click links in text for more info


Lyonesse is a country in Arthurian legend in the story of Tristan and Iseult. Said to border Cornwall, it is most notable as the home of the hero Tristan. In traditions, Lyonesse is said to have sunk beneath the waves some time after the Tristan stories take place, making it similar to Ys and other lost lands in medieval Celtic tales, connecting it with the Isles of Scilly. In medieval Arthurian legend, there are no references to the sinking of Lyonesse, because the name referred to a still-existing place. Lyonesse is an English alteration of French Léoneis or Léonois, a development of Lodonesia, the Latin name for Lothian in Scotland. Continental writers of Arthurian romances were puzzled by the internal geography of Great Britain. In English adaptations of the French tales, Léonois, now "Lyonesse", becomes a kingdom wholly distinct from Lothian, associated with the Cornish region, though its exact geographical location remained unspecified; the name was not attached to Cornish legends of lost coastal lands until the reign of Elizabeth I of England.

However, the legendary lost land between Land's End and Scilly has a distinct Cornish name: Lethowsow. This derives from the Cornish name for the Seven Stones Reef, on the reputed site of the lost land's capital and the site of the notorious wreck of the Torrey Canyon; the name means'the milky ones', from the constant white water surrounding the reef. Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Arthurian epic Idylls of the King describes Lyonesse as the site of the final battle between Arthur and Mordred. One passage in particular references legends of Lyonesse as a land fated to sink beneath the ocean: Deriving from a false etymology of Lyonesse, as the'City of Lions', it was said in some traditions to be the capital of the legendary kingdom, situated on what is today the Seven Stones Reef, some eighteen miles west of Land's End and eight miles north-east of the Isles of Scilly; the legend of a sunken kingdom appears in both Breton mythology. In Christian times it came to be viewed as a sort of Cornish Sodom and Gomorrah, an example of divine wrath provoked by unvirtuous living.

There is a Breton parallel in the tale of the Cité d'Ys or Ker Ys drowned as a result of its debauchery with a single virtuous survivor escaping on a horse, in this case King Gradlon. The Welsh equivalent to Lyonesse and Ys is Cantre'r Gwaelod, a legendary drowned kingdom in Cardigan Bay. Not too dissimilarly, the Gaelic otherworld Tír na nÓg was conceived of as mystical place that had to be reached via a sea voyage, though it lacks an inundation myth, it is suggested that the tale of Lyonesse represents an extraordinary survival of folk memory of the flooding of the Isles of Scilly and Mount's Bay near Penzance. For example, the Cornish name of St Michael's Mount is Karrek Loos y'n Koos - literally'the grey rock in the wood'. Cornish people around Penzance still get occasional glimpses at extreme low water of a sunken forest in Mount's Bay, where petrified tree stumps become visible; the importance of the maintenance of this memory can be seen in that it came to be associated with the legendary Brython hero Arthur, although the date of its inundation is c. 2500 BC.

Dawn in Lyonesse, a 1938 short novel by Mary Ellen ChaseThe Lyonesse Trilogy by Jack Vance Lyonesse: The Well Between The Worlds and Lyonesse: Dark Solstice, two children's books by Sam Llewellyn. Lyonesse was an inspiration for Westernesse, a realm which sank beneath the sea in J. R. R. Tolkien's stories associated with Middle-earth; the manga and anime Seven Deadly Sins takes place in a fantasy version of medieval Brittania, the main plot revolves around the kingdom of Liones. In the 1995 film First Knight, before her marriage to King Arthur, Guinevere rules as Lady of Lyonesse after the death of her father. Tristram of Lyonesse, an epic poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne When I Set out for Lyonnesse by Thomas HardySunk Lyonesse, by Walter de la Mare Lyonnesse, by Sylvia Plath. Lyonesse, a song by Cornish folk composer Richard Gendall, appears as the title track of the 1982 album by Brenda Wootton; when I Set out for Lyonnesse, a setting of Hardy's poem by the English composer Gerald Finzi in his 1936 song cycle Earth and Air and Rain.

"The Bells of Lyonesse", a song by German Progressive Metal band Subsignal, appears on their 2018 album "La Muerta" Lyonesse: West Cornwall Steam Ship Company steam ferry Lyonesse: Great Western Railway Bulldog Class steam locomotive no. 3361 Lyonnesse: Southern Railway King Arthur Class steam locomotive no. 743 Lyonnesse: British Railways Standard Class 5 steam locomotive no. 73113. Cornish culture Gallia Lugdunensis Matter of Britain Where Troy Once Stood Eilhart von Oberge Tristant Anonymous Prose Tristan Anonymous La Tavola Ritonda Malory, Sir Thomas Le Morte D'Arthur Anonymous I Due Tristani Tennyson, Alfred Lord Idylls of the King


Ngajat is popular family of dances among the Iban people in Sarawak. Ngajat consists of several types, including: Ngajat Induk Ngajat BebunohPresented by the young men of the community, this dance is a replication or repetition of what men do when confronted by enemies or as they engage in daily activities such as hunting. Ngajat LesongOnly men are allowed perform the ngajat lesong because it requires that male dancers dance while "biting the fly." This dance requires strength and bravery because dancers need to carry a 40-pound weight by biting it. Ngajat Semain Ngajat Berayah Ngajat Pua KumbuUsually performed by women; as this dance is called Pua kumbu, the dancers would dance while carrying Pua kumbu as a tool in their performance. This dance is performed during Gawai Kelingkang. During Gawai Kelingkang, celebrated to prepare or mark the success of the notorious Ngayau, a parade of warriors carrying the head of an enemy approaching the longhouse would be greeted by dancers; the head heroine of the Kelingkang would put the ‘nutmeg’ in the comb.

With a shout of victory and the sound of a bat, the Pua kumbu dancers lead the procession towards the ‘tanju’, swinging a crocodile that contains the enemy’s head in the back while calling for protection from the captive spirit. Before the parade of maidens reaches the stage of the ceremony, a pig will be offered to the ancestors; the pua kumbu dancers will continue to swing the enemy’s head, followed by the warrior. After seven rounds, the head will be hung on a tree. Today, the enemy’s head is replaced with a coconut as a symbol. Ngajat KutaNgajat kuta is another type of dance performance, it is performed for celebrations such as the opening of Iban cultural events. Ngajat Ngalu TemuaiPresented for the purpose of welcoming special guests; this dance is performed during the opening of an official ceremony attended by many honored guests and the public. The dance is performed while accompanying guests to the leader of the longhouse; this dance is a welcome for guests who come to the long house during Gawai or during other festivals.

Ngajat Ngemai antu palaNgajat for those Iban is a welcome dance during Gawai Day, before the war and after the harvest season. In the old days the dance was performed after their return from the war. Dancers stand on the jump accompanied by the music. For Gawai Sandau Ari, a drum is played for the guests of honor. In a variant, the dancer holds a wooden shield in his left hand and a sword in his right hand and dances facing the enemy with his body swinging to the left and to the right. Musical instruments include large and medium gongs, drums or dedumba and a set of small gongs engkurumong. PEH is string instrument. Male dancers wear traditional costumes like'mesh','Gagung' or bird clothes. Gagung is a kind of thick and hard armor made of animal skin such as bear, but not stitched on the sides. Dancers wear hats decorated with feathers. Female dancers dubbed "kumang", they wear clothes such as a headdress, hooks high on the chest, cloth tied at the waist and feet bracelets and earrings. Ngajat Home Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Penstowe Castle

Penstowe Castle called Kilkhampton Castle, was a medieval fortification built near Kilkhampton, England during the years of the civil war in the 12th century known as the Anarchy. The precise date of Penstowe Castle's construction is uncertain, but it was built during the years of the Anarchy in the mid-12th century, either by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, feudal baron of Gloucester, the tenant-in-chief of the manor of Kilkhampton, or by his tenants and relatives the Grenville family, which held the manor of Kilkhampton and the manor of Bideford in Devon from the Honour of Gloucester. Stowe House was the Grenvilles' residence at Kilkhampton and rebuilt in grand form in 1679 by John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath. Kilkhampton Castle was built to a motte and bailey design, positioned on a knoll and protected by steep slopes on the north and south sides; the motte today is shaped as an oval, 18 metres by 8 metres across and between 6 metres and 9 metres high. The configuration of baileys is unusual, although similar to nearby Eastleigh Berries Castle.

A D-shaped building was located on top of the motte. Archaeological excavations were carried out in the early 1950s. In the 21st century the site is protected under law as a scheduled monument. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England References Bibliography

Isola dei Cavoli Lighthouse

Isola dei Cavoli Lighthouse is an active lighthouse located on a small islet, 690 metres from Cape Carbonara, the southernmost tip of western Sardinia in the municipality of Villasimius on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The lighthouse was built in 1858 and consists of a masonry cylindrical tower, 37 metres high, with balcony and lantern atop a massive 3-storey keeper's house; the tower is painted with white and black horizontal band, the lantern in white and the lantern dome in grey metallic. The light is positioned at 74 metres above sea level and emits two white or red flashes, depending on the directions, in a 10 seconds period visible up to a distance of 11 nautical miles; the lighthouse is automated, powered by a solar unit and managed by the Marina Militare with the identification code number 1262 E. F; the lighthouse, being automated, it is no longer inhabited by the keepers host the botanical and zoological research centre of the University of Cagliari. List of lighthouses in Italy Servizio Fari Marina Militare


Antimachus of Colophon, or of Claros, was a Greek poet and grammarian, who flourished about 400 BC. Scarcely anything is known of his life; the Suda claims that he was a pupil of the poets Stesimbrotus. His poetical efforts were not appreciated, although he received encouragement from his younger contemporary Plato, his chief works were: an epic Thebais, an account of the expedition of the Seven against Thebes and the war of the Epigoni. Antimachus was the founder of "learned" epic poetry, the forerunner of the Alexandrian school, whose critics allotted him the next place to Homer, he prepared a critical recension of the Homeric poems. He is to be distinguished from Antimachus of Teos, a much earlier poet to whom the lost Cyclic epic Epigoni was ascribed. Fragments, ed. Stoll. 20th century ed: V. J. Matthews, Antimachus of Colophon and commentary ISBN 90-04-10468-2 Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Antimachus". Encyclopædia Britannica.

2. Cambridge University Press. P. 127. Antimachus Poems Antimachi colophonii reliquias, Henr. Guil. Stoll, Dillenburgi apud ed. Pagenstecher, 1845. Poetae Lyrici Graeci. Recensuit Theodorus Bergk. Editionis quartae. Vol. 2. Lipsiae in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1882, pagg. 289-94. Epicorum graecorum fragmenta, Godofredus Kinkel, vol. 1, Lipsiae in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, pagg. 273-75. Scholarly Bibliography for Antimachus, at A Hellenistic Bibliography, by Martine Cuypers

Chapora River

Chapora River is a river in northern Goa, India. It runs westward into the Arabian sea at Chapora and demarcates the border between the North Goa talukas of Pernem and Bardez; the river originates at Ramghat in the neighbouring state of Maharashtra enters Goa and flows into the Arabian Sea. Vagator Beach, a tourist destination, is located at the estuary to the south, to the north is the village of Morjim. There is a bridge across Chapora from Morjim to Siolim. In the 18th century, the river marked the boundary between Portuguese India. Chapora Fort Chapora Beach