Lipscomb University is a private Christian liberal arts university in Nashville, Tennessee. It is affiliated with the Churches of Christ; the campus is located in the Green Hills neighborhood of Nashville between Belmont Boulevard to the west and Granny White Pike on the east. Student enrollment for the fall 2016 semester was 4,632 which included 2,986 undergraduate students and 1,646 graduate students, it maintains two locations called "Spark" in the Cool Springs area of Williamson County and Downtown Nashville. Lipscomb University was founded in 1891 by James A. Harding; the campus grounds consist predominantly of the former estate of David Lipscomb, who donated it to the school. The school was never intended to function as a seminary, although a seminary is a part of the university, but rather as a Christian liberal arts institution. In fact, in an early catalog, the founders expressed their views about providing a liberal education with spiritual exploration. We purpose to present in the way of a liberal education as extensive a curriculum as can be found in any school, college, or university in the land, at the same time to drill its students in the Bible, the divine source of wisdom and goodness.
It was not our design to make professional preachers, but to train males and females and old, all who might become members of the school, for the greatest usefulness in life. Each student is left to choose his own calling. Several prominent Church of Christ religious ministers received at least a portion of their higher education there, the institution remains affiliated in the Churches of Christ: Potential full-time, undergraduate faculty must prove their membership in a Church of Christ before being hired, its original name was the Nashville Bible School, changed to David Lipscomb College to David Lipscomb University. Lipscomb graduated its first senior class in 1948, leaving behind the name of "junior college" forever. In 1954, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools granted Lipscomb its first accreditation. In 1988, Lipscomb attained Level III became known as David Lipscomb University. All full-time, undergraduate students are required to take Bible classes and attend chapel twice a week.
In addition to the university campus, there is an on-campus high school and middle school. All three comprise Lipscomb Academy. In January 2019, the university launched LipscombLEADS, a $250 million fundraising campaign to fund various improvements to the campus, including new academic buildings, renovations to existing academic and residence buildings, new programs. Additionally, funds will go to increased financial aid and growing the endowment. At the time of announcement, $186 million had been raised from 42,000 donors. There have been 13 presidents of Lipscomb over 17 administrations. James A. Harding William Anderson J. S. Ward E. A. Elam J. S. Ward H. Leo Boles A. B. Lipscomb H. S. Lipscomb H. Leo Boles Batsell Baxter E. H. Ijams Batsell Baxter Athens Clay Pullias G. Willard Collins Harold Hazelip Steve Flatt L. Randolph Lowry III The Nashville Bible School was co-founded by David Lipscomb and James A. Harding in 1891. David Lipscomb never served as president, but as chairman of the board of trustees.
James A. Harding served as the school's first superintendent. U. S. News & World Report ranks Lipscomb University 18th among Regional Universities according to the U. S. News & World Report's "2015 America's Best Colleges" guidebook. Lipscomb's liberal arts curriculum includes a wide range of academic programs in the arts and sciences; the curriculum continues to evolve, notably with the addition of civil and environmental engineering in the Raymond B. Jones College of Engineering and the doctorate in pharmacy in the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Under the administration of President Lowry, Lipscomb increased the number of its graduate programs from 8 in 2005 to 44 in 2015. Lipscomb University comprises the following colleges and institutes: The center of the university, known as Bison Square, is located between the Bennett Campus Center and the Willard Collins Alumni Auditorium; the south side of the Bennett Campus Center was converted from a single upstairs and downstairs entry into an amphitheater-style seating area and entryway, as well as having an renovated interior with redesigned seating and lighting that create a more welcoming atmosphere.
A full-service Starbucks store has opened inside the campus center, complete with its own separate entry on both the interior and exterior of the building. The bricked square is traditionally used during warm weather as the location for devotionals and other campus activities. Willard Collins Alumni Auditorium has been renovated with new seating and audio/video equipment, updating its look from the original design. Allen Arena, a 5,028-seat multipurpose facility, opened in October 2001 on the site of the old McQuiddy Gymnasium. Part of the McQuiddy Gymnasium still remains between Allen Arena and the Student Activities Center, a multipurpose student activity space with workout facilities, basketball courts and an indoor track; the SAC offers a variety of workout classes to students, inclu
Episcopal Diocese of Tennessee
The Episcopal Diocese of Tennessee is the diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America that covers Middle Tennessee. A single diocese spanned the entire state until 1982, when the Episcopal Diocese of West Tennessee was created, it is headquartered in Tennessee. The diocese includes mission outposts. Most of its present communicants reside in the metropolitan Nashville area. St. Paul's Church in Franklin is the diocese's oldest congregation. John C. Bauerschmidt was consecrated as the eleventh Bishop of Tennessee on January 27, 2007, he is the third bishop to serve since the final territorial separation in 1985. The seat of the bishop is Christ Church Cathedral in Nashville, designated the diocesan cathedral in 1997. Weekday diocesan offices are located at the former property of St. Andrew's Church in the Green Hills neighborhood. From 1985 to 2013, the Diocese maintained offices in closer proximity to downtown Nashville but has not, nor at present intends to, occupied any portion of its Cathedral, a pre-existing parish prior to its designation, with them.
From 1871 until the division of the diocese, the seat of the bishop was St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral in Memphis. Bishops of Tennessee In a history of the diocese published in celebration of its 175th anniversary, the 10th bishop of the diocese, writes: For 175 years, the Diocese of Tennessee has proclaimed the Gospel of Jesus Christ in the Episcopal manner and tradition. On July 1–2, 1829, the fledgling church gathered at the Masonic Hall in Nashville to hold the primary convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of Tennessee. Three clergy and six laymen representing four congregations met with John Stark Ravenscroft, Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina, presiding. In that same year, the 16th general Convention meeting in Philadelphia on August 12–20 admitted the church in the state of Tennessee into union with the General Convention. Since that time, the Episcopal Church in Tennessee has grown and now consists of three dioceses with 137 congregations and 37,518 baptized members.
Someone told me that the past is the prologue to the future. I believe, true. We have a "goodly heritage" as Episcopalian Christians and we can face the future with confidence and hope. In our time and generation may we be faithful and continue the mission and ministry so well begun by those who have gone before. Much of the early growth of the Diocese of Tennessee occurred in plantation regions centered in the hilly, fertile tobacco-growing region south of Nashville and in the cotton-producing lands of the Mississippi River region in southwestern Tennessee, the church being imported by Anglican loyalists from Virginia and North Carolina, it was not until after the American Civil War that the Episcopal church penetrated much of East Tennessee, well into the 20th century before many other towns elsewhere in the state got their own churches. The University of the South, located on the Cumberland Plateau in Sewanee, however, helped the fledgling diocese in matters of clergy development; as with much of American Protestantism during the period after World War II, the Episcopal Church flourished in newly-developing suburban areas, a large number of the new churches being missions founded by long-established in-town parishes.
By the 1960s and during the episcopate of John Vander Horst, enough growth had taken place that the diocese had established offices in Nashville and Knoxville in addition to the cathedral in Memphis in order to economically provide episcopal care to parishes and missions throughout the state. The process for division of the state into three territories began when Vander Horst retired in 1977, under the aegis of his successor, William E. Sanders. Upon approval by the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in 1982, the diocese excised its western counties first, followed by the eastern counties two years later; the remaining territory in Middle Tennessee became the legal successor to the statewide diocese. Each of the three realigned dioceses retained an important legacy of the former statewide body: West Tennessee had St. Mary's Cathedral. In June 2017, the diocese's Task Force on Anti-Racism and Lipscomb University's Christian Scholars' Conference organized a service held at the Fisk University Memorial Chapel in memory of 1892 lynching victim Ephraim Grizzard.
All Saints, Smyrna Calvary Church, Cumberland Furnace Christ Church, Alto Christ Church, Tracy City Christ Church Cathedral, Nashville Church of Our Savior, Gallatin Church of the Advent, Nashville Church of the Epiphany, Lebanon Church of the Epiphany, Sherwood Church of the Good Shepherd, Brentwood Church of the Holy Comforter, Monteagle Church of the Holy Cross, Murfreesboro Church of the Holy Spirit, Nashville Church of the Messiah, Pulaski Church of the Redeemer, Shelbyville Church of the Resurrection, Franklin Grace Chapel, Rossview Grace Church, Spring Hill Holy Trinity Church, Nashville Otey Memorial Parish, Sewanee St. Agnes' Mission, Cowan St. Andrew's Church, New Johnsonville St. Ann's Church, Nashville St. Anselm
Nissan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Nashville, United States. Owned by the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, it is used for football and is the home field of the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League and the Tennessee State Tigers of Tennessee State University; the stadium is the site of the Franklin American Mortgage Music City Bowl, a postseason college football bowl game played each December, is used as a venue for soccer matches. Nissan Stadium is used for large concerts, such as the CMA Music Festival nightly concerts, which take place for four days every June. Facilities are included to enable the stadium to host other public events, meetings and gatherings. Nissan Stadium is located on the east bank of the Cumberland River, directly across the river from downtown Nashville and has a listed seating capacity of 69,143, its first event was a preseason game between the Titans and the Atlanta Falcons on August 27, 1999. Since opening in 1999, it has been known by multiple names, including Adelphia Coliseum, The Coliseum, LP Field.
The stadium features three levels of seating, with the lower bowl encompassing the field. The club and upper levels form the stadium's dual towers, rising above the lower bowl along each sideline. All of the stadium's luxury suites are located within the towers. Three levels of suites are located in the stadium's eastern tower: one between the lower and club levels, two between the club and upper levels; the western tower has only two levels of suites, both between upper levels. The pressbox is located between club levels in the western tower. Nissan Stadium's dual videoboards are located behind the lower bowl in each end zone; the playing surface of Nissan Stadium is a natural grass. However, the warm climate of Nashville, combined with the wear and tear of hosting a game nearly every weekend results in a resodding of the area "between the hashes" in late November. On Nissan Stadium's eastern side is the Titans Pro Shop, a retail store which sells team merchandise, it maintains an exterior entrance for use on non-event dates.
During the 1995 NFL Preseason, the Houston Oilers faced the Washington Redskins in an exhibition game at Neyland Stadium in Knoxville, Tennessee. At the game, Oilers owner Bud Adams met Nashville Mayor Phil Bredesen and began discussing the possibility of moving the team to Middle Tennessee, due to Adams' discontent with the team's lease at the Astrodome and unwillingness of the City of Houston to build a new football-only stadium; that fall and Bredesen announced the team's intent to move to Nashville. The city and team decided to locate a stadium on the eastern bank of the Cumberland River in downtown Nashville, on the site of a blighted industrial development. In a special referendum on May 7, 1996, voters in Metropolitan Nashville/Davidson County voted to approve partial funding of the proposed stadium; the vote, which allocated US$144 million of public money to the project, passed with a 59% majority. The pro-stadium organization, known as "NFL Yes!" outspent the anti-stadium group by a ratio of 16:1 during the campaign.
The funds would be raised through an increase in the Metro water tax. The ongoing funding is through a 300% increase in Davidson County individual homeowner property taxes. Much of the remaining construction costs were funded through the sale of personal seat licenses; some State of Tennessee money was allocated to the project, on the condition that the Tennessee State University football team move its home games there, with the request that the incoming NFL team be named "Tennessee", which the franchise was planning to do anyway, in an attempt to appeal to the broader region. The stadium's construction was delayed when the construction site was hit by a tornado that struck downtown Nashville on April 16, 1998 and destroyed several cranes, but the stadium opened in time for the first scheduled event. On May 3, 2010, the stadium's playing surface was covered with six feet of water due to the heavy rains and flooding from the Cumberland River; the flood reached down to the locker rooms of the stadium.
The stadium received upgrades during the summer of 2012. Among the improvements are a new sound system, high-speed elevators to the upper levels, LED ribbon boards mounted on the faces of the upper mezzanines. Two new high-definition Lighthouse brand LED video displays measuring 157 feet by 54 feet were installed, replacing the entire end zone scoreboard apparatuses. At the time of installation, the two boards became the second-largest displays in the National Football League. In 2014 and 2015, the stadium hosted the Nashville Kickoff Game, a college football game featuring major NCAA teams for Tennessee. During the 2018 season, two 20th anniversary logos in each of the endzones to help celebrate the Titans 20th year in Nashville; the yard line numbers were changed to match the number style on the new uniforms. During its construction, the stadium had no official name, though it was referred to as "The East Bank Stadium", a reference to the stadium's location on the eastern bank of the Cumberland River.
Upon its completion, it was given the name "Adelphia Coliseum" in a 15-year, $30 million naming rights arrangement with Adelphia Business Solutions, a subsidiary of the larger Adelphia telecommunications company. However, after Adelphia missed a required payment and subsequently filed for bankruptcy in 2002, the agreement was abandoned and the stadium became known as "The Coliseum" for four years. A naming rights deal
Josefa Loazia more known as "Juanita"or "Josefa Segovia", was a Mexican-American woman, executed by hanging in Downieville, California on July 5, 1851. She was found guilty of murdering Frederick Cannon, who attempted to assault her, she is known to be the only woman to be hanged in California. Many discrepancies exist regarding the circumstances of her death. Josefa's death has many connections and relevancy to the larger history of Latina/os in the United States because it shows how her racial status affected perception of her and how devalued the life of a Mexican American woman was. Josefa's death highlights the discrimination and violence against Latinos in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Upon the end of the Mexican–American War, the discovery of gold in California, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, life for Mexicans in what had become the United States was changed completely, they lost their property, political power, their culture was deemed worthless They became segregated and did not have opportunities for advancement.
This discrimination applied to both rich and poor Mexicans. In Anglo journals and other media, Mexican women were depicted as flashy and morally deviant "sirens"; this is apparent in. In complete disregard of her identity, she came to be known as "Juanita" after her death, a stereotypical name for a Mexican woman. Not much is known about the early life of Josefa Loaiza; the date of her birth is unknown. Josefa Segovia's true name has been a topic of great debate among scholars. Before the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, most male scholars contended that Josefa had no recorded last name. For example, in Gordon Young's Days of 49, he says that her name was "Juanita". Bancroft uses the name Juanita, although his use of it suggests that it is not the correct name. Throughout his account of the events at Downieville he refers to Segovia as either "The Mexican" or "the little woman" only assigning her a name during his description of her trial; this lack of any name for her for much of the account suggests that the name Juanita was chosen as a generic name for a Mexican woman.
Historian Rodolpho F. Acuna claimed her name was Juana Loaiza citing an 1877 Schedule of Mexican Claims Against the United States that listed one Jose Maria Loiza as claiming damages for the lynching of his wife. Doubt is cast upon this name however, as it does not show up in the 1850 census, suggesting that the claim may have been fraudulent, it wasn't until Martha Cotera, an influential activist of both the Chicano Movement and Chicana Feminist Movement, informed Chicano scholars in 1976 that her last name was Segovia. Irene I. Blea's book U. S. Chicanas and Latinas in a Historical Context claims that Josefa was a Sonoran and of good character, she was about 26 years old at the time of her death. Kerry Segrave recounts Josefa Segovia's life in Downieville, California known as "The Forks" for its location at the north fork of the Yuba River, she lived with a Mexican gambler, José, in a small house on the main street of town. It is not clear if they were married or not. Josefa was not married to José, but she did live with him.
Therefore, she received a bad reputation. According to one account, Juanita was slender and five feet tall; the same account states that Josefa was beautiful and intelligent. Some say. Downie relates the story in the following fashion. Juanita had accompanied her partner to Downieville from Mexico and both lived in an adobe house. Downie states, "Whether she was his wife or not makes no difference in this story." He further describes her figure as "richly developed and in strict proportions." Only her temper was "not well balanced." Celebrating the Fourth of July and companions were returning from the dram shop at a late hour, with Cannon staggering from the influence of liquor. Along the way, he stumbled through the door of the adobe hut, his friends pulled him back outside and they proceeded home. Mortified the next morning of his embarrassing blunder, he proceeded to the hut to offer an apology in Spanish; this did not go well with the Mexican couple, Juanita grew angry. In a rage, she stabbed Cannon.
Soon a "mob of infuriated men" gathered, ready to invoke the "miner's law" of a "Life for Life". Only a Mr. Thayer came to her defense, but to no avail as she was tried and found guilty. A scaffold was erected and the "howling blood-thirsty mob...cried for vengeance" according to Downie. Downie states Juanita retold the story of the "unfortunate incident", how she had been "provoked" and if done so again would "repeat her act." She took the rope, placed the noose around her neck, said "Adios Senors!" and "leaped from the scaffold into eternity." Downie concludes by stating "it was one of those blots that stained the early history of California." In 1835, Andrew Jackson tried to buy California for $3.5 million. Ten years James K. Polk suggested annexing Texas, but put California as a high priority on his list of territory to acquire; the US and Mexico went to war on May 13, 1846. Two years on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. What neither the U. S. or Mexico realized was that 9 days earlier, gold had been found in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada.
It is estimated that between 1848 and 1852, as many as 25,000 Mexicans migrated to California to mine. In the fall of 1848, as many as 3,000 Mexicans migrated to the mining regions, they traveled as entire families. After hearing of the gold, thousands of American men borrowed money, mortgaged their homes, or spe
Ida B. Wells
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, more known as Ida B. Wells, was an African-American investigative journalist, an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement, she was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. She arguably became the most famous black woman in America, during a life, centered on combating prejudice and violence, who fought for equality for African Americans women. Wells was born into slavery in Mississippi, she was freed by the Emancipation Proclamation during the American Civil War. At the age of 16, she lost both her parents and her infant brother in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic, she kept the rest of the family intact with the help of her grandmother. Wells moved with some of her siblings to Memphis, where she found better pay as a teacher. Soon she co-owned Memphis Free Speech and Headlight; as a journalist, Wells wrote about many incidences regarding racial segregation and inequality in order to bring attention to this issues. In the 1890s, Wells documented lynching in the United States through her indictment called " Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases", investigating frequent claims of whites that lynchings were reserved for black criminals only.
Wells exposed lynching as a barbaric practice of whites in the South used to intimidate and oppress African Americans, who created economic and political competition and a subsequent threat of loss of power for whites. A white mob destroyed her newspaper office and presses, as her investigative reporting was carried nationally in black-owned newspapers. Subjected to continued threats, Wells left Memphis for Chicago, she married and had a family, while continuing her work writing and organizing for civil rights and feminist movement for the rest of her life. Wells was outspoken regarding her beliefs as a Black female activist and faced regular public disapproval, including that of leaders with diverging viewpoints from both the civil rights movement and the women's suffrage movement, she was none-the-less active in women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. Wells was a skilled and persuasive speaker and traveled nationally and internationally on lecture tours.
Ida Bell Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi, on July 16, 1862, the first child of James Wells and Elizabeth "Lizzie". James Wells' father was a white man. Before dying, Wells' father brought him, aged 18, to Holly Springs to become a carpenter's apprentice, where he developed a skill and worked as a "hired out slave living in town." Lizzie's experience as an enslaved person was quite different. One of 10 children born on a plantation in Virginia, Lizzie was sold away from her family and siblings and tried without success to locate her family following the Civil War. Like many African Americans in the post-bellum South, James Wells valued education and became a trustee of Shaw College, he refused to vote for Democratic candidates during the period of Reconstruction, became a member of the Loyal League, was known as a "race man" for his involvement in politics and his commitment to the Republican Party. He founded a successful carpentry business in Holly Springs in 1867, his wife Lizzie became known as a "famous cook".
Ida B. Wells was one of the eight children born to James and Lizzie Wells, she enrolled in the black liberal arts college Rust College in Holly Springs. In September 1878, tragedy struck the Wells family when both of her parents died during a yellow fever epidemic that claimed a sibling. Wells was spared. Following the funerals of her parents and brother and relatives decided that the five remaining Wells children should be separated and sent to various foster homes. Wells resisted this solution. To keep her younger siblings together as a family, she found work as a teacher in a black elementary school in Holly Springs, her paternal grandmother, Peggy Wells, along with other friends and relatives, stayed with her siblings and cared for them during the week while Wells was teaching. But when Peggy Wells died from a stroke and her sister Eugenia passed away, Wells accepted the invitation of her aunt Fanny to bring her two remaining sisters to Memphis in 1883. Soon after moving to Memphis, Wells was hired in Woodstock by the Shelby County school system.
During her summer vacations she attended summer sessions at Fisk University, a black college in Nashville. She attended Lemoyne-Owen College, a black college in Memphis, she provoked many people with her views on women's rights. At the age of 24, she wrote: "I will not begin at this late day by doing; the previous year, the Supreme Court had ruled against the federal Civil Rights Act of 1875. This verdict supported railroad companies; when Wells refused to give up her seat, the conductor and two men dragged her out of the car. Wells gained publicity in Memphis when she wrote a newspaper article for The Living Way, a black church weekly, about her treatment on the train. In Memphis, she hired an African-American attorney to sue
Nolensville is a town in Williamson County, Tennessee. The population was 5,861 at the 2010 census, it was established in 1797 by a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. Located in Middle Tennessee, it is about 22 miles southeast of Tennessee; the town was re-incorporated in 1996. In 1924 the town was the site of a mob lynching of Samuel Smith, an African-American youth arrested for shooting a white grocer. No one was convicted of his death. Nolensville is located at 35°57′24″N 86°40′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.5 square miles, all land. This area was settled by European Americans after the American Revolutionary War, when pioneers began to move west of the Appalachian Mountains. William Nolen, a war veteran, his wife and their five children were passing through the area in 1797 when their wagon wheel broke. Surveying his surroundings, Nolen noted the rich abundance of natural resources, he decided to settle here and the community was named for him as Nolensville.
William Nolen purchased a portion of a land grant made to Jason Thompson, on which Nolensville developed. Nolen's historic house was moved to a new location in 2009. In the early 19th century, a large migration from Rockingham, North Carolina, brought the Adams, Barnes, Fields, Irion, Peay, Taylor, Wisener and other families to the area. Built along Mill Creek, the town was incorporated in 1839. Foraging and skirmishing took place here during the Civil War. Gen. John Wharton's Confederate cavalry unit was stationed in town and Gen. Joseph Wheeler's command captured a Union supply train here on December 30, 1862. William A. Clark defended a Union wagon train a year in September 1863, earning the Medal of Honor for his actions. From the post-Reconstruction period into the early 20th century, whites lynched a total of five African Americans in Williamson County, they conducted extra-judicial murder. Among the victims was 15-year-old Samuel Smith, an African American, lynched in Nolensville in December 1924.
He was arrested there for shooting and wounding Ike Eastwood at his house, after Eastwood shot Smith's uncle. Smith was taken for treatment to a hospital in Nashville. A group of masked men took him from the hospital and, with a larger mob, back 22 miles to Nolensville. There the mob shot him multiple times. Although the Nashville Chamber of Commerce offered a $5000 reward in the case, no one was convicted of Smith's murder. On June 5, 2017, a plaque was installed in his memory at St. Anselm Episcopal Church in Nashville, Tennessee. On both sides of Nolensville Road, from north of Oldham Drive to the south as far as York/Williams Road, are many structures from the 19th century that are still in use as homes and/or stores; the Home Place Bed & Breakfast was built in 1820 as a private residence. Within the described area above is a historic section, which in the 19th century was the center of Nolensville. Of note is the Waller Funeral Home, built in 1876. Now serving as an antique store, the Creamery had produced butter known for its excellence throughout the area.
The house north of the cemetery today serves as a veterinary clinic. Nolensville voted by referendum to re-incorporate in August 1996. In October 1996 the first election was held, electing the first three-member Nolensville Board of Mayor and Aldermen; the first Mayor of Nolensville was Charles F. Knapper, elected along with Aldermen Thomas "Tommy" Dugger, III, Parman Henry; the town for the first time hired a Town Attorney, Robert J. Notestine, III. Since 1996, Nolensville has had sustained growth. New home developments have been built around the town, including Bent Creek, Winterset Woods, Burkitt Place, Silver Stream, Ballenger Farms, Sunset Farms and more. Nolensville has had 290 residential building permits since the 2010 census. Other signs of growth are the new multi-million-dollar town hall, numerous business plazas, new restaurants. To accommodate the many new students brought by families settling in the area, the Williamson County School Board purchased 95 acres on the south side of Nolensville for the construction of new elementary and high schools.
These opened in the fall of 2016. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,831 households; the racial makeup of the town is 85.5% White, 5.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. 77.1% of households are married couples living together, 9.6% are non-families. 8.3% of all households are made up of individuals. The average household size is 3.25 and the average family size is 3.45. In the town, the population is spread out with 41.9% under the age of 18, 1.8% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 5.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females, there are 93.5 males. The median income for a household in the town is $102,982, the median income for a family is $105,589. Males have a median income of $71,114 versus $36,190 for females; the per capita income for the town is $33,705. About 4.5% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were lynched, white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were lynched occasionally; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.
S. Victims were killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes sold as souvenirs. Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train.
However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching. "More black people killed by cops in 2015 than were lynched in the worst year of Jim Crow."On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white Democrats.
Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. The rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the granting of U. S. Constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War the vote, was resisted by many white Southerners; some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic losses, loss of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction and white people working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South.
White Democrats enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to define an incident; the Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the annual peak occurring in the 1890s, at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks. A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men and children were lynched in the twelve Southern states between 1877 and 1950.
Over this period Georgia's 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and gover