ^ a b c d Ahuja, A.T. (2008). "Ultrasound of malignant cervical lymph nodes". Cancer Imaging. 8 (1): 48–56. doi:10.1102/1470-7330.2008.0006. ISSN 1470-7330. PMC 2324368.
  27. ^ a b c Ganeshalingam, Skandadas; Koh, Dow-Mu (2009). "Nodal staging". Cancer Imaging. 9 (1). doi:10.1102/1470-7330.2009.0017. ISSN 1470-7330. PMC 2821588.
  28. ^ a b Schmidt Júnior, Aurelino Fernandes; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Matheus, Roberto Storte; Kim, Jorge Du Ub; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli (2007). "Distribuição, tamanho e número dos linfonodos mediastinais: definições por meio de estudo anatômico". Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. 33 (2): 134–140. doi:10.1590/S1806-37132007000200006. ISSN 1806-3713.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Torabi M, Aquino SL, Harisinghani MG (September 2004). "Current concepts in lymph node imaging". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 45 (9): 1509–18. PMID 15347718.
  30. ^ "Assessment of lymphadenopathy". BMJ Best Practice. Retrieved 2017-03-04. Last updated: Last updated: Feb 16, 2017
  31. ^ a b c Page 432 in: Luca Saba (2016). Image Principles, Neck, and the Brain. CRC Press. ISBN 9781482216202.
  32. ^ a b Sharma, Amita; Fidias, Panos; Hayman, L. Anne; Loomis, Susanne L.; Taber, Katherine H.; Aquino, Suzanne L. (2004). "Patterns of Lymphadenopathy in Thoracic Malignancies". RadioGraphics. 24 (2): 419–434. doi:10.1148/rg.242035075. ISSN 0271-5333.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Dorfman, R E; Alpern, M B; Gross, B H; Sandler, M A (1991). "Upper abdominal lymph nodes: criteria for normal size determined with CT". Radiology. 180 (2): 319–322. doi:10.1148/radiology.180.2.2068292. ISSN 0033-8419.
  34. ^ a b Page 559 in: Wolfgang Dähnert (2011). Radiology Review Manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9781609139438.
  35. ^ Page 942 in: Richard M. Gore, Marc S. Levine (2010). High Yield Imaging Gastrointestinal HIGH YIELD in Radiology. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9781455711444.
  36. ^ Laurence Knott. "Generalised Lymphadenopathy". Patient UK. Retrieved 2017-03-04. Last checked: 24 March 2014
  37. ^ Bazemore AW, Smucker DR (December 2002). "Lymphadenopathy and malignancy". American Family Physician. 66 (11): 2103–10. PMID 12484692.

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources