St. Matthews, Kentucky
St. Matthews is a city in Jefferson County, United States, it forms part of the Louisville Metro government but is separately incorporated as a home rule-class city. The population was 17,472 at the 2010 census, up from 15,852 at the 2000 census, it is the 23rd-largest city in the state. St. Matthews is one of the state's major shopping areas, home to the fifth-largest mall in Kentucky along with many smaller shopping centers along Shelbyville Road. Dating the arrival of American Indians to present-day Kentucky remains controversial, with estimates ranging from 40,000 to 10,000 years before the present; as with European cultures, indigenous cultures were divided near the falls of the Ohio River, which marked a transition zone in travel and settlement. During the late Woodland period, this area was between the Ohioan Hopewell Culture and the Illinois Crab Orchard Culture that extended to the west, it was the boundary between the Mississippian and Fort Ancient cultures. During the 18th century, the area was claimed by various Indian tribes, including the Shawnee from the northwest and the Iroquois to the east.
The area known as St. Matthews was first settled by European Americans in 1779 during the American Revolutionary War by Col. James John Floyd of Virginia, he had conducted an important survey of the Jefferson County area in 1774, bought 2,000 acres of land from Virginia and other colonial veterans, awarded the parcels for their service in the French and Indian War. He arrived overland on November 1779, bringing several family members and a black slave, they built cabins and a stockade, which came to be known as "Floyd's Station". During the early 19th century, the area held several plantations and was known as the "garden of the state"; as with most areas of the Inner Bluegrass Region, the area was settled by many migrants from Virginia, who brought slaves for labor. The major crops were labor-intensive hemp. There were some changes to mixed crops. In the years before the Civil War, Kentucky planters had a surplus of slaves and sold many at markets in Louisville to traders who took them to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade.
Demand was high as the South was being developed for sugar and cotton. The invention of the cotton gin had made cultivation of short-staple cotton profitable; the St. Matthews community developed around the intersection of what are now Breckenridge Lane, Shelbyville Road, Westport Road. By 1840, it was known after local tavern owner Daniel Gilman; the name "St. Matthews" was adopted in 1850 after the completion of St. Matthew's Episcopal Church, the area's first, it became the official name of the community in 1851 when the newly opened U. S. post office adopted it. Numerous other Protestant churches were founded, including Baptist. Holy Trinity, the oldest of the three Catholic churches in the city, was completed in 1882, following immigration to the area of Catholics from Switzerland and Germany. Trinity High School was established nearby in association with the church. St. Matthews was connected to the Louisville and Lexington Railroad, as well as a railroad that connected Louisville to Anchorage and Middletown.
The railroad did not alter the economy of St. Matthews, which remained agricultural well into the 20th century. In the early 20th century, it produced so many potatoes that it was a major center of the country for this crop. From 1910 to 1946, it was home to the St. Matthews Produce Exchange, once the second-largest potato shipper in the country; the area began changing in the early 20th century as a result of urban transit and automobile traffic. The farms were subdivided and developed as residential areas; the original landowners' names – including Brown, Nanz, Monohan and Stich – were used for local streets. The town's first bank was founded in 1905. A modern shopping district began developing in the 1920s, to include the landmark Vogue Theater, opened in 1938. Growth of the area was accelerated by the Ohio River flood of 1937, which caused many families to leave low-lying ground in Louisville and move to St. Matthews, it incorporated as a city in 1950 to address infrastructure problems and to build a sewer system.
The Mall St. Matthews, Louisville's first indoor shopping mall, opened around this time. In 2001, St. Matthews annexed the cities of Broad Fields, Cherrywood Village, Plymouth Village, Springlee. St. Matthews is located in north-central Jefferson County at 38°15′0″N 85°38′33″W, it is 7 miles east of downtown Louisville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.3 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.36%, are water. The present boundaries of St. Matthews are Cannons Lane to the west, I-264 to the south and east, several subdivisions off Brownsboro Road to the north; these include Bellewood, Brownsboro Village, Maryhill Estates, Windy Hills. Farther east, St. Matthews is bordered by Woodlawn Park, Graymoor-Devondale and Norwood; the separately incorporated cities of Richlawn, Beechwood Village and Norbourne Estates are enclaves within St. Matthews; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,852 people, 7,978 households, 3,661 families residing in the city.
The population density was 3,938.3 people per square mile. There were 8,537 housing units at an average densit
Hurstbourne is a home rule-class city in Jefferson County, United States. The population was 4,216 at the 2010 census, up from 3,884 at the time of the 2000 U. S. census. It is part of the Louisville Metro Government; the land of the present city was part of a military grant to Henry Harrison. It was surveyed by John Floyd in 1774 and first settled by Maj. William Linn, who erected Linn's Station along Beargrass Creek in 1779, it was located along the east side of what is now Hurstbourne Parkway and at the time formed a part of the road from the Falls of the Ohio to Fort Harrod. The victims of the 1781 Long Run Massacre were on their way to this site from Squire Boone's Station when they were attacked by Indians and British soldiers. Finding their claim to the land's title questionable, Linn's heirs abandoned the site in the 1790s. In 1789, Col. Richard Clough Anderson Sr. purchased 500 acres of land in the area and established his estate under the name "Soldier's Retreat". His house suffered damage in the 1811 earthquake, was struck by lightning, was demolished in the 1840s.
By 1842, John Jeremiah Jacob owned the property and erected Lyndon Hall, now part of the Hurstbourne Country Club's clubhouse. In 1915, the Hert family acquired the property and renamed it "Hurstbourne". Hurstbourne Parkway was created in 1935. By 1965, the property was called "Highbaugh Farms" and, owing to the expansion of Louisville and residential development began, it incorporated as a city in 1982 to prevent its annexation by Louisville. All of the available land inside the city's limits was developed by 1990. Development in the 1970s, rediscovered the ruins of the Anderson house, excavated and rebuilt by local developer Leroy Highbaugh Jr, he moved his family into the rebuilt Soldier's Retreat in 1983, it now forms a local landmark. Hurstbourne is located in east-central Jefferson County at 38°14′25″N 85°35′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.63%, are water. Hurstbourne is bounded by Shelbyville Road to its north, Hurstbourne Parkway to its east, I-64 to its south, Oxmoor Farm and Oxmoor Center to its west.
Neighboring cities include Lyndon and Bellemeade to the north, Jeffersontown to the east. The area surrounding the intersection of I-64 and Hurstbourne Parkway can be considered an edge city to Louisville, with office parks, shopping centers, an industrial park all concentrated within a few blocks of the parkway, residential neighborhoods further off, all on land, undeveloped 40 years earlier; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,884 people, 1,699 households, 1,199 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,077.1 people per square mile. There were 1,887 housing units at an average density of 1,009.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.45% White, 3.01% African American, 0.10% Native American, 4.25% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 1,699 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 3.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families.
27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 36.8% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $88,972, the median income for a family was $106,450. Males had a median income of $98,616 versus $35,029 for females; the per capita income for the city was $49,328. About 1.3% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.9% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. City of Hurstbourne official website
Louisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad called the L&N, was a Class I railroad that operated freight and passenger services in the southeast United States. Chartered by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1850, the road grew into one of the great success stories of American business. Operating under one name continuously for 132 years, it survived civil war and economic depression and several waves of social and technological change. Under Milton H. Smith, president of the company for thirty years, the L&N grew from a road with less than three hundred miles of track to a 6,000-mile system serving fourteen states; as one of the premier Southern railroads, the L&N extended its reach far beyond its namesake cities, stretching to St. Louis, Memphis and New Orleans; the railroad was economically strong throughout its lifetime, operating both freight and passenger trains in a manner that earned it the nickname, "The Old Reliable." Growth of the railroad continued until its purchase and the tumultuous rail consolidations of the 1980s which led to continual successors.
By the end of 1970, L&N operated 6,063 miles of road on 10,051 miles of track, not including the Carrollton Railroad. In 1971 the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, successor to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, purchased the remainder of the L&N shares it did not own, the company became a subsidiary. By 1982 the railroad industry was consolidating and the Seaboard Coast Line absorbed the Louisville & Nashville Railroad entirely. In 1986, the Seaboard System merged with the C&O and B&O and the new combined system was known as the Chessie System. Soon after the combined company became CSX Transportation, which now owns and operates all of the former Louisville and Nashville lines, its first line extended south of Louisville, it took until 1859 to span the 180-odd miles to its second namesake city of Nashville. There were about 250 miles of track in the system by the outbreak of the Civil War, its strategic location, spanning the Union/Confederate lines, made it of great interest to both governments.
During the Civil War, different parts of the network were pressed into service by both armies at various times, considerable damage from wear and sabotage occurred.. However, the company benefited from being based in the Union state of Kentucky, the fact that Nashville fell to Union forces within the first year of the war and remained in their hands for its duration, it profited from Northern haulage contracts for troops and supplies, paid in sound Federal greenbacks, as opposed to the depreciating Confederate dollars. After the war, other railroads in the South were devastated to the point of collapse, the general economic depression meant that labor and materials to repair its roads could be had cheaply. Buoyed by these fortunate circumstances, the firm began an expansion that never stopped. Within 30 years the network reached from Missouri to Louisiana and Florida. By 1884, the firm had such importance that it was included in the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the first American stock market index.
It was such a large customer of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the country's second largest locomotive maker, that in 1879 the firm presented L&N with a free locomotive as a thank-you bonus. Since all locomotives of the time were steam-powered, many railroads had favored coal as their engines' fuel source after wood-burning models were found unsatisfactory; the L&N guaranteed not only its own fuel sources but a steady revenue stream by pushing its lines into the difficult but coal-rich terrain of eastern Kentucky, well into northern Alabama. There the small town of Birmingham had been founded amidst undeveloped deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone, the basic ingredients of steel production; the arrival of L&N transport and investment capital helped create a great industrial city and the South's first postwar urban success story. The railroad's access to good coal enabled it to claim for a few years starting in 1940 the nation's longest unrefuelled run, about 490 miles from Louisville to Montgomery, Alabama.
In the Gilded Age of the late 19th century there were no such things as anti-trust or fair-competition laws and little financial regulation. Business was a keen and mean affair, the L&N was a formidable competitor, it would exclude upstarts like the Tennessee Central Railway Company from critical infrastructure like urban stations. Where that wasn't possible, as with the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway, it used its financial muscle—in 1880 it acquired a controlling interest in its chief competitor. A public outcry convinced the L&N directors, they discreetly continued the NC&StL as a separate subsidiary, but now working with, instead of in competition with, the L&N. Ironically, in 1902 financial speculations by financier J. P. Morgan delivered control of the L&N to its rival Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, but that company made no attempt to control L&N operations, for many decades there were no consequences of this change; the World Wars brought heavy demand to the L&N. Its widespread and robust network coped well with the demands of war transport and production, the resulting profits harked back to the boost it had received from the Civil War.
In the postwar period, the line shifted to diesel power, the new streamlined engines pulled some of the most elegant passenger trains of the last great age of passenger rail, such as the Dixi
John M. Robsion Jr.
John Marshall Robsion Jr. a Republican, was a United States Representative from Kentucky from 1953 to 1959 and was the Republican nominee for Governor of Kentucky in 1959. Robsion was born in Barbourville, he received his undergraduate and law degrees from George Washington University and attended Georgetown University and the National War College. He worked as a congressional secretary from 1919 to 1928 and was admitted to the practice of law in 1926. Robsion settled in Louisville in 1928, he went back to Washington to serve as chief of the law division for the United States Bureau of Pensions from 1929 to 1935. Afterward he returned to Louisville to practice law, serving as general counsel for the Kentucky Republican Party from 1938 to 1942. Robsion served in the United States Army during World War II from 1942 to 1946. From 1946 to 1952 Robsion served as a circuit judge in Kentucky. In 1952, incumbent Louisville Congressman Thruston B. Morton decided against seeking another term in that seat.
Robsion sought it and was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1952 from Kentucky's Third Congressional District. He was defeated by Democrat Frank W. Burke. Robsion was the Republican nominee for Governor of Kentucky in 1959 but lost the election to Democrat Bert T. Combs. Combs won 516,549 votes to Robsion's 336,456. After leaving Congress, Robsion returned to the practice of law, he was Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Robsion died in Fort Lauderdale on February 14, 1990, was buried at Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville. Robsion Park in Lyndon, Ky. is named for John M. Robison Jr. and his wife Laura Robsion, who died in 1980. Robsion donated the land for the 17-acre park in 1985. Congressional biography "John M. Robsion Jr". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-08
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Government of Louisville, Kentucky
The government of Louisville, headquartered at Louisville City Hall in Downtown Louisville, is organized under Chapter 67C of the Kentucky Revised Statutes as a First-Class city in the state of Kentucky. Created after the merger of the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County, the city/county government is organized under a mayor-council system; the Mayor is elected to four-year terms and is responsible for the administration of city government. The Louisville Metro Council is a unicameral body consisting of 26 members, each elected from a geographic district for four-year terms; the Mayor is limited to a three consecutive term limit, while members of the Louisville Metro Council are not term limited. The Executive Branch of the Louisville Metro Government is led by the Mayor, contains two dozen distinct agencies; each agency is led by either a Commissioner, both of whom are appointed by the Mayor. The agencies are grouped into nine distinct entities, referred to as departments; each Department is led by a Chief, appointed by, reports to, the Mayor.
The Mayor is the chief executive officer of a magistrate. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and federal laws within the Louisville Metropolitan area. Under the Kentucky Revised Statutes, they are responsible for the appointment and removal of all unelected officers and shall "broadly exercise all executive and administrative powers" vested in the city except otherwise prescribed by law; the mayor is directly elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The mayor is responsible for creating the city's budget through the Office of Management and Budget, submitted for approval, not drafting, to the Louisville Metro Council; the Mayor's office is located at Louisville City Hall in Downtown Louisville. It has complete jurisdiction over the Louisville Metro and Jefferson County areas, in addition to partial jurisdiction over all Home-rule class cities within the Louisville Metro; the mayor appoints a large number of officials, including Commissioners and Chiefs.
Regulations approved by the mayor's office are compiled in the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Code. According to current law, the Mayor is limited to three consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break. Under KRS 67C.105, the mayor is charged with nine specific duties and responsibilities under the law. The mayor is empowered to: Prepare and submit an annual report coinciding with the fiscal year, on the state of the consolidated local government, to be presented at a public meeting of the council. Legislative Powers of the city of Louisville are vested in the Louisville Metro Council. Formally established in 2003 after the city/county merger, the council is a unicameral body consisting of 26 Council members, whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries that each contain 28,500 people. Although all cities in Jefferson County, apart from Louisville itself, maintained their respective status after the merger, their residents are represented on Metro Council and vote alongside other county residents.
The seats come up for reelection every four years, using a staggered process so that only half of the seats are up every two years. Numbered districts hold elections overlapping each quadrennial Presidential election, whilst odd numbered districts hold elections overlapping each quadrennial off-season election. All districts are redrawn every ten years, after the Decennial United States Census; the last redistricting took place in 2011. At the beginning of the first Legislative session of each year, the 26 members of the Metro Council elect a Council President; the Council President serves for a one-year term, while there is no term limit, no Council President has served for more than two terms, with the exception of former Councilman Jim King, who served an unprecedented four terms, from 2011 until 2015, when he died in office. Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the Mayor, who may veto them. If the Mayor vetoes a bill, the Council may override this veto with a two-thirds vote. Passed laws are incorporated into the Louisville Metro Code, published online.
Since the city/county merger in 2003, only five bills have been vetoed by the mayor. In addition, only one veto has been overruled by the Council; the Metro Council is organized into 13 Standing Committees. Each Committee is led by a Chairman and Vice Chairman, both of whom are appointed by the Council President, who serves as an ex officio member of all committees. In the city of Louisville, Public Agency is the name given to various regulatory agencies and public-benefit corporations which operate within the city limits. While in theory public agencies within the city fall under the absolute jurisdiction of the Louisville Mayor's office, in practice each agen
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820