A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, other substantial subjective changes in thoughts and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. A debate persists on criteria which would differentiate a substance which is'psychedelic' from one'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind"; the term'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, or "mind-revealing".'A hallucinogen' and'a psychedelic' may refer to the same substance.'Hallucinations' and'psychedelia' may both refer to the same aspects of subjective experience in a given instance.
The term psychedelia carries an added reference to psychedelic substance culture, and'psychedelics' are considered by many to be the'traditional' or'classical hallucinogens' including DMT, Psilocybin, LSD.'A hallucinogen' in this sense broadly refers to any substance which causes changes in perception or hallucinations, while psychedelics carry a positive connotation of general perceptual enhancement. In contrast to Hollister's original criteria, adverse effects may predominate with some hallucinogens with this application of the term; the word psychedelic was coined to express the idea of a drug that makes manifest a hidden but real aspect of the mind. It is applied to any drug with perception-altering effects such as LSD and other ergotamine derivatives, DMT and other tryptamines including the alkaloids of Psilocybe spp. mescaline and other phenethylamines. The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogen", The classical hallucinogens are considered to be the representative psychedelics and LSD is considered the prototypical psychedelic.
In order to refer to the LSD-like psychedelics, scientific authors have used the term "classical hallucinogen" in the sense defined by Glennon: "The classical hallucinogens are agents that meet Hollister's original definition, but are agents that: bind at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors, are recognized by animals trained to discriminate 1--2-aminopropane from vehicle. Otherwise, when the term "psychedelic" is used to refer only to the LSD-like psychedelics, authors explicitly point that they intend "psychedelic" to be understood according to this more restrictive interpretation. One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception. In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions and thoughts from reaching the conscious mind; this effect has been described as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding, for the drug "expands" the realm of experience available to conscious awareness.
While possessing a unique mechanism of action, cannabis or marijuana has been regarded alongside the classic psychedelics. A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance, designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug while at the same time avoid being classified as illegal and/or avoid detection in standard drug tests. Many designer drugs and research chemicals are hallucinogenic in nature, such as those in the 2C and 25-NB families. Dissociatives produce analgesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses, they produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment, hence "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient seems disassociated from his environment." Dissociative symptoms include the disruption or compartmentalization of "...the integrated functions of consciousness, identity or perception."p. 523 Dissociation of sensory input can cause derealization, the perception of the outside world as being dream-like or unreal.
Other dissociative experiences include depersonalization, which includes feeling detached from one's body. Simeon offered "...common descriptions of depersonalisation experiences: watching oneself from a distance. However, dissociation is remarkably administered by salvinorin A's potent κ-opioid receptor agonism, though sometimes described as an atypical psychedelic; some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (w
2C-B-FLY is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. It was first synthesized in 1996 by Aaron P. Monte. 2C-B-FLY is 8-bromo-2,3,6,7-benzo-dihydro-difuran-ethylamine. The full name of the chemical is 2-ethanamine, it has been subject to little formal study, but its appearance as a designer drug has led the DEA to release analytical results for 2C-B-FLY and several related compounds. In theory, dihydrodifuran analogues of any of the 2Cx / DOx family of drugs could be made, would be expected to show similar activity to the parent compound. So in the same way that 2C-B-FLY is the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-B, the 8-iodo equivalent 2C-I-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-I, the 8-methyl equivalent 2C-D-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-D. Other related compounds can be produced, where the alpha carbon of the ethylamine chain is methylated, the amphetamine derivative DOB-FLY can be made, this compound being the dihydrodifuran analogue of DOB, or conversely can be viewed as the saturated derivative of Bromo-DragonFLY.
Where only one methoxy group of a 2Cx drug is cyclised into a dihydrofuran ring, the resulting compound is known as a "hemifly", when an unsaturated furan ring is used, the compound is known as a "hemi-dragonfly". The larger saturated hexahydrobenzodipyran ring derivatives have been referred to as "butterfly" compounds; the 8-bromo group can be replaced by other groups to give compounds such as TFMFly. A large number of symmetrical and unsymmetrical derivatives can be produced by using different combinations of ring systems; because the 2- and 5- positions are not equivalent, all unsymmetrical combinations have two possible positional isomers, with different potencies at the various 5-HT2 subtypes. Isomeric "Ψ"-derivatives with the oxygens positioned at the 2,6- positions, mescaline analogues with the oxygens at 3,5- have been made, but both are less potent than the corresponding 2,5- isomers; the symmetrical aromatic benzodifuran derivatives tend to have the highest binding affinity at 5-HT2A, but the saturated benzodifuran derivatives have higher efficacy, while the saturated benzodipyran derivatives are more selective for 5-HT2C.
A large number of possible combinations have been synthesised and tested for activity, but these represent only a fraction of the many variations that could be produced. Alexander Shulgin lists a dosage of 2C-B-FLY at 10 mg orally; the toxicity of 2C-B-FLY in humans is unknown. Two deaths occurred in October 2009, in Denmark and the United States, after ingestion of a substance, sold as 2C-B-FLY a small-time RC shop, but in fact consisted of Bromo-DragonFLY contaminated with a small amount of unidentified impurities; as of October 31, 2016. Http://gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2016/2016-05-04/html/sor-dors72-eng.php 2C-B-FLY is unscheduled and uncontrolled in the United States. However, it may fall under the scope of the Federal Analog Act if it is intended for human consumption given its similarity to 2C-B; the hallucinogenic effect of 2C-B-FLY is mediated by its partial agonistic activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, but has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors.
2C-B-FLY Entry at Erowid 2C-B-FLY Entry at Isomerdesign
2C-E is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. Shulgin classified 2C-E as a member of the "Magical Half-Dozen" in his book PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Vivid visuals similar to those experienced while under the influence of LSD are common, many reports indicate that the effects of this particular chemical may be overly intense for those not well experienced with psychedelics. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine is a colorless oil. Crystalline forms are obtained as the amine salt by reacting the free base with a mineral acid hydrochloric acid. Shulgin does not report an exact boiling point for the free base, stating only that during one synthesis the fraction boiling between 90–100 °C at 0.25 mmHg pressure was collected and converted to the hydrochloride salt. Shulgin reports the melting point of the hydrochloride salt as 208.5–210.5 °C. According to Shulgin, the duration of 2C-E's effects is between six and ten hours for an average dose, with the plateau lasting between three and six hours.2C-E's effects are described as "neutral", in comparison with other psychedelic chemicals and other 2C-x related molecules.
In PiHKAL, Shulgin states: "Here is another of the magical half-dozen. The range is purposefully broad. At 10 milligrams there have been some pretty rich +++ experiences, yet I have had the report from one young lady of a 30 milligram trial, frightening. My first experience with 2C-E was profound, it is the substance of a chapter within the story. Several people have said, about 2C-E, since it isn't that much fun, but I intend to explore it again." There is something here. Someday, the full character of 2C-E will be understood, but for the moment, let it rest as being a difficult and worth-while material. A much worth-while material." Adverse effects include tachycardia, agitation and hallucinations. At least two deaths have been attributed to a 2C-E overdose. In Queensland, 2C-E was added to the'Dangerous Drugs' list of the'Drugs Misuse Act 1986' by the'Drugs Misuse Amendment Act 2008'. Making it illegal to produce, supply or possess; as of October 31, 2016, 2C-E is a controlled substance in Canada.
As of October 2015, 2C-E is a controlled substance in China. 2C-E is added to the list of Schedule B controlled substances. 2C-E is a Anlage. New Zealand has a catch-all Analogues section in Schedule 3 / Class C of their drug laws that would make 2C-I, 2C-E, DOI, pseudoephedrine Schedule 3 compounds in New Zealand. Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut classified 2C-E as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor as of Oct 1, 2004, in their regulation SFS 2004:696 listed as 2,5-dimetoxi-4-etylfenetylamin, making it illegal to sell or possess. In the United Kingdom, 2C-E is a Class A controlled substance; the UK has the strictest laws in the EU on designer drugs. The Misuse Of Drugs Act was amended in 2002 to include a "catch most" clause outlawing every drug, possible future drug, from the LSD and MDMA chemical families; the amendment is a near verbatim quote from the books of the American biochemist Alexander Shulgin, who obtained a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley.
Dr. Shulgin, a former research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company, re-discovered the synthesis for MDMA in 1976 and published the syntheses for more than 200 phenethylamine compounds of his own invention, 55 tryptamine compounds many of which were his own invention; the Shulgins were motivated to release the synthesis information as a way to protect the public's access to information about psychedelic compounds, a goal Alexander Shulgin has noted many times. As of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-E is a Schedule I substance under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, making possession and manufacture illegal. Project WebTryp, includes description of UK laws regarding Phenethylamines Erowid 2C–E vault Chapter in Myron J. Stolaroff's Thanatos To Eros, 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration discussing author's experiments with 2C-E
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
2C is a general name for the family of psychedelic phenethylamines containing methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of a benzene ring. Most of these compounds carry lipophilic substituents at the 4 position resulting in more potent and more metabolically stable and longer acting compounds. Most of the known 2C compounds were first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in the 1970s and 1980s and published in his book PiHKAL. Shulgin coined the term 2C, being an acronym for the 2 carbon atoms between the benzene ring and the amino group; as of October 12, 2016, the 2C-x family of substituted phenethylamines is a controlled substances in Canada. Substituted phenethylamines Substituted amphetamines Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines DOx, 3Cs, 25-NB Substituted tryptamines
AL-LAD known as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, is a psychedelic drug and an analog of lysergic acid diethylamide. It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL, it is synthesized using allyl bromide as a reactant. While AL-LAD has subtly different effects than LSD, appears to be shorter lasting, their potencies are similar. AL-LAD has a known but short and uncommon history of recreational human use, which originated in Ireland and the UK, but spread internationally. AL-LAD does not cause a color change with the Marquis, Mecke or Mandelin reagents, but does cause the Ehrlich's reagent to turn purple because of the presence of the indole moiety in its structure. AL-LAD is not scheduled by the United Nations' Convention on Psychotropic Substances. AL-LAD is illegal in Denmark. AL-LAD is illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't scheduled, it may be controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015. Romania AL-LAD is illegal in Romania, it is not included directly in the list of controlled substances, but it is included in an analogue act The Riksdag added AL-LAD to Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act under swedish schedule I as of January 26, 2016, published by Medical Products Agency in regulation HSLF-FS 2015:35 listed as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, AL-LAD, 6-allyl-N,N-dietyl-9,10-didehydroergolin-8-karboxamid.
AL-LAD is illegal in Switzerland. AL-LAD is illegal in the UK. On June 10, 2014 the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs recommended that AL-LAD be named in the UK Misuse of Drugs Act as a class A drug despite not identifying any harm associated with its use; the UK Home office accepted this advice and announced a ban of the substance to be enacted on 6 January 2015 as part of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 Order 2014. AL-LAD is not scheduled as a controlled substance at the federal level in the United States, but AL-LAD could be considered an analog of LSD, in which case, sales or possession with intent for human consumption could be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act. 1P-LSD ETH-LAD PRO-LAD LSZ Watts, V. J.. E.. "LSD and structural analogs: Pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors". Psychopharmacology. 118: 401–9. Doi:10.1007/BF02245940. PMID 7568626. Niwaguchi, T. "Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide and related compounds. IV. Syntheses of various amide derivatives of norlysergic acid and related compounds".
Yakugaku Zasshi. 96: 673–8. Doi:10.1248/yakushi1947.96.5_673. PMID 987200. Robert C. Pfaff, Xuemei Huang, Danuta Marona-Lewicka, Robert Oberlender and David E. Nichols: Lysergamides Revisited. In: NIDA Research Monograph 146: Hallucinogens: An Update. P. 52, 1994, United States Department of Health and Human Services. AL-LAD entry in TiHKAL AL-LAD entry in TiHKAL • info AL-LAD Thread at UKChemicalResearch.org
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, altered state of consciousness. Major psychedelic drugs include mescaline, LSD, DMT. Studies show that psychedelics do not lead to addiction. Studies conducted using psilocybin in a psychotheraputic setting reveal that psychedelic drugs may assist with treating alcohol and nicotine addiction. Differing with other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, psychedelics tend to qualitatively alter ordinary conscious experience. Whereas stimulants cause energized feelings and opioids produce a relaxed euphoric state, the psychedelic experience is compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, yoga, religious ecstasy and near-death experiences. Most psychedelic drugs fall into one of the three families of chemical compounds: tryptamines, phenethylamines, or lysergamides. Although lysergamides are their own group they are a tryptamine.
Many psychedelic drugs are illegal worldwide under the UN conventions excepting use in a religious or research context. Despite these controls, recreational use of psychedelics is common; the term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή and δηλείν, hence "soul-manifesting", the implication being that psychedelics can access the soul and develop unused potentials of the human mind. The word was coined in 1956 by British psychiatrist, Humphry Osmond, the spelling loathed by American ethnobotanist, Richard Schultes, but championed by the American psychologist, Timothy Leary. Aldous Huxley had suggested to Humphry Osmond in 1956 his own coinage phanerothyme; the term entheogenic has come into use to denote the use of psychedelic drugs in a religious/spiritual/mystical context. Psychedelics have a long history of traditional use in medicine and religion, for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are known as entheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti have reported success against alcoholism, Mazatec practitioners use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing.
Ayahuasca, which contains the potent psychedelic DMT, is used in Peru and other parts of South America for spiritual and physical healing as well as in religious festivals. Classical or serotonergic psychedelics include LSD, mescaline, DMT; this class of psychedelics includes the classical hallucinogens, including the lysergamides like LSD and LSA, tryptamines like psilocybin and DMT, phenethylamines like mescaline and 2C-B. Many of these psychedelics cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, many users report that the three families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. At lower doses, these include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, color variations. Users report intense colors that they have not experienced, repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions.
Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have tight "dose curves", meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be slight. There can be substantial differences between the drugs, however. For instance, 5-MeO-DMT produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics and ibogaine is an NMDA receptor antagonist and κ-opioid receptor agonist in addition to being an agonist for the 5-HT2A receptors, resulting in dissociative effects as well. Research published in journal Cell Reports states that psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies; the empathogen-entactogens are phenethylamines of the MDxx class such as MDMA, MDEA, MDA. Their effects are characterized by feelings of openness, empathy, heightened self-awareness, by mild audio and visual distortions, their adoption by the rave subculture is due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. MDA is atypical to this experience causing hallucinations and psychedelic effects in equal profundity to the chemicals in the 5-HT2A agonist category, but with less mental involvement, is both a serotonin releaser and 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
Certain dissociative drugs acting via NMDA antagonism are known to produce what some might consider psychedelic effects. The main differences between dissociative psychedelics and serotonergic hallucinogens are that the dissociatives cause more intense derealization and depersonalization. For example, ketamine produces sensations of being disconnected from one's body and that the surrounding environment is unreal, as well as perceptual alterations seen with other psychedelics. Salvia divinorum is a dissociative, sometimes classified as an atypical psychedelic; the active molecule in the plant, salvinorin A, is a kappa opioid receptor agonist, working on a part of the brain that de