Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications, it allows streaming of audio and video, can capture mouse, keyboard and camera input. Related development platform Adobe AIR continues to be supported. Artists may produce Flash animations using Adobe Animate. Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK. End-users can view Flash content via AIR or third-party players such as Scaleform. Adobe Flash Player enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR; the ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications.
Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Wii U, Switch. Although Flash was a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5. Flash Player has been deprecated and has an official end-of-life at the end of 2020. However, Adobe will continue to develop Adobe AIR, a related technology for building stand-alone applications and games. In the early 2000s, Flash was installed on desktop computers, was used to display interactive web pages, online games, to playback video and audio content. In 2005, YouTube was founded by former PayPal employees, it used Flash Player as a means to display compressed video content on the web. Between 2000 and 2010, numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals.
Notable users include Nike, Hewlett-Packard, General Electric, World Wildlife Fund, HBO, Cartoon Network and Motorola. After Adobe introduced hardware-accelerated 3D for Flash, Flash websites saw a growth of 3D content for product demonstrations and virtual tours. In 2007, YouTube offered videos in HTML5 format to support the iPhone and iPad, which did not support Flash Player. After a controversy with Apple, Adobe stopped developing Flash Player for Mobile, focussing its efforts on Adobe AIR applications and HTML5 animation. In 2015, Google introduced Google Swiffy to convert Flash animation to HTML5, a tool Google would use to automatically convert Flash web ads for mobile devices. In 2016, Google discontinued its support. In 2015, YouTube switched to HTML5 technology on all devices. After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in 2000, developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web; such Web-based applications came to be known as "Rich Internet Applications".
In 2004, Macromedia Flex was released, targeted the application development market. Flex introduced new user interface components, advanced data visualization components, data remoting, a modern IDE. Flex competed with Microsoft Silverlight during its tenure. Flex was upgraded to support integration with remote data sources, using AMF, BlazeDS, Adobe LiveCycle, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, others; as of 2015, Flex applications can be published for desktop platforms using Adobe AIR. Between 2006 and 2016, the Speedtest.net web service conducted over 9.0 billion speed tests using an RIA built with Adobe Flash. In 2016, the service shifted to HTML5 due to the decreasing availability of Adobe Flash Player on PCs; as of 2016, Web applications and RIAs can be developed with Flash using the ActionScript 3.0 programming language and related tools such as Adobe Flash Builder. Third-party IDEs such as FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT enable developers to create Flash games and applications, are similar to Microsoft Visual Studio.
Flex applications are built using Flex frameworks such as PureMVC. Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds and Armor Games dedicated to hosting of Flash-based games. Popular games developed with Flash include Angry Birds, Clash of Clans, FarmVille, AdventureQuest, Hundreds, N, QWOP and Solipskier. Adobe introduced various technologies to help build video games, including Adobe AIR, Adobe Scout, CrossBridge, Stage3D. 3D frameworks like Away3D and Flare3D simplified creation of 3D content for Flash. Adobe AIR allows creation of Flash-based mobile games, which may be published to the Google Play and Apple app stores. Flash is used to build interfaces and HUDs for 3D video games using Scaleform GFx, a technology that renders Flash content within non-Flash video games. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine, UDK, CryEngine and PhyreEngine, has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than 150 majo
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device, used for entering data into, displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system. The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal, predated the use of a computer screen by decades; the acronym CRT, which once referred to a computer terminal, has come to refer to a type of screen of a personal computer. Early terminals were inexpensive devices but slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal; the function of a terminal is confined to input of data. A terminal that depends on the host computer for its processing power is called a "dumb terminal" or a thin client.
A personal computer can run terminal emulator software that replicates the function of a terminal, sometimes allowing concurrent use of local programs and access to a distant terminal host system. The terminal of the first working programmable automatic digital Turing-complete computer, the Z3, had a keyboard and a row of lamps to show results. Early user terminals connected to computers were electromechanical teleprinters/teletypewriters, such as the Teletype Model 33 ASR used for telegraphy or the Friden Flexowriter. Keyboard/printer terminals that came included the IBM 2741 and the DECwriter LA30. Respective top speeds of teletypes, IBM 2741 and LA30 were 15 and 30 characters per second. Although at that time "paper was king" the speed of interaction was limited. Early video computer displays were sometimes nicknamed "Glass TTYs" or "Visual Display Units", used no CPU, instead relying on individual logic gates or primitive LSI chips, they became popular Input-Output devices on many different types of computer system once several suppliers gravitated to a set of common standards: ASCII character set, but early/economy models supported only capital letters RS-232 serial ports 24 lines of 80 characters of text.
Models sometimes had two character-width settings. Some type of cursor that can be positioned. Implementation of at least 3 control codes: Carriage Return, Line-Feed, Bell, but many more, such as Escape sequences to provide underlining, dim or reverse-video character highlighting, to clear the display and position the cursor; the Datapoint 3300 from Computer Terminal Corporation was announced in 1967 and shipped in 1969, making it one of the earliest stand-alone display-based terminals. It solved the memory space issue mentioned above by using a digital shift-register design, using only 72 columns rather than the more common choice of 80. Starting with the Datapoint 3300, by the late 1970s and early 1980s, there were dozens of manufacturers of terminals, including Lear-Siegler, ADDS, Data General, DEC, Hazeltine Corporation, Heath/Zenith, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Volker-Craig, Wyse, many of which had incompatible command sequences; the great variations in the control codes between makers gave rise to software that identified and grouped terminal types so the system software would display input forms using the appropriate control codes.
The great majority of terminals were monochrome, manufacturers variously offering green, white or amber and sometimes blue screen phosphors.. Terminals with modest color capability were available but not used. An "intelligent" terminal does its own processing implying a microprocessor is built in, but not all terminals with microprocessors did any real processing of input: the main computer to which it was attached would have to respond to each keystroke; the term "intelligent" in this context dates from 1969. Notable examples include the IBM 2250 and IBM 2260, predecessors to the IBM 3270 and introduced with System/360 in 1964. Most terminals were connected to minicomputers or mainframe computers and had a green or amber screen. Terminals communicate wi
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH. SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server; the protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is used to access Unix-like operating systems, but it can be used on Microsoft Windows. Windows 10 uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client. SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rlogin and rexec protocols; those protocols send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet, although files leaked by Edward Snowden indicate that the National Security Agency can sometimes decrypt SSH, allowing them to read the contents of SSH sessions.
SSH uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer and allow it to authenticate the user, if necessary. There are several ways to use SSH. Another is to use a manually generated public-private key pair to perform the authentication, allowing users or programs to log in without having to specify a password. In this scenario, anyone can produce a matching pair of different keys; the public key is placed on all computers that must allow access to the owner of the matching private key. While authentication is based on the private key, the key itself is never transferred through the network during authentication. SSH only verifies whether the same person offering the public key owns the matching private key. In all versions of SSH it is important to verify unknown public keys, i.e. associate the public keys with identities, before accepting them as valid. Accepting an attacker's public key without validation will authorize an unauthorized attacker as a valid user. On Unix-like systems, the list of authorized public keys is stored in the home directory of the user, allowed to log in remotely, in the file ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.
This file is respected by SSH only if it is not writable by anything apart from the root. When the public key is present on the remote end and the matching private key is present on the local end, typing in the password is no longer required. However, for additional security the private key itself can be locked with a passphrase; the private key can be looked for in standard places, its full path can be specified as a command line setting. The ssh-keygen utility produces the private keys, always in pairs. SSH supports password-based authentication, encrypted by automatically generated keys. In this case, the attacker could imitate the legitimate server side, ask for the password, obtain it. However, this is possible only if the two sides have never authenticated before, as SSH remembers the key that the server side used; the SSH client raises a warning before accepting the key of a new unknown server. Password authentication can be disabled. SSH is used to log into a remote machine and execute commands, but it supports tunneling, forwarding TCP ports and X11 connections.
SSH uses the client-server model. The standard TCP port 22 has been assigned for contacting SSH servers. An SSH client program is used for establishing connections to an SSH daemon accepting remote connections. Both are present on most modern operating systems, including macOS, most distributions of Linux, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Solaris and OpenVMS. Notably, versions of Windows prior to 1709 do not include SSH by default. Proprietary and open source versions of various levels of complexity and completeness exist. File managers for UNIX-like systems can use the FISH protocol to provide a split-pane GUI with drag-and-drop; the open source Windows program WinSCP provides similar file management capability using PuTTY as a back-end. Both WinSCP and PuTTY are available packaged to run directly off a USB drive, without requiring installation on the client machine. Setting up an SSH server in Windows involves enabling a feature in Settings app. In Windows 10 version 1709, an official Win32 port of OpenSSH is available.
SSH is important in cloud computing to solve connectivity problems, avoiding the security issues of exposing a cloud-based virtual machine directly on the Internet. An SSH tunnel can provide a secure path over the Internet, through a firewall to a virtual machine. In 1995, Tatu Ylönen, a researcher at Helsinki University of Technology, designed the first version of the protocol prompted by a password-sniffing attack at his university network; the goal of SSH was to replace the earlier rlogin, TELNET, FTP and rsh protocols, which did not provide strong authentication nor guarantee confidentiality. Ylönen released his implementation as freeware in July 1995, an
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application protocol for distributed, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser. HTTP was developed to facilitate the World Wide Web. Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Development of HTTP standards was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force and the World Wide Web Consortium, culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments; the first definition of HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use, occurred in RFC 2068 in 1997, although this was made obsolete by RFC 2616 in 1999 and again by the RFC 7230 family of RFCs in 2014. A version, the successor HTTP/2, was standardized in 2015, is now supported by major web servers and browsers over Transport Layer Security using Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation extension where TLS 1.2 or newer is required.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server; the client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client; the response contains completion status information about the request and may contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent. Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. High-traffic websites benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time.
Web browsers cache accessed web resources and reuse them, when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite, its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, Transmission Control Protocol is used. However, HTTP can be adapted to use unreliable protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol, for example in HTTPU and Simple Service Discovery Protocol. HTTP resources are identified and located on the network by Uniform Resource Locators, using the Uniform Resource Identifiers schemes http and https. URIs and hyperlinks in HTML documents form interlinked hypertext documents. HTTP/1.1 is a revision of the original HTTP. In HTTP/1.0 a separate connection to the same server is made for every resource request. HTTP/1.1 can reuse a connection multiple times to download images, stylesheets, etc after the page has been delivered.
HTTP/1.1 communications therefore experience less latency as the establishment of TCP connections presents considerable overhead. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in 1965 in the Xanadu Project, in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's 1930s vision of the microfilm-based information retrieval and management "memex" system described in his 1945 essay "As We May Think". Tim Berners-Lee and his team at CERN are credited with inventing the original HTTP, along with HTML and the associated technology for a web server and a text-based web browser. Berners-Lee first proposed the "WorldWideWeb" project in 1989—now known as the World Wide Web; the first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server. The response from the server was always an HTML page; the first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9. Dave Raggett led the HTTP Working Group in 1995 and wanted to expand the protocol with extended operations, extended negotiation, richer meta-information, tied with a security protocol which became more efficient by adding additional methods and header fields.
RFC 1945 introduced and recognized HTTP V1.0 in 1996. The HTTP WG planned to publish new standards in December 1995 and the support for pre-standard HTTP/1.1 based on the developing RFC 2068 was adopted by the major browser developers in early 1996. By March that year, pre-standard HTTP/1.1 was supported in Arena, Netscape 2.0, Netscape Navigator Gold 2.01, Mosaic 2.7, Lynx 2.5, in Internet Explorer 2.0. End-user adoption of the new browsers was rapid. In March 1996, one web hosting company reported that over 40% of browsers in use on the Internet were HTTP 1.1 compliant. That same web hosting company reported that by June 1996, 65% of all browsers accessing their servers were HTTP/1.1 compliant. The HTTP/1.1 standard as defined in RFC 2068 was released in January 1997. Improvements and updates to the HTTP/1.1 standard were released under RFC 2616 in June 1999. In 2007, the HTTPbis Working Group was formed, in part, to revise and clarify the HTTP/1.1 specification. In June 2014, the WG released an updated six-part specification obsoleting RFC 2616: RFC 7230, HTTP/1.1: Message Syntax and Routing RFC 7231, HTTP/1.1: Semantics and Content RFC 7232, HTTP/1.1: Conditional Requests RFC 7233, HTTP/1.1: Range Requests RFC 7234, HTTP/1.1: Caching RFC 7235, HTTP/1