Alpharetta is a city located in northern Fulton County, United States and is an affluent suburb of Atlanta. As of the 2010 census, Alpharetta's population was 57,551; the estimated population in 2017 was 65,799. In the 1830s, the Cherokee people in Georgia and elsewhere in the South were forcibly relocated to the Indian Territory under the Indian Removal Act. Pioneers and farmers settled on the newly vacated land, situated along a former Cherokee trail stretching from the North Georgia mountains to the Chattahoochee River. One of the first permanent landmarks in the area was the New Prospect Camp Ground, located beside a natural spring near what is now downtown Alpharetta, it served as a trading post for the exchanging of goods among settlers. Known as the town of Milton through July 1858, the city of Alpharetta was chartered on December 11, 1858, with boundaries extending in a 0.5-mile radius from the city courthouse. It served as the county seat of Milton County until 1931, when Milton County was merged with Fulton County to avoid bankruptcy during the Great Depression.
The city's name is a variation of a fictional Indian girl, Alfarata, in a 19th-century song, "The Blue Juniata". The name of the city is believed to have been derived from the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Alpharetta is governed by a city council composed of a mayor; the mayor and council members serve staggered four-year terms. Mayors: Jim Gilvin 2018 - David Belle Isle 2012 – 2018 Arthur Letchas 2001 – 2011 Chuck Martin 1995 - 2002 Jimmy Phillips 1979 - 1994 George Wills Randall Moore Sindey Dees Alpharetta is located in northern Fulton County at 34°4′24″N 84°16′52″W, it is bordered to the southeast by Johns Creek, to the south and west by Roswell, to the north by Milton, to the northeast by unincorporated land in Forsyth County. Downtown Alpharetta is 26 miles north of downtown Atlanta. According to the United States Census Bureau, Alpharetta has a total area of 27.3 square miles, of which 26.9 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles, or 1.37%, is water. Alpharetta is part of USDA hardiness zone 7b.
State Route 9 State Route 120 State Route 140 State Route 372 State Route 400 There are plans for the creation of the Alpha Loop. The multi-use path will serve to connect residents of Alpharetta to activity centers and jobs by a network of multi-use trails providing safe alternatives to driving and offering recreational benefit; the Big Creek Greenway is a concrete multi-use trail that runs from Windward Parkway to Mansell Road. The concrete trail is 8 miles and meanders along Big Creek parallel to North Point Parkway, from Windward Parkway at Marconi Drive on the north end to Mansell Road on the south end. A soft mulch trail encircles a large wetland between Haynes Bridge Mansell Road. Wildlife such as blue heron, deer and Canada geese can be observed in this preserved water setting. Future plans are to connect the trail to Cumming. Alpharetta is by multiple bus routes. There have only been plans to connect Alpharetta to the rest of Metro Atlanta via heavy rail. Http://www.itsmarta.com/uploadedFiles/SystemMap2017_w.pdf As of the census of 2000, there were 34,854 people, 13,911 households, 8,916 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,631.6 people per square mile. There were 14,670 housing units at an average density of 686.7 per square mile. The population has been increasing over the last decade. During the workday, the city swells to more than 120,000 residents and visitors, due to the more than 3,600 businesses that are located in the city. According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the city of Alpharetta was as follows: White: 72.0% Asian: 13.7% Black or African American: 11.2% Hispanic or Latino: 8.7% Other: 2.9% Two or more races: 2.8% Native American: 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%There were 13,911 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city, 27.0% of the population was under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 40.5% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $95,888, the median income for a family was $111,918; the per capita income for the city was $42,431. Males had a median income of $79,275 versus $59,935 for females. About 2.9% of families and 1.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including.3% of those under age 18 and.6% of those age 65 or over. Cynergy Data is headquartered in Alpharetta. According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top private sector employers in the city are: Major retail complexes include North Point Mall. A 86-acre mixed-use development, opened in 2014; the Downtown Alpharetta Welcome Center is located at 178 South Main Street and has more than 200 complimentary brochures providing information on the surrounding area.
The center is open Monday — Friday from 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. and Saturday 10 a.m. - 4 p.m. The Alpharetta Family Skate Center is on 10
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments. It has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight, cylindrical tube with an cylindrical bore, a flared bell. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist. While the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved. During the Late Baroque era, composers such as Bach and Handel were making new demands on the skills of their trumpeters, who were required to play difficult melodic passages in the high, or as it came to be called, clarion register. Since the trumpets of this time had no valves or pistons, melodic passages would require the use of the highest part of the trumpet's range, where the harmonics were close enough together to produce scales of adjacent notes as opposed to the gapped scales or arpeggios of the lower register; the trumpet parts that required this specialty were known by the term clarino and this in turn came to apply to the musicians themselves.
It is probable that the term clarinet may stem from the diminutive version of the'clarion' or'clarino' and it has been suggested that clarino players may have helped themselves out by playing difficult passages on these newly developed "mock trumpets". Johann Christoph Denner is believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the playability. In modern times, the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a semitone lower, is used in orchestral music. An orchestral clarinetist must own both a clarinet in A and B♭ since the repertoire is divided evenly between the two. Since the middle of the 19th century the bass clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra; the clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet. The clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, used in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands, klezmer and other styles.
The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It would seem however that its real roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the Renaissance and Baroque eras. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet; this is the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, of the European equivalents such as clarinette in French or the German Klarinette. According to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet"; the English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. The cylindrical bore is responsible for the clarinet's distinctive timbre, which varies between its three main registers, known as the chalumeau and altissimo; the tone quality can vary with the clarinetist, instrument and reed.
The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of clarinetists led to the development from the last part of the 18th century onwards of several different schools of playing. The most prominent were French school; the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of playing available; the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from. The A and B ♭ clarinets use the same mouthpiece. Orchestral clarinetists using the A and B♭ instruments in a concert could use the same mouthpiece; the A and B♭ have nearly identical tonal quality, although the A has a warmer sound. The tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter and can be heard through loud orchestral or concert band textures; the bass clarinet has a characteristically deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass. Clarinets have the largest pitch range of common woodwinds; the intricate key organization that makes this possible can make the playability of some passages awkward.
The bottom of the clarinet's written range is defined by the keywork on each instrument, standard keywork schemes allowing a low E on the common B♭ clarinet. The lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question; the nominal highest note of the B♭ clarinet is a semitone higher than the highest note of the oboe. Since the clarinet has a wider range of notes, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Nearly all soprano and piccolo clarinets have keywork enabling them to play the E below middle C as their lowest written note, though some B♭ clarinets go down to E♭3 to enable them to match the range of the A clarinet. On the B♭ soprano clarinet, the concert pitch of the lowest note is D3, a whole tone lower than the written pitch. Most alto and bass clarinets have an extra key to allow a E♭3. Modern professional-quality bass clarinets have additional keywork to written C3. Among the less encountered members of t
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe and bassoon, percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, snare drum and cymbals, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called philharmonic orchestra; the actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.
The typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton; the conductor sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The conductor prepares the orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert, in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on their interpretation of the music being performed; the leader of the first violin section called the concertmaster plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the Baroque music era, orchestras were led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, as pit ensembles for operas and some types of musical theatre.
Amateur orchestras include those made up of students from an elementary school or a high school, youth orchestras, community orchestras. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus; the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments; the orchestra, depending on the size, contains all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Ludwig van Beethoven's influence on the classical model. In the 20th and 21st century, new repertory demands expanded the instrumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a flexible use of the classical-model instruments and newly developed electric and electronic instruments in various combinations.
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orchestra may be used to distinguish different ensembles from the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony orchestra will have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. Chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles; the term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra. The so-called "standard complement" of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven; the composer's instrumentation always included paired flutes, clarinets, bassoons and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven calculated the expansion of this particular timbral "palette" in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, 9 for an innovative effect.
The third horn in the "Eroica" Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of "choral" brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth known as the Pastoral Symphony; the Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica".
A musical ensemble known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra; some music ensembles consist of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles; some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass and percussion. In jazz ensembles or combos, the instruments include wind instruments, one or two chordal "comping" instruments, a bass instrument, a drummer or percussionist.
Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles called rock bands or pop bands, there are guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, a rhythm section made up of a bass guitar and drum kit. Music ensembles have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, this is the band leader. In classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra. In orchestras, the individual sections have leaders called the "principal" of the section. Conductors are used in jazz big bands and in some large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles; the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of eleven musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet.
A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble. A string quartet consists of a viola and a cello. There is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet and a bassoon. A brass quartet features a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a soprano saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone, a baritone saxophone; the string quintet is a common type of group. It is similar to the string quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more the addition of a double bass. Terms such as "piano quintet" or "clarinet quintet" refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument. Mozart's Clarinet Quintet is a piece written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, a cello and a clarinet, the last being the exceptional addition to a "normal" string quartet; some other quintets in classical music are the wind quintet consisting of flute, clarinet and horn. Classical chamber ensembles of six, seven, or eight musicians are common.
In most cases, a larger classical group is referred to as an orchestra of some type or a concert band. A small orchestra with fifteen to thirty members is called a chamber orchestra. A sinfonietta denotes a somewhat smaller orchestra. Larger orchestras are called philharmonic orchestras. A pops orchestra is an orchestra that performs light classical music and orchestral arrangements and medleys of popular jazz, music theater, or pop music songs. A string orchestra has only string instruments, i.e. violins, violas and double basses. A symphony orchestra is an ensemble comprising at least thirty musicians. A symphony orchestra is divided into families of instruments. In the string family, there are sections of violins, violas and basses; the standard woodwind section consists of flutes, soprano clarinets, bassoons. The standard brass section consists of horns, trumpets and tuba; the percussion section includes the timpani, bass drum, snare drum, a
A Baroque violin is a violin set up in the manner of the baroque period of music. The term includes original instruments which have survived unmodified since the Baroque period, as well as instruments adjusted to the baroque setup, modern replicas. Baroque violins have become common in recent decades thanks to informed performance, with violinists returning to older models of instrument to achieve an authentic sound; the differences between a Baroque violin and a modern instrument include the size and nature of the neck, bridge, bass bar, tailpiece. Baroque violins are always fitted with gut strings, as opposed to the more common metal and synthetic strings on a modern instrument, played with a bow made on the baroque model rather than the modern Tourte bow. Baroque violins are played without a shoulder rest; the development of the violin started in the 16th century. "Renaissance violins" of this period are of a wide variety of sizes, from small pochettes through descant and tenor instruments, as a consort.
Around 1610, Giovanni Paolo Cima wrote the first sonatas for violin, marking the start of its use as a solo instrument. The size and broad design of the violin became consistent towards the start of the Baroque period, at about 1660. In subsequent centuries, there were a number of gradual changes to the bow; the main effect of these changes was to increase the overall sound and volume of the instrument, to improve the instrument's performance in higher registers, to enable longer legato phrases. Today's Baroque violins are set up as far as possible in the manner of violins used from 1650 to 1750. There was no single standard model of violin in the Baroque period; as now, instruments were made by individual craftsmen, to different fashions. The instruments used to play the work of Claudio Monteverdi at the beginning of the Baroque period differed somewhat from those of late Baroque composers; as a result, a modern player who plays repertoire from throughout the Baroque period but can afford only one instrument has to make a compromise with an instrument that has recognisably Baroque characteristics, but matches the instruments of any one part of the Baroque imperfectly.
The neck of a Baroque violin can be at a shallower angle to the body of the instrument than is the case on a modern violin, but again there was a great deal of variation. The neck angle can result in less pressure being exerted on the bridge from the strings; the old neck was generally glued to the violin's ribs and nailed from the inner top-block through the thicker, more sloped neck-heel, while the modern neck is mortised into an opening cut into the ribs and upper edge of the violin. The bridge in turn is shaped differently, with less mass and greater flexibility in the upper half, owing to the high placement of its "eyes"—holes on either side; the fingerboard on a Baroque violin is shorter than that on a modern violin. During the Baroque period, the use of higher positions on the violin increased. In 1600, the highest note in regular use was the C above the E-string, while by 1700 the A one octave above the E-string was common. Virtuoso violinists throughout the period continued to push the boundaries of possibility, with Locatelli reputedly playing in 22nd position.
Baroque violins are strung with gut E, A and D strings, either a plain gut G or a metal-wound gut G. The guts in question are those of sheep, wound into a material referred to as "catline", referred to as cat-gut. Baroque bows look straight or bent outwards in the middle, with an elegant "swan-bill" pointed head, they are made from strong, heavy snakewood. By contrast, a modern bow is made from pernambuco and has a marked inwards bend when the hair is relaxed, has a "hatchet" head at right-angles to the stick. Bows underwent more changes within the Baroque period. Bows of the earlier 17th century were used interchangeably between viols, they were short and light, well-suited for dance music. Italian music of the first half of the 18th century, for instance the work of Arcangelo Corelli, was played with a longer bow better suited to long, singing notes, it was in response to this continued desire for longer, more legato playing that the inward curve was introduced in the mid 18th-century, the modern bow derives from designs made by François Tourte in the 18th century.
The screw mechanism for changing hair tension is first mentioned in a French shop inventory of 1747. It was not universally accepted for over a decade as players were happy with "clip-in" models: a removable frog held in place by hair tension in a mortise carved into the stick, its tension adjusted by shims between hair and frog surface. However, baroque-style bows produced today universally adopt the screw mechanism. A Baroque violin is played in a "historical manner", using a technique and musical style intended to resemble actual baroque performance as far as possible; because this style had fallen out of use long before recording technology was invented, modern performers rely on documentary evidence to recreate a Baroque-style technique. They apply this technique to the music of the period, looking in particular for facsimile or critical editions of the music to play from, as many editions include editorial "improvements" which depart from Baroque practice. Early violins and violas were held against the left chest, below the shoulder.
By the 18th century, the typical position was a little higher, on top of the shoulder, with t