SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes. The name refers to just the cancerous versions rather than all such tumors. Signs and symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes, drenching sweats, unintended weight loss and feeling tired; the enlarged lymph nodes are painless. The sweats are most common at night. There are many subtypes of lymphomas; the two main categories of lymphomas are the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The World Health Organization includes two other categories as types of lymphoma: multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases. About 90% of lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Lymphomas and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma include infection with Epstein–Barr virus and a history of the disease in the family. Risk factors for common types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas include autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus, immunosuppressant medications, some pesticides.

Eating large amounts of red meat and tobacco smoking may increase the risk. Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is by lymph node biopsy. Blood and bone marrow testing may be useful in the diagnosis. Medical imaging may be done to determine if and where the cancer has spread. Lymphoma most spreads to the lungs and brain. Treatment may involve one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, surgery. In some non-Hodgkin lymphomas, an increased amount of protein produced by the lymphoma cells causes the blood to become so thick that plasmapheresis is performed to remove the protein. Watchful waiting may be appropriate for certain types; the outcome depends on the subtype with some being curable and treatment prolonging survival in most. The five-year survival rate in the United States for all Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes is 85%, while that for non-Hodgkin lymphomas is 69%. Worldwide, lymphomas caused 305,000 deaths, they make up 3 -- 4 % of all cancers. In children, they are the third-most common cancer.

They occur more in the developed world than the developing world. Lymphoma may present with certain nonspecific symptoms. Lymphadenopathy or swelling of lymph nodes, is the primary presentation in lymphoma, it is painless. B symptoms -- can be associated with both Hodgkin non-Hodgkin lymphoma, they consist of: Fever Night sweats Weight loss Anemia, increase susceptibility to infections Other symptoms: Loss of appetite or anorexia Fatigue Respiratory distress or dyspnea Itching Asymptomatic soft swelling which may or may not be ulcerated, seen on the tonsils, buccal mucosa, gums, salivary glands, floor of the mouth, retromolar region. Lymphoma is definitively diagnosed by a lymph node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under the microscope; this examination reveals histopathological features. After lymphoma is diagnosed, a variety of tests may be carried out to look for specific features characteristic of different types of lymphoma; these include: Immunophenotyping Flow cytometry Fluorescence in situ hybridization testing Lymphomas in the strict sense are any neoplasms of the lymphatic tissues.

The main classes are malignant neoplasms of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that belongs to both the lymph and the blood and pervades both. Thus and leukemias are both tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, as lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphoid leukemias are related, to the point that some of them are unitary disease entities that can be called by either name. Several classification systems have existed for lymphoma, which use histological and other findings to divide lymphoma into different categories; the classification of a lymphoma can affect prognosis. Classification systems classify lymphoma according to: Whether or not it is a Hodgkin lymphoma Whether the cell, replicating is a T cell or B cell The site from which the cell arisesLymphoma can spread to the central nervous system around the brain in the meninges, known as lymphomatous meningitis. Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for about 15% of lymphomas, it differs from other forms of lymphoma in its prognosis and several pathological characteristics.

A division into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas is used in several of the older classification systems. A Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed–Sternberg cell. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. A wide variety of lymphomas are in this class, the causes, the types of cells involved, the prognosis vary by type; the number of cases per year of non-Hodgkin lymphoma increases with age. It is further divided into several subtypes. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases are a group of benign, pre-malignant, malignant diseases of lymphoid cells, i.e. B cells, T cells, NK cells, histiocytic-dendritic cells in which one or more of these cell types is infected with the Epstein-Barr virus; the virus may be responsible for the development and/or progression of these diseases. In addition to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphomas, the World Health Organization includes the follo

Interstate 95 in South Carolina

Interstate 95 is a major Interstate Highway, running along the East Coast of the United States from Florida to Maine. In South Carolina, I-95 runs parallel to the Atlantic Ocean shore although about 50 miles inland, from Hardeeville in the south to Dillon in the northeast; the route runs through the cities of Walterboro. For the most part, the 198-mile drive is benign, passing through the pine forests and blackwater streams and swamps of the Coastal Plain; as the route travels north, it moves inland from coastal cities such as Hardeeville, inland to cities such as Darlington. However, a few landmarks do exist to break up the monotony. Crossing from the south from Georgia just over the Savannah River bridge, motorists are greeted to an elaborate gateway into the state of South Carolina; the Juanita M. White Crosswalk exists between exits 18 and 21. A flyover on twin high-spans over Lake Marion provides an unexpected scenic break in the center of the highway's length; the old US 15-301 bridge is used for recreational purposes.

Moving further north and out of the Palmetto State, the NC state line is prominently marked by the South Of The Border amusement complex at the US 301/501 exit. Local traffic parallel to the interstate uses US 301 from South Of The Border to Santee, US 15 from Santee to Walterboro, a combination of US 17 and US 17 Alt from Walterboro to the Georgia state line north of Savannah. In addition, Interstate 95 shares a number of concurrencies, or multiplexes, with three of these U. S. Routes at various stretches in South Carolina; the South Carolina Department of Transportation operates and maintains three welcome centers and five rest areas along I-95. Welcome centers, which have a travel information facility on site, are located at mile markers 4, 99 and 195. Common at all locations are public restrooms, public telephones, vending machines, picnic area and barbecue grills; the South Carolina Department of Public Safety and State Transport Police operate and maintain one truck inspection/weigh station, located northbound at mile marker 74.

The location utilizes weigh-in-motion that does not require commercial motor vehicles to leave the freeway to be weighed. An inspection shed and pit are on site, where full-service inspections are performed for flagged and randomly picked trucks. Several parking area locations are found along I-95; the parking areas offer no amenities and some are restricted for commercial motor vehicles only. Interstate 95 in South Carolina feature numerous dedicated or memorialized bridges and stretches of freeway. Blue Star Memorial Highway – Official South Carolina honorary name of Interstate 95 throughout the state. Markers are located at both welcome centers. Jacob Ham, Jr. Highway – Is a dedicated 2-mile portion of Interstate 95 located in Darlington County, north of Florence. Dedicated in October, 2013, it is in honor of Lance Corporal Jacob Ham, Jr. who served as a trooper with the South Carolina Highway Patrol for 12 years until his death in 1998. Mark H. Coates Highway – Is a dedicated 1-mile portion of Interstate 95 located in Jasper County near Hardeeville and extends one-half mile on both sides of mile marker 7.

In May 1997, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a resolution to designate this section of Interstate 95 in honor of Lance Corporal Mark Hunter Coates, who served as a trooper with the South Carolina Highway Patrol from 1987 until his death in 1992. Coates, a native of Lexington County, South Carolina was fatally shot on mile marker 7 on November 20, 1992 during the course of a traffic stop. Interstate 95 first appeared on state maps between 1962–1964, with construction from US 17 north of Hardeeville to Ridgeland. By 1967, more sections were under construction, including Pocotaligo to Walterboro and Santee to the North Carolina state line; the first section to open happened in 1968, from SC 527, near Gable, to SC 9/SC 57, in Dillon. In 1971–1972, more sections of Interstate 95 was completed: Going north from SC 9/SC 57, in Dillon, to the North Carolina state line. Going south from SC 527, near Gable, along the completed 1968-built Lake Marion bridge, to US 301 Connector, in Santee. Part of US 17 between Ridgeland to near Yemassee was combined with Interstate 95, with temporary status through Coosawhatchie.

By 1975, Interstate 95 was open continuously in Hardeeville, to SC 63, in Walterboro. In 1976, the two sections of Interstate 95 were connected, from SC 63, in Walterboro, to US 301 Connector, in Santee. In the same year, exit numbers were added along Interstate 95; the last section of Interstate 95 was completed in 1978, connecting US 17, in Hardeeville, south to the Georgia state line. In 1990, exit 21 was added, for what was US 278, now SC 336. Between 1998–2000, exit 153, Honda Way, was added. In 2003, Interstate 95 was widened to six lanes from just south of Interstate 20 to north of SC 327, around Florence. Various small projects along the route are scheduled to fix various intersections and replace bridges along route, but no major projects scheduled. Discussions of converting Interstate 95 into a toll road have met with resistance within SCDOT.

Bernhard Hammer

Bernhard Hammer was a Swiss politician. He was the peloton leader of the Olten cadet military group. In 1844, after studying sciences and law, Hammer settled in Solothurn as a lawyer and a notary, but he worked in Berlin and Geneve too. Elected president of the district court and 1856-68 as cantonal councillor of Solothurn, Hammer was soon regarded as leader of the old liberals and the opposition against the radical-liberal regiment of the landaman Joseph Wilhelm Viktor Vigier von Steinbrugg. In the face of pure party interests, however, he shifted more to his military interests. General Henri Dufour had personally distinguished him in the Sonderbund campaign, the General Staff officer Hammer was promoted to Major in 1858 and Supreme in 1862. In 1861-68 he was chief instructor of the artillery and afterwards until 1875 Switzerland envoy in Berlin, he was elected to the Federal Council of Switzerland on 10 December 1875, handed over office on 31 December 1890. He was affiliated with the Free Democratic Party.

H.'s reputation as an outstanding lawyer and diplomat paved the way for him into the Federal Council. He proved his worth in the reorganisation of the federal finances and the reorganisation of the unimportant Finance Department, in the question of the alcohol and banknote monopoly, in customs tariff negotiations and in the settlement of the Wohlgemuth affair. During his term of office, he introduced the military duty substitute tax, created the Banknote Act and revised the Coinage Act. Moreover, H., intent on compensation, played an important mediating role behind the scenes in the settlement of the Kulturkampf. After his resignation in 1890, Hammer served on the National Council for the Liberals until 1896, he owed this unusual career to financial and administrative skills. He acted as the leading member of the Gotthard Railway's Board of Directors, he died in 1907 respected During his time in office he held the following departments: Department of Finance Political Department as President of the Confederation Department of Finance He was President of the Confederation twice, in 1879 and 1889.

The portrait of Hammer was painted in 1889 by the Swiss-born American artist Adolfo Müller-Ury and is signed Muller d'Uri. It was reproduced on the cover of the dust-wrapper and as the frontispiece of Eduard Fischer's biography'Bundesrat Bernhard Hammer und Seine Zeit', published in Solothurn in 1970, its present whereabouts is unknown. Profile of Bernhard Hammer with election results on the website of the Swiss Federal Council. Bernhard Hammer in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland