Albury is a major regional city in New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the northern side of the Murray River. Albury is the seat of local government for the council area which bears the city's name – the City of Albury. Albury has an urban population of 51,076 and is separated from its twin city in Victoria, Wodonga, by the Murray River. Together, the two cities form an urban area with a population of 92,218 at June 2017, it is 554 kilometres from the state capital Sydney and 326 kilometres from the Victorian capital Melbourne. Said to be named after a village in England, Albury developed as a major transport link between New South Wales and Victoria and was proclaimed a city in 1946; the Wiradjuri people were the first known humans to occupy the area, or Wirraayjuurray people are a group of Indigenous Australian Aboriginal people that were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups or clans scattered throughout central New South Wales.
In the 21st century, major Wiradjuri groups live in Condobolin, Peak Hill and Griffith. There are significant populations at Wagga Wagga and Leeton and smaller groups at West Wyalong, Dubbo, Cootamundra and Young; the explorers Hume and Hovell arrived at what their maps called'Crossing Point', but is now known as the Murray River at Albury, on 16 November 1824. They named the river the Hume River, after Hume's father, the next day inscribed a tree by the river bank before continuing their journey south to Westernport in Victoria. In 1830, explorer Captain Charles Sturt discovered the Hume River downstream at its junction with the Murrumbidgee River. Not realising it was the same river, he named it the Murray River. Both names persisted for some time, Hume falling into disuse in favour of Murray; the Aboriginal name for the river was Millewa. A crossing place for the Murray became popular close to. In summer it was possible to cross the river by foot. Among the first squatters to follow in the steps of the explorers and settle in the district were William Wyse and Charles Ebden.
The first European buildings erected at the crossing place were a provisions store and some small huts. A survey for a town was commissioned in 1838 by Assistant Surveyor Thomas Townsend who mapped out Wodonga Place as the western boundary, Hume Street as the northern boundary, Kiewa Street to the east and Nurigong Street to the south, with Townsend Street being the only other north-south road, Ebden and Hovell sreets being the two other east-west roads. Townsend proposed the settlement be named'Bungambrewatha', the Aboriginal name for the area, but when his plan was approved and published in the Government Gazette on 13 April 1839 the name had been changed to Albury. Albury is said to be named after a village in Kent, England which it resembled. By 1847 the Albury settlement included two public houses and a handful of huts, a police barracks and a blacksmiths. A log punt established in 1844 serviced the crossing of the Murray River. Albury Post Office opened on 1 April 1843, closed in 1845 reopened in the township on 1 February 1847.
In 1851, with the separation of Victoria from New South Wales, the border falling on the Murray River, Albury found itself a frontier town. With an increase in commerce with Melbourne, the first bridge was built in 1860 to the design of surveyor William Snell Chauncy. Albury at this time became a Customs Post between the two colonies as New South Wales held a protectionist stance after gaining its constitution in 1856. Albury was at this time starting to grow with German speaking immigrants using the area to grow grapes for wine. By the 1870s a butter factory was established, flour mill and locally brewed cider and soft drinks were available; the railway line from Sydney arrived at Albury in 1881. A temporary wooden railway bridge joined the line to the Victorian network in 1883. New South Wales and Victoria had different track gauges until 1962, when the first train ran direct from Sydney to Melbourne; the two states could not agree which should be the transfer point so they had an expensive and attractive iron lattice bridge sent from Scotland which accommodated both gauges.
In 1888, Albury built its first school house. The city's first mayor, James Fallon, was an innovator of the Public School, funding a demonstration High School to be built on Kiewa Street. Albury High School opened in Kiewa Street in 1927; the Royal Commission on Sites for the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth report of 1903 recommended Albury as the preferred candidate for the national capital, though the proposal met staunch opposition from residents. At a public meeting, just one member of parliament voted in favour of Albury – Isaac Isaacs, member for Indi; the lack of support for other places led to the selection of Canberra as the preferred site. In 1934, a Douglas DC-2 airliner of KLM, a competitor in the MacRobertson Trophy Air Race, made an emergency night landing at the town's racecourse after becoming lost during severe thunderstorms. After signalling by Morse code A-L-B-U-R-Y to the lost aircrew by using the entire town's public lighting system, the "Uiver" was guided in to land safely.
The makeshift runway at the racecourse was illuminated by the headlights of cars belonging to local residents who had responded to a special news bulletin on ABC radio station 2CO. After refuelling the next day, many local volunteers h
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Division of Calare
The Division of Calare is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was first contested at the 1906 election; the Aboriginal name is pronounced Kal-ah-ree, but the pronunciation Kul-air is established for the division. The division stretches from Mudgee, Dubbo, Wellington in the north-west, to Orange, Bathurst and Oberon in the south-east; the current Member for Calare, since the 2016 federal election, is Andrew Gee, a member of the National Party. The division encompassed Forbes and Parkes. Subsequent boundary changes moved it eastwards to encompass Bathurst and Oberon. On these boundaries it was notionally a marginal seat between the Australian Labor Party and the National Party, but it was held comfortably by an independent, Peter Andren, from 1996 to 2007. Andren was not a candidate for the 2007 election: he intended to run for a Senate seat but was diagnosed with cancer in 2007 and died during the election campaign. A redistribution in 2006 moved the boundaries west to take in Cowra and the vast north-west of New South Wales from Brewarrina to Menindee, making Calare New South Wales's largest electorate.
Lithgow and Oberon, which tend to favour Labor, were transferred to the neighbouring seat of Macquarie. At the 2007 federal election, Calare was won by the Nationals' representative John Cobb on a margin of 12.1 percent. Cobb had represented the Division of Parkes, parts of which were redistributed into Calare in 2006; the 2009 redistribution of NSW moved the boundaries back east, to again include Lithgow and Oberon. Most of the northwestern area of the division was transferred to the neighbouring Division of Parkes; the changes took effect at the 2010 election. Division of Calare - Australian Electoral Commission
Tumut is a town in the Riverina region of New South Wales, situated on the banks of the Tumut River. Tumut sits on the north-west foothills of the Snowy Mountains and is located in the traditional lands of the Wiradjuri and Ngunnawal aboriginal peoples. Tumut is referred to as the'gateway to the snowy' Snowy Mountains Scheme; the former Tumut Shire was administered from offices located in the town. Tumut is 410 kilometres south-west of Sydney and 525 kilometres north-east of Melbourne. Tumut is home to a number of historic buildings, including an Anglican church designed by Edmund Blacket and a Courthouse designed by James Barnet. Many of the pubs in the town have been in use from the mid to late 1800s. Early settlers established a large number of European deciduous trees throughout the area; the stand of Poplars and Willow, amongst others, create a well renowned display of colour over autumn. Tumut celebrates this with the yearly Festival of the Falling Leaf; the word Tumut is derived from a Wiradjuri indigenous word for the area doo-maaht or doormat, meaning "a quiet resting place by the river".
The area's rivers may have been the boundaries or connection-points of the three traditional owners linked to this'country'. During summertime, the high country was a meeting place for tribes, with Bogong moths being an abundant food source in the warmer months. British pastoralists began acquiring land in the area during the 1830s. In 1840, Tumut was chosen as the headquarters for the section of the paramilitary Border Police based in the Murrumbidgee District; this force aided the colonists suppress both Aboriginal resistance and the raids of bushrangers, was under the command of the local Commissioner of Crown Lands in Henry Bingham. In 1845, a Court of Petty Sessions was established at Tumut with Frederick Walker appointed as the inaugural magistrate. Walker became famous as the first commandant of the brutal Native Police force based in Queensland. Tumut Post Office opened 1 January 1849. A public hospital opened in the town in 1900. After many years of lobbying by the local community, construction of the railway line from Gundagai began in 1901, reaching Tumut by 1903 with the first train arriving on 2 December that year.
A further extension was built to Batlow and Kunama from a junction at Gilmore, a few kilometres southwest of Tumut. Train services were progressively reduced in the early 1980s before the final trains to Cootamundra ran in January 1984 before being suspended when flood damage to the line was deemed not economical to repair. Tumut was one of the ten areas short-listed in 1908 as a site for the Australian Capital Territory. Other locations that were short-listed include Albury, Bombala, Lake George, Tooma and Yass-Canberra. An earlier vote following inspections of potential sites in 1902 saw the new Federal House of Representatives vote in favour of Tumut as the location for the capital, however the Senate favoured Bombala so no consensus was reached; the town's rugby league team competed in the Riverina Maher Cup competition, beginning as a fixture between teams from Gundagai and Tumut under rugby union rules in 1920, before switching to league rules in 1921. Tumut has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Adelong Falls Gold Workings Cootamundra-Tumut railway: Tumut railway station 46 Russell Street: Montreal Community Theatre Tumut Plains Road: Junction Bridge, Tumut82-84 Wynyard Street: Tumut Post Office Tumut is the centre of a softwood industry based on plantation Pinus radiata.
CarterHoltHarvey Woodproducts Pty Ltd operate a major sawmill on Adelong Road and a chipboard panel factory next door. 8 km further west on the Snowy Mountains Highway at Gilmore the company operates a sawlog processing plant. The Visy pulp and paper mill is located north of the Snowy Mountains Highway at Gadara; the Visy mill is the only paper mill owned by Visy that makes paper from wood, is one of the biggest wood mills in Australia. Tumut is situated on the Snowy Mountains Highway, but is connected by secondary roads to Gundagai as well as alternative routes to Canberra across the Brindabella Range via Brindabella Road and Wee Jasper Road. Despite being more direct, the terrain and road conditions limit traffic via these routes; this has led to calls by the council and local businesses for funding to upgrade the Brindabella Road, as the increased traffic would provide the town greater economic opportunities. The town was served by a railway branch line from Cootamundra, which operated from 1903 until 1984, when services were suspended due to flooding.
Although the line is not formally closed, it is unlikely to see service again with sections of track lifted during upgrades to the Hume Highway near Gundagai. Tumut Shire operates Tumut Airport, a small facility located a few kilometres out of town catering to general aviation. There are no scheduled services to the airport; the Tumut Blues compete in the Group 9 Rugby League competition, winning premierships in 1949, 1973, 2007, 2008 and 2010. Ray Beavan – rugby league player Allan Butler – paralympian Kim Carr – is an Australian politician, a Senator for Victoria and former Minister of several departments Reg Downing – Attorney General of New South Wales Cate Fowler AM – theatre producer, dramaturg David Johnson – former CEO of Campbell Soup Company Tom Kirk – rugby league player Tony McRae – Member and Minister in Western Australian Parliament Timothy Myers – professional skier / event director / ACS cinematographer John Cross – Victoria Cross recipient Sally Shipard – former international soccer pl
Orange, New South Wales
Orange is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres west of Sydney, at an altitude of 862 metres. Orange had an estimated urban population of 39,755 as of June 2016 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 metres AHD and commanding views of the district. Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was born in Orange; the first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in 1960. In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement, called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman. In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and of the road to Wellington.
On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley. Initial occupation by British graziers began in late 1829, tiny settlements turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, to advise on the location for a township, his choices were Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp. Blackman's Swamp was chosen, it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honor of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a sporadic population movement, known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold.
The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,182 people in the Orange urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.6% of the population. 83.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.6%, India 1.0%, New Zealand 0.9%, Philippines 0.5% and China 0.4%. 87.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam 0.7%, Mandarin 0.4%, Italian 0.3% and Nepali 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 30.1%, No Religion 22.0% and Anglican 20.2%. Of the employed people in Orange, 6.2% worked in Hospitals. Other major industries of employment included Gold Ore Mining 4.2%, State Government Administration 3.4%, Other Social Assistance Services 3.2% and Supermarket and Grocery Stores 2.5%.
Owing to its altitude, Orange has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters with frequent morning frosts and light to moderate, sometimes heavy snowfalls. The city is wet for an inland location owing to orographic effects from Mount Canobolas during the cooler months when snow falls. Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures, owing chiefly to its south-westerly exposure. In summer, the average maximum temperatures are lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation. Owing to its inland location, the humidity is low in the summer months with the dewpoint around 10 °C. Having 99.8 clear days annually, it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong, with a marked lack of sunshine in winter compared to summer The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, more a centre for cool-weather wine production. Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, produces apples and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches and plums.
In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination. Other large industries include: Cadia gold mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange; the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s and is a major employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Large mineral deposits are being uncovered from the more developed Ridgeway underground mine, adjacent to the Cadia Mine. An Electrolux white goods factory, closed in 2017. Ora
Central West (New South Wales)
The Central West is a region of New South Wales, Australia. The region is geographically in eastern New South Wales, in the area west of the Blue Mountains, which are west of Sydney, it has an area of 63,262 square kilometres. Major population and service centres in the Central West include the cities of Bathurst and Dubbo. Bathurst and Dubbo are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only main provider of university education for the region; the Central West includes three cities: Bathurst and Orange. The following local government areas are contained within the region: The Central West's east is higher and hillier and supports orchards, vegetable-growing and pastoralism; the west supports grain crops and pastoralism. The Central West region is traversed by the Great Western Highway, the Mid-Western Highway, the Mitchell Highway, the Newell Highway and the Castlereagh Highway; the Central West has several radio stations, including 97.9 2LVR, 105.1 2GZFM, 105.9 Star FM, 107.5 Community Radio, 103.5 Rhema FM and 1089AM — a commercial station that gets most of its programming from 2SM in Sydney.
Other electronic media are represented by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation with both television and radio broadcasting. The Central Western Daily newspaper is published in Orange; the Central West area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people. The first white explorer, George Wilson Evans, entered the Lachlan Valley in 1815, he named the area the Oxley Plains after his superior John Oxley. In 1817 he deemed the area unfit for white settlement. A Military Depot was established not long after at Soldiers Flat near present-day Billimari. Arthur Ranken and James Sloan, from Bathurst, were amongst the first white settlers on the Lachlan, they moved to the area in 1831. In the 1850s many gold prospectors passed through headed for gold fields at Lambing Flat and Grenfell. NSW Forecast Areas map Department of Local Government page for the region listing links to council pages "Open Directory" listing
Newbridge, New South Wales
Newbridge is a village of about 100 residents in New South Wales, Australia in Blayney Shire. It is 30 km from Bathurst and 15 km from Blayney in the Central Tablelands of NSW. At the 2006 census, Newbridge had a population of 90 people. Newbridge village developed around the railway line and station, built in 1876; the station was called Back Creek, the post office which opened two months in the same year was called Duramana. To avoid confusion with Duramana on the other side of Bathurst and due to either the large number of Irish settlers in the area reflecting upon Newbridge in Ireland or as the result of the opening of a pedestrian overhead bridge built at the station, the station, post office and village were called Newbridge; the current village survives in relation to the farming community still present in the area. Buildings in the area that still stand from yesteryear include the Gladstone Hotel, the public school, the original bakehouse, the police station, the convent, the new post office and the Catholic Church.
On 5 May 2010, a fatal accident occurred 5 km from Newbridge Railway station, involving the Daily XPT and an excavator. Newbridge has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Main Western railway: Newbridge railway station