Head Start (program)
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. The program's services and resources are designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children's physical and emotional well-being, establish an environment to develop strong cognitive skills; the transition from preschool to elementary school imposes diverse developmental challenges that include requiring the children to engage with their peers outside the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, meet the expectations the school setting provides. Launched in 1965 by its creator and first director Jule Sugarman, Head Start was conceived as a catch-up summer school program that would teach low-income children in a few weeks what they needed to know to start elementary school; the Head Start Act of 1981 expanded the program. The program was revised when it was reauthorized in December 2007.
Head Start is one of the longest-running programs attempting to address the effects of systemic poverty in the United States by intervening to aid children. As of late 2005, more than 22 million children had participated; the current director of Head Start is Dr. Deborah Bergeron Head Start began as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society campaign, its justification came from the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Stan Salett, civil rights organizer, national education policy advisor and creator of the Upward Bound Program, is credited with initiating the Head Start program. Johnson started the War on Poverty shortly after President Kennedy's assassination; the murder shook the nation, Johnson attempted to gain public trust by passing legacy legislation during the subsequent months. Johnson received an initial briefing from Walter Heller, who informed Johnson of Kennedy's poverty program. By March 1964, the legislation, now known as the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, had been prepared for Congress.
The legislation included training and service programs for communities, including the Job Corps. The Office of Economic Opportunity's Community Action Program launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965; the program was led by Dr. Robert Cooke, a pediatrician at Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Edward Zigler, a professor of psychology and director of the Yale Child Study Center, they designed a comprehensive child development program intended to help communities meet the needs of disadvantaged preschool children. The following year it was authorized by Congress as a year–round program. In 1968, Head Start began funding a television series that would be called Sesame Street, operated by the Carnegie Corporation Children's Television Workshop. In 1969, Head Start was transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health and Welfare by the Nixon Administration. Today it is a program within the Administration for Children and Families in DHHS. In 1994, the Early Head Start program was established to serve children from birth to age three, in an effort to capitalize on research evidence that showed that the first three years are critical to children's long-term development.
Programs are administered by local organizations and education agencies such as school systems. In the early years, some 700,000 children enrolled at a per-capita cost of $2,000 to $3,000. Under the full-time program, enrollment dropped to under 400,000 by the early 1970s. Enrollment reached close to 1 million children by 2011; the Head Start Policy Council makes up part of the Head Start governing body. Policy Council must be composed of two types of representatives: parents of enrolled children and community representatives. At least 51% of the members of this group must be the parents of enrolled children. All parent members of the Policy Council must stand for re-election annually; this is done through their individual parent groups. Grantees/Delegates are required to provide proportionate representation to parents in all program options and settings. If agencies operate programs serving different geographical regions or ethnic groups, they must ensure that all groups being served will have an equal opportunity to serve on the Policy Council.
The Policy Council is required to meet once each month. The term follows the federal government fiscal year. Service on the Policy Council board is limited to three consecutive years per lifetime; the meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules. The meeting day and time is agreed upon during the first meeting of the term year and may be adjusted as needed; the Policy Council approval is needed for several program functions, from new hires to the program, as well as for the budget and spending. The Council can serve the program in ways that the others in the program cannot, as it is the only body, part of Head Start that can do fundraising. In addition to monthly meetings, Policy Council may at times need to hold special or emergency meetings or have a phone vote. Policy Council representatives are required to attend classroom meetings and report back to the Policy Council with issues and needs of the classroom, they may be asked to sit in on interviews as Head Start requires that a Policy Council representative be present for all interviews.
The officers of Policy Council include vice-chairperson and vice-secretary. Classrooms are able to elect alternate Policy Council reps in case the main rep is unable to attend the meetings. Head Start serves ov
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time in Dallas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, Connally's wife Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U. S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald firing in ambush from a nearby building. Governor Connally was wounded in the attack; the motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital where President Kennedy was pronounced dead about thirty minutes after the shooting. Oswald was arrested by the Dallas Police Department 70 minutes after the initial shooting. Oswald was charged under Texas state law with the murder of Kennedy as well as that of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit, fatally shot a short time after the assassination. At 11:21 a.m. November 24, 1963, as live television cameras were covering his transfer from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby.
Oswald was taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder, though it was overturned on appeal, Ruby died in prison in 1967 while awaiting a new trial. After a ten-month investigation, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy, that Oswald had acted alone, that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald. Kennedy was the eighth US President to die in the fourth to be assassinated. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson automatically assumed the Presidency upon Kennedy's death. A investigation, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations agreed with the Warren Commission that the injuries that Kennedy and Connally sustained were caused by Oswald's three rifle shots, but they concluded that Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy" as analysis of a dictabelt audio recording pointed to the existence of an additional gunshot and therefore "... a high probability that two gunmen fired at President." The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the possible conspiracy.
In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were "seriously flawed" with respect to information-sharing and the possibility of conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected. In light of the investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman," the U. S. Justice Department concluded active investigations and stated "that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in... the assassination of President Kennedy." However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Polls conducted from 1966 to 2004 found that up to 80 percent of Americans suspected that there was a plot or cover-up. President John F. Kennedy chose to travel to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough and conservative John Connally.
A presidential visit to Texas was first agreed upon by Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Texas Governor John Connally while all three men were together in a meeting in El Paso on June 5, 1963. President Kennedy decided to embark on the trip with three basic goals in mind: 1.) to help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions. Begin his quest for reelection in November 1964. President Kennedy's trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963; the exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and publicly announced a few days before November 22. Kennedy's motorcade route through Dallas with Johnson and Connally was planned to give the president maximum exposure to local crowds before his arrival for a luncheon at the Trade Mart, where he would meet with civic and business leaders; the White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive at Dallas Love Field via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth.
The Dallas Trade Mart was preliminarily selected as the place for the luncheon, Kenneth O'Donnell, President Kennedy's friend and appointments secretary, had selected it as the final destination on the motorcade route. Leaving from Dallas Love Field, the motorcade had been allotted 45 minutes to reach the Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 p.m. The itinerary was designed to serve as a meandering 10-mile route between the two places, the motorcade vehicles could be driven within the allotted time. Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail who acted as the advance Secret Service Agent, Secret Service Agent Forrest V. Sorrels, Special Agent in charge of the Dallas office, were the most active in planning the actual motorcade route. On November 14, both men attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route that Sorrels believed was best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a suburban section of Dallas, through Downtown along Main Street, to the Trade Mart via a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway.
The President had planned to return to Love Field to depart for a fundraising dinner in Austin that day. For the return
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872; the newspaper has won a total of 26 Pulitzer Prizes as of 2016, with a total paid circulation of 245,824 from September 2015 to August 2016, it is the 25th most read newspaper in the United States. The Boston Globe is the largest daily newspaper in Boston. Founded in the late 19th century, the paper was controlled by Irish Catholic interests before being sold to Charles H. Taylor and his family. After being held until 1973, it was sold to The New York Times in 1993 for $1.1 billion, making it one of the most expensive print purchases in U. S. history. The newspaper was purchased in 2013 by Boston Red Sox and Liverpool F. C. owner John W. Henry for $70 million from The New York Times Company, having lost 93.64% of its value in twenty years. The newspaper has been noted as "one of the nation’s most prestigious papers." The paper's coverage of the 2001–2003 Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal received international media attention and served as the basis of the 2015 American drama, Spotlight.
In 1967, The Globe became the first major paper in the United States to come out against the Vietnam War. The chief print rival of The Boston Globe is the Boston Herald; as of 2013, The Globe circulates the entire press run of its rival. The editor-in-chief, otherwise known as the editor, of the paper is Brian McGrory who took the helm in December 2012; the Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, who jointly invested $150,000; the first issue was published on March 4, 1872, cost four cents. A morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, which absorbed the rival Boston Weekly Globe in 1892. In 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, with an editorial staff dominated by Irish American Catholics. In 1912, the Globe was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The New York Globe, the Philadelphia Bulletin, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate.
In 1965, Thomas Winship succeeded Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a mediocre local paper into a regional paper of national distinction, he served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the first in the paper's history. The Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications, it continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor. In 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times' parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, but the last Taylor family members have since left management. Boston.com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Ranked among the top ten newspaper websites in America, it has won numerous national awards and took two regional Emmy Awards in 2009 for its video work.
Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, The Globe shifted away from coverage of international news in favor of Boston-area news. Globe reporters Michael Rezendes, Matt Carroll, Sacha Pfeiffer and Walter Robinson and editor Ben Bradlee Jr. were an instrumental part of uncovering the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal in 2001–2003 in relation to Massachusetts churches. They were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for their work, one of several the paper has received for its investigative journalism, their work was dramatized in the 2015 Academy Award-winning film Spotlight, named after the paper's in-depth investigative division; the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31, 2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bush's use of signing statements made national news, won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. The Boston Globe has been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. Time magazine listed it as one of the ten best US daily newspapers in 1974 and 1984, the Globe tied for sixth in a national survey of top editors who chose "America's Best Newspapers" in the Columbia Journalism Review in 1999; the Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics and a blog made up of posts from the paper's opinion writers. On April 2, 2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings; some of the cost savings include reducing union employees' pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, ending certain employees' tenures. The Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs. However, early on the morning of May 5, 2009, The New York Times Company announced it had reached a tentative deal with the Boston Newspaper Guild, which represents most of the Globe's editorial staff, that allowed it to get the concessions it demanded.
The paper's other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3, 2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
Texas's 10th congressional district
Texas District 10 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the northwestern portion of the Greater Houston region stretching to the Austin area of Texas. The current representative is Michael McCaul. For most of the time from 1903 to 2005, the 10th was centered on Austin, it included large portions of the Texas Hill Country. Future President Lyndon Johnson represented this district from 1937 to 1949. During the second half of the 20th century, Austin's dramatic growth resulted in the district becoming more compact over the years. By the 1990s, it was reduced to little more than Austin itself and surrounding suburbs in Travis County. However, in a mid-decade redistricting conducted in 2003, the 10th was altered, it lost much of the southern portion of its territory. To make up for the loss in population, it was extended all the way to the outer fringes of Houston. On paper, the new district was Republican. Five-term Democratic incumbent Lloyd Doggett was forced to transfer to another district.
McCaul won the open seat in 2004, has held it since. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 authorized the formation of local Community Action Agencies as part of the War on Poverty. These agencies are directly regulated by the federal government. "It is the purpose of The Economic Opportunity Act to strengthen and coordinate efforts in furtherance of that policy". Eliminate poverty Expand educational opportunities Increase the safety net for the poor and unemployed Tend to health and financial needs of the elderly The War on Poverty was declared by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his State of the Union Address on January 8, 1964: This administration today here and now declares unconditional war on poverty in America. I urge this Congress and all Americans to join me in that effort.... Poverty is a national problem, requiring improved national support, but this attack, to be effective, must be organized at the State and local level. For the war against poverty will not be won here in Washington, it must be won in the field, in every private home, in every public office, from the courthouse to the White House.
A lack of jobs and money is not the cause of poverty, but the symptom. Our aim is not only to relieve the symptoms of poverty but to cure it–and above all, to prevent it. No single piece of legislation, however, is going to suffice. W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, was a major proponent of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. During a June 17, 1967, hearing before the Select Committee on Poverty of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate, Secretary Wirtz stated, "It has become clear that America is not going to put up with poverty amidst prosperity. We realize that by itself prosperity is not going to get rid of poverty." He emphasized that the War on Poverty had two central objectives: First, to provide jobs and training for those young people now growing up in poverty, condemned by lack of economic opportunity to repeat the cycle over again. Second, to begin the process of planning and organizing that will bring the entire resources of a community to bear on the specific problem of breaking up the cycle of poverty in that community.
The War on Poverty attacked the roots and consequences of poverty by creating job opportunities, increasing productivity, enhancing the quality of life. The aim was not to end poverty. On March 16, 1964, President Johnson called for the act in his Special Message to Congress that presented his proposal for a nationwide war on the sources of poverty; the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was passed as a part of LBJ's War on Poverty. Encompassing John F. Kennedy's purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was created "to eliminate the paradox of poverty on the midst of plenty in this nation by opening…. To everyone… the opportunity for education and training, the opportunity to work, the opportunity to live in decency and dignity."In his 1964 Special Message to Congress, President Johnson declared "The Act does not expand on old programs or improve what was being done. It charts a new course, it strikes at the causes of poverty…Not just the consequences of poverty.
It can be a milestone in our 180-year search for a better life for your people." In January 1964, President Johnson gave Sargent Shriver the task of developing a bill to wage the war against poverty in the United States. The bill was presented to Congress in March, 1964, it was introduced in the House by Representative Phil M. Landrum, in the Senate by Senator Pat McNamara. In the Senate, the bill was debated for two days and passed on July 23, 1964, with 61 Senators in favor, 34 opposed. In the House, the Senate-passed bill was debated for four days and passed by a vote of 226 to 185, on August 8, 1964; the debate and voting in both the House and Senate was partisan with Republicans questioning states' rights and southern Democrats the racial integration provisions. The Senate adopted the House-passed bill that same day and twelve days on August 20, 1964, the bill was signed by President Johnson; the Economic Opportunity Act was announced by the president in his first State of the Union Address as the keystone of the war on poverty.
The act included eleven major programs: 1. The Job Corps provides work, basic education, training in separate residential centers for young men and young women, from ages sixteen to twenty-one. 2. Neighborhood Youth Corps provides work and training for young men and women, ages sixteen to twenty-one, from impoverished families and neighborhoods. 3. Work Study provides grants to colleges and universities for part-time employment of students from low-income families who need to earn money to pursue their education. 4. Urban and Rural Community Action provides financial and technical assistance to public and private nonprofit agencies for community action programs developed with "maximum feasible participation" of the poor and giving "promise of progress toward elimination of poverty." 5. Adult Basic Education provides grants to state educational agencies for programs of instruction for persons eighteen years and older whose inability to read and write English is an impediment to employment. 6. Voluntary Assistance for Needy Children establishes an information and coordination center to encourage voluntary assistance for deserving and needy children.
7. Loans to Rural Families provides loans not exceeding $2,500 that assist low income rural families in permanently increasing their income. 8. Assistance for Migrant Agricultural Employees provides assistance to state and local governments and private nonprofit agencies or individuals in operating programs to assist migrat
1960 United States presidential election
The 1960 United States presidential election was the 44th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee; this was the first election in which all fifty states participated, the last in which the District of Columbia did not. It was the first election in which an incumbent president was ineligible to run for a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. Nixon faced little opposition in the Republican race to succeed popular incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower. Kennedy, a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, established himself as the Democratic front-runner with his strong performance in the 1960 Democratic primaries, including a key victory in West Virginia over Senator Hubert Humphrey, he defeated Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson on the first presidential ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, asked Johnson to serve as his running mate.
The issue of the Cold War dominated the election, as tensions were high between the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy won a 303 to 219 Electoral College victory, is considered to have won the national popular vote by 112,827, a margin of 0.17 percent. The issue of the popular vote was complicated by the presence of several unpledged electors in the Deep South. Fourteen unpledged electors from Mississippi and Alabama cast their vote for Senator Harry F. Byrd, as did a faithless elector from Oklahoma; the 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, this closeness can be explained by a number of factors. Kennedy benefited from the economic recession of 1957–58, which hurt the standing of the incumbent Republican Party, he had the advantage of 17 million more registered Democrats than Republicans. Furthermore, the new votes that Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president, gained among Catholics neutralized the new votes Nixon gained among Protestants. Kennedy's campaigning skills decisively outmatched Nixon's, who wasted time and resources campaigning in all fifty states while Kennedy focused on campaigning in populous swing states.
Nixon's emphasis on his experience carried little weight for most voters. Kennedy used his large, well-funded campaign organization to win the nomination, secure endorsements, with the aid of the big-city bosses, get out the vote in the big cities. Kennedy relied on Johnson to hold the South, used television effectively. In 1963, Kennedy was succeeded by Johnson. Nixon would successfully seek the presidency in 1968; the major candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination were John F. Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon, Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota. Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as "favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.
Kennedy was dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him Kennedy stated frankly, "I'm not running for vice president, I'm running for president." The next step was the primaries. Kennedy's Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary and defeated him. Kennedy's attractive sisters and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store." However, some political experts argued that Kennedy's margin of victory had come entirely from Catholic areas, thus Humphrey decided to continue the contest in the Protestant state of West Virginia. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, Kennedy outperformed Humphrey. Humphrey's campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other "get-out-the-vote" drives with Kennedy's well-financed and well-organized campaign.
In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, Humphrey ended his presidential campaign. West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine presidential primaries, Kennedy's rivals and Symington, failed to campaign in any primaries. Though Stevenson had twice been the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and retained a loyal following of liberals, his two landslide defeats to Republican Dwight Eisenhower led most party leaders and delegates to search for a "fresh face" who could win a national election. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations and their leaders; as the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win. The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in California. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy receiv