Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, New York. It is located about 30 miles north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River. Sing Sing contains about 1,700 prisoners."Sing Sing" was derived from the "Sinck Sinck" Indian tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a time-specific museum; the prison property is bisected by the Metro-North Railroad's four-track Hudson Line. Sing Sing was the fifth prison built by New York state; the first prison, Newgate Prison, was built in 1797 in Greenwich Village and a second one in 1816 called Auburn Prison. In 1824, the New York Legislature gave Elam Lynds, warden of Auburn Prison and a former Army captain, the task of constructing a new, more modern prison.
Lynds spent months researching possible locations for the prison, considering Staten Island, The Bronx, Silver Mine Farm, an area in the town of Mount Pleasant, located on the banks of the Hudson River. By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words "Sinck Sinck" which translates to "stone upon stone." The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre site, the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds hand-selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; when it was opened in 1826, Sing Sing was considered a model prison, because it turned a profit for the state, by October 1828 it was completed. Lynds employed the Auburn system, it was the Prison Chaplain John Luckey around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed.
Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles, his religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. 1844 was the year the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformists interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Eliza Farnham was able to obtain the job on the recommendation of these reformists. Eliza Farnham overturned the silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past, she included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include emotional lessons from secular literature. Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing prison was dramatic.
Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail. Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates. Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes, he was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, remained for 20 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden.
Lawes died six years later. In 1943, the old cellblock was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort. In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility. Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, with about 1,000 people working there and 5,000 visitors per month; the original 1825 cellblock is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn this into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison in favor of real estate. In total, 614 men and women—including four inmates under federal death sentences—were executed by electric chair in the death row house with "Old Sparky," at Sing Sing until the abolition of the death penalty in 1972. High-profile executions include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953, for espionage for the Soviet Union on nuclear weapon research. Puff on August 12, 1954, for murder of an FBI agent.
The last person executed in New York state was Eddie Lee Mays, for murder, on August 15, 1963. In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if application was inconsistent and arbitrary; this led to a
Elmira Correctional Facility
Elmira Correctional Facility known as "The Hill", is a maximum security state prison located in Chemung County, New York, in the City of Elmira. It is operated by the New York State Department of Community Supervision; the supermax prison, Southport Correctional Facility, is located two miles away from Elmira. The facility was founded in 1876 as run as the Elmira Reformatory by its controversial superintendent Zebulon Brockway. Acting with rehabilitative aims, Brockway instilled strict discipline along the lines of military training. Although accused of brutality for his corporal punishment in 1893, Brockway was an acknowledged leader in his field. At his retirement in 1900 the Elmira System had been adopted by the states of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Minnesota. In 1970 the complex was renamed the Elmira Reception Center. Elmira retained a focus on younger offenders until some time in the 1990s; the facility was founded as Elmira Reformatory in 1876. It differed from many prisons of the day as it focused on reforming the convict using psychological methods rather than physical.
Prisoners were required to abide by the "holy trinity" of silence and labor. Sentences were indeterminate. Inmates were only released after a warden's determination that they'd "paid their debt to society". In contrast Elmira sought to rehabilitate. Brockway set up a system of incentives to encourage self-discipline. Among the programs begun at the reformatory included courses in ethics and religion, vocational training in various trades and extracurricular activities such as a prison band and various athletic leagues. Influenced by the methods of Walter Crofton's "Irish system" as well as Alexander Maconochie's experiments in Australian penal colonies, discipline was patterned after military academies. Inmates would be dressed in military style uniforms marching to the tune of a military band. Inmates were classified by three "grades", with newly arriving prisoners being placed at second grade for their first six months; those who became the most responsive and cooperative prisoners earned a first grade, with the opportunity to earn additional privileges or "marks", including earning a reduction of their sentences or being granted parole.
Those inmates who were less responsive to rehabilitation or had behavioral problems were placed at third grade. However, under instituted indeterminate sentencing, tension was high among the general population as prisoners were informed how long the terms of their imprisonment lasted. Brockway's use of corporal punishment, the "Paddler Brockway" system that would result several prisoners' being transferred to mental asylums, caused some to question the reformatory system. Still, the Elmira system was influential in prison reform. Two central ideas emerged from the Elmira system: differentiating between juvenile and adult offenders, acknowledging the possibility of prisoner rehabilitation. Despite its mixed results, the Elmira Reformatory would influence the construction of 25 reformatories in twelve states over the next 25 years, reaching its height in 1910. Although the education programs introduced in Elmira were the first to serve inmates in a correctional facility, the majority of the teaching staff were unqualified and its complex grading system made progress difficult to maintain.
All well-behaved inmates were placed in first grade with a few in second grade and those under punishment in third grade. However, following Brockway's resignation, the reformatory reinstituted to standard custody and treatment methods and converted to the Elmira Correctional and Reception Center, an adult maximum security prison holding 1,800 inmates. In the late 1970s through late 1980s, Elmira and Corning Community College had a partnership whereby college professors volunteered to lecture within the prison, inmates were able to earn an associate degree. However, during the recession of 1990–1992 there was a public outcry over spending taxpayer money to educate felons while many middle-class families struggled to pay their children's college tuition; as a result, the program was cut. There were attempts to revive the program in years but by the time George Pataki, the former GOP governor, finished his budget cuts, the program was terminated Convicted murderers Timothy Vail and Timothy Morgan escaped on July 7, 2003, by digging through the roof of their cell.
Vail injured himself during the escape, the two were captured three days and placed in solitary confinement in different prisons. Their escape was featured in the National Geographic documentary Breakout. Zebulon Reed Brockway 1876 to 1900. Frank LaMar Christian 1917 to 1939. Ronald Miles Trevell Gerald Coleman AKA G-Dep - murder, sentenced to 15 to life Patrick Baxter - Serial killer. Colin Rideout- Convicted of brutally murdering his father, Craig Rideout, with his mother, Laura Rideout in Rochester, NY, he was convicted on two counts of tampering with evidence as he and his younger brother disposed their father's body in the woods and physical evidence. Colin was sentenced to 26 years to life imprisonment. Alexander Rideout - Brother of Colin Rideout, son of Laura Rideout. Acquitted of murdering his father, Craig Rideout, was convicted of two counts of tampering with evidence in connection to his father's murder, he is serving 4 years in prison. Dwight York - Nuwaubian cult leader. Before York's formation of his cult movement and eventual indictment by the federal government, he was arrested on June 25, 1964 and charged with statutory rape for having sex with a minor
Bayview Correctional Facility
Bayview Correctional Facility was a medium-security women's prison located at the south corner of West 20th Street and 11th Avenue in Manhattan, directly across the avenue from the Chelsea Piers sports complex. It is unusual to find a state penitentiary in the middle of a major city. Bayview did not have grounds and a fenced perimeter. Covering the entire south wall of Bayview is the "Venus", a mural painted by New York artist Knox Martin in 1970. Venus was commissioned by Doris Freedman of CityWalls. Today, Venus is entirely obscured by the neighboring building 100 Eleventh Avenue, completed in 2010. Featured on the New York State Correction Officer Informational Page's "History of Bayview" is the following statement: In 1970, prior to the rejuvenation of the district, Bayview's entire south wall was decorated with a red and pink abstract painting, called "Venus" by artist Knox Martin; the mural, conspicuous for its size and beauty, has been used on post cards. It is conspicuous—in a culture that regards large, exposed surface as prime advertising space—for not being a billboard.
Not advertisers call from time to time with proposals to lease the wall for commercial messages, but Bayview doesn't want its beautiful Venus covered over with a beer or jeans ad. Besides, it's state property. Before Superstorm Sandy hit in October 2012, Bayview's 153 prisoners were evacuated and sent to other facilities; the building sustained $600,000 as a result of storm damage and remained closed due to NYS Budgetary reasons. The building will be sold. Mindlin, Alex. "After a 37-Year Run, a Roadside Venus to Be Veiled". The New York Times. Knox Martin Website CBS Report on the mural Prisoner advocates foresee problems after shuttering Bayview and Beacon, April 8, 2013
Eastern Correctional Facility
The Eastern Correctional Facility is a state prison for men in Napanoch, Ulster County, New York. Eastern is one of the oldest prison facilities in the state, it has been a maximum security prison for men since 1973. The site opened as the "Eastern New York Reformatory", its imposing main building, with medieval-style turrets and long green copper roof, was designed by architect John Rochester Thomas, who had designed Elmira. The site was chosen for its available stone, the transport provided by the adjacent Delaware and Hudson Canal. In 1906 the adult prisoners were returned, replaced with juvenile offenders, the reformatory began operation. Years it achieved its capacity of 500 beds. In 1921 Eastern became the first of the institutions for defective delinquents in the United States. At various times the facility was designated as the "Institute for Defective and Delinquent Men at Napanoch", "State Institution for Male Defective Delinquents", the "Catskill Reformatory"; the state's Ulster Correctional Facility was built on Eastern's grounds in 1990.
Description of the 1902 Ontario and Western Railway Station and Museum
Wallkill Correctional Facility
The Wallkill Correctional Facility is a medium security prison in New York state in the United States. The prison is located just north in the Town of Shawangunk; the prison opened in the form of a collegiate campus with no surrounding wall or fence. The architect was Alfred Hopkins, an east-coast estate architect with a sideline in prisons such as Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. Connected three-story English Gothic buildings of gray stone "self-consciously embraced an idealistic notion of the rural idyll and an old-fashioned sense of place". Hopkins designed Woodbourne Correctional Facility and Coxsackie Correctional Facility for the state. Wallkill was once only used to house "Good Behavior/White Collar" inmates. Due to changing times, the inmate population has changed and first-time offenders now begin and end their sentences at Wallkill CF; the one-time "Prison without a Wall," is no more -- in the 21st century chain-link fencing and razor wire was constructed around the perimeter -- but it remains a free-movement facility.
The facility has a long-running optical laboratory to produce eyeglasses. Inmates may learn to serve retired racehorses through the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation's Second Chances program. Wallkill's grounds contain the historic Walstein Childs House, circa 1763; the state's Shawangunk Correctional Facility is nearby. N. Y. prison information 2003 New York Times article about the horse-care program correctionhistory.org historical essay on Wallkill
Dannemora (town), New York
Dannemora is a town in Clinton County, New York, United States. The population was 4,898 at the 2010 census; the town is named after an important iron-mining region. The town of Dannemora contains a village called Dannemora, the south part of, located in the town of Saranac. Both village and town are on the west border of west of Plattsburgh; the area was first settled around 1838. A prison was opened in 1845; the town of Dannemora was formed in 1854 from the town of Beekmantown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Dannemora has a total area of 65.8 square miles, of which 59.1 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles, or 10.27%, is water. The west town line is the border of Franklin County. Most of the town is within the Adirondack Park on the west side of the county. However, the statute defining the Adirondack Park excludes Dannemora and nearby Altona, due to the prison facilities located in both towns. New York State Route 374 is an east-west highway in Dannemora. Chazy Lake is a large water body.
The Great Chazy River begins at the north end of Chazy Lake and is an east-flowing tributary of Lake Champlain. Upper Chateaugay Lake, near the western border of the town, empties through the Chateaugay Narrows into Lower Chateaugay Lake in Franklin County, which marks the beginning of the Chateaugay River, a north-flowing tributary of the Saint Lawrence River; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,149 people, 850 households, 584 families residing in the town. The population density was 87.0 people per square mile. There were 1,253 housing units at an average density of 21.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 56.30% White, 32.34% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 8.95% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 15.87% of the population. There were 850 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families.
Of all households 26.6% were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.91. The age distribution was 10.3% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 53.6% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 367.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 446.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,805, the median income for a family was $43,850. Males had a median income of $27,045 versus $25,132 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,614. About 13.6% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Note: The census counts prisoners based on where they are incarcerated. With the all-male state prison in Dannemora, the data listed above, except for household and family data, is to be skewed in comparison with the remainder of the town population and the population of neighboring non-prison towns with regard to ethnicity and the female:male ratio, because a disproportionate percentage of the prison population is male and black or Hispanic.
Chazy Lake: A lake centrally located in the town. Chazy Lake: A hamlet on the west side of Chazy Lake. Clinton Correctional Facility: One of New York State's maximum security prisons is located in the village of Dannemora; the site formerly housed the state's mental hospital for the criminally insane. Dannemora: The village of Dannemora is on the south town line, located on NY-374. Dannemora Mountain: A small mountain north of the village. Ledger Corners: A location near the north town line on NY-374. Lyon Mountain: The hamlet of Lyon Mountain is in the western part of the town. Lyon Mountain Correctional Facility: Formerly a minimum security prison located in the western part of the town. Seine Bay: A small bay in Chazy Lake north of the community of Chazy Lake. Upper Chateaugay Lake: A lake in the northwest corner of the town. Dannemora, Sweden Town of Dannemora official website Village of Dannemora Historical views of Dannemora Adirondack information Hamlet of Lyon Mountain Northern New York American-Canadian Genealogical Society
Sullivan Correctional Facility
Sullivan Correctional Facility is a New York State maximum security prison correctional facility for male prisoners located in Fallsburg, New York. It is operated by the New York State Department of Correctional Services. Sullivan is located on an 850-acre stretch of land that contains Woodbourne Correctional Facility, a medium-security prison; the state appropriated funding for Sullivan after the loss of Rikers Island as a state facility in 1980. The buildings were built on a sharp upslope overlooking the Neversink River valley. In order to build access roads to the prison, the New York State Department of Correctional Services purchased the Lebowitz Pine View Hotel, the 62 acre adjoining property, in 1983; some prisoners from the Woodburne facility were transferred and housed in the hotel buildings, which were operated as a Woodburne annex until the completion of Sullivan in 1985. It operated as a minimum security Sullivan annex until 2010. Sullivan houses between 560 and 580 inmates in four pods, arranged in a circle.
Eighty-six percent of those inmates are being incarcerated for committing violent felonies, 60% are serving life sentences Hudson Link for Higher Education in Prison, a not-for-profit organization was founded to provide college education to incarcerated people in an effort to help reduce recidivism and poverty, while strengthening families and communities. In 1998, as part of the get-tough-on-crime campaign and federal funding for college programs inside prison was stopped. Understanding the positive effects of education in the transformation and rehabilitation of incarcerated people, inmates at Sing Sing Correctional Facility reached out to religious and academic volunteers to develop a college-degree granting program. Under the leadership of Dr. Anne Reissner, Hudson Link for Higher Education in Prison was founded to restore college education at Sing Sing through private funding. Hudson Link now runs pre-college and college degree programs at Fishkill, Sing Sing and Taconic Correctional Facilities.
Among the more infamous inmates at Sullivan are: David Berkowitz, the "Son of Sam" serial killer who terrorized New York City in 1977 serving 6 life sentences in Shawangunk Correctional Facility Robert Chambers - the "Preppie Killer." Arthur Shawcross, the Genesee River Killer Joe "Mad Dog" Sullivan, mob hitman Ronald DeFeo, Jr. killed his entire family and sparked the writing of The Amityville Horror. He is serving 6 concurrent sentences of 25 years to life. NY prison information Birds eye view from Microsoft Visual Earth @ Live.com