The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin. The "hammer" used in this sport is not like any of the tools called by that name, it consists of a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip. The size of the ball varies between women's competitions. With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France, its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics have been dominated by European and Eastern European influence, which has affected interest in the event in other parts of the world. The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today. While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995.
Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier. The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds and measures 3 feet 11 3⁄4 inches in length, the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb and 3 ft 11 in in length. Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest. Although thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have evolved hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance; the throwing motion involves about two swings from stationary position three, four or rarely five rotations of the body in circular motion using a complicated heel-toe movement of the foot. The ball moves in a circular path increasing in velocity with each turn with the high point of the hammer ball toward the target sector and the low point at the back of the circle; the thrower releases the ball from the front of the circle.
As of 2015 the men's hammer world record is held by Yuriy Sedykh, who threw 86.74 m at the 1986 European Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, West Germany on 30 August. The world record for the women's hammer is held by Anita Włodarczyk, who threw 82.98 m during the Kamila Skolimowska Memorial on 28 August 2016. Updated August 2015 Below is a list of all other throws superior to 86.50 metres: Yuriy Sedykh 86.66 m. Sedykh threw 86.68 m and 86.62 m ancillary marks during world record competition. Ivan Tsikhan of Belarus threw 86.73 on 3 July 2005 in Brest, but this performance was annulled due to drugs disqualification. Correct as of June 2018. Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 78.00 m: Anita Włodarczyk threw 82.87 m, 82.29 m, 81.77 m, 81.74, 81.63 m, 81.27 m, 81.08 m, 80.85 m, 80.79 m, 80.73 m, 80.69 m, 80.42 m, 80.40 m, 80.31 m, 80.26 m, 79.80 m, 79.73 m, 79.72 m, 79.68 m, 79.67 m, 79.63 m, 79.62 m, 79.61 m, 79.59 m, 79.58 m, 79.48 m, 79.45 m, 79.39 m, 79.27 m, 79.23 m, 79.07 m, 79.06 m, 78.94 m, 78.76 m, 78.74 m, 78.69 m, 78.59 m, 78.55 m, 78.54 m, 78.52 m, 78.46 m, 78.35 m, 78.30 m, 78.28 m, 78.24 m, 78.22 m, 78.17 m, 78.16 m, 78.14 m, 78.10, 78.00 m.
Tatyana Lysenko threw 78.51 m and 78.15 m Betty Heidler threw 78.07 m and 78.00 m. The following athletes had their performances annulled due to doping offences: Aksana Miankova 78.69 m and 78.19 m Gulfiya Agafonova 77.36 m List of hammer throwers IAAF list of hammer-throw records in XML HammerThrow.eu HammerThrow.org Statistics Hammer Throw Records Hammer Throw History
Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
1978 European Athletics Championships
The 12th European Athletics Championships were held from 29 August to 3 September 1978 in the Stadion Evžena Rošického in Prague, the capital city of Czechoslovakia. Contemporaneous reports on the event were given in the Glasgow Herald. There were a number of disqualifications because of infringements of IAAF doping rules resulting in ineligibility of 18 month concerning shot putter Yevgeniy Mironov, javelin thrower Vasiliy Yershov, pentathletes Nadezhda Tkachenko and Yekaterina Gordiyenko, all competing for the Soviet Union, as well as shot putter Elena Stoyanova from Bulgaria. Complete results were published. 1971 |1974 |1978 |1982 |1986 | nb1 Pietro Mennea ran 10.19 in the heats, a new championship record. 1971 |1974 |1978 |1982 |1986 | †: In shot put, Yevgeniy Mironov finished second, but was disqualified for an infringement of IAAF doping rules. 1971 |1974 |1978 |1982 |1986 | nb1 Grażyna Rabsztyn, disqualified in the final, ran a championship record of 12.60 in the semifinal. 1971 |1974 |1978 |1982 |1986 | ‡: In pentathlon, Nadezhda Tkachenko finished 1st, but was disqualified for an infringement of IAAF doping rules.
Nb1 Vilma Bardauskienė broke the world record with a jump 7.09 metres in the qualification round. * Host nation According to an unofficial count, 847 athletes from 30 countries participated in the event, 157 athletes less than the official number of 1004, one country more than the official number of 29 as published. The higher official number might include coaches and/or officials; the EAA Official Website Athletix
Renate Stecher is a German sprint runner and a triple Olympic champion. She was the first woman to run 100 meters within 11 seconds. Born as Renate Meißner, she was a talented athlete competing in the high jump and pentathlon, she debuted internationally at the 1969 European Championships, where she – as a last minute substitute – won a silver medal in the 200 m and a gold in the 4 × 100 m relay. In 1970 she was the World Student Games Champion in both 200 metres. At the next European Championships, in 1971, she won both the 100 and 200 m and the silver in the relay. At that time, she was competing as Renate Stecher, having married hurdler Gerd Stecher the previous year. At the 1972 Summer Olympics, Stecher repeated that performance, she won the 100 m in time of 11.07, only in 1976 recognised as world record, measured in tenths of seconds before. She equalled the world record in the 200 meters with a time of 22.40. The following year, Stecher set world records in both sprint events becoming the first woman to beat 11 seconds.
She clocked 10.8 for the 100 metres and 22.1 for the 200 metres. In Rome at the 1974 European Championships she was defeated in both the 100 m and 200 m, by Irena Szewińska of Poland and had to settle for silver in both distances; however the GDR 4 × 100 m relay team, in which Stecher ran the second leg, won the gold medal in a world record time. At the 1976 Summer Olympics, Stecher again competed in the three sprint events, winning medals in all three once again, she was beaten for the 100 m title by Annegret Richter, came third in a 200 m race with five German women in the first five positions. With the 4 × 100 m relay team they beat West Germany, taking revenge for the race four years earlier. Following the release of East German secret service files, it was revealed that many of the country's athletes were involved with a state-sponsored drug program; the files document that Stecher had wanted to step down her drug use after the 1972 Olympics, so that she could safely have children. Raelene Boyle, who had finished second to Stecher in both the 100 and 200 metres at the Olympics, stated that she felt cheated, as it is unlikely that Stecher would have beaten her without the use of performance-enhancing drugs.
In 2011 Stecher was inducted into the Germany's Sports Hall of Fame
East Germany at the 1972 Summer Olympics
Athletes from East Germany competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany. 297 competitors, 231 men and 66 women, took part in 161 events in 18 sports. Peter Frenkel — Athletics, Men's 20 km Walk Wolfgang Nordwig — Athletics, Men's Pole Vault Renate Stecher — Athletics, Women's 100 metres Renate Stecher — Athletics, Women's 200 metres Monika Zehrt — Athletics, Women's 400 metres Annelie Ehrhardt — Athletics, Women's 100m Hurdles Monika Zehrt, Dagmar Käsling, Rita Kühne, Helga Seidler — Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m Relay Ruth Fuchs — Athletics, Women's Javelin Throw Siegbert Horn — Canoeing, Men's K1 Kayak Slalom Singles Reinhard Eiben — Canoeing, Men's C1 Canadian Slalom Singles Rolf-Dieter Amend and Walter Hofmann — Canoeing, Men's C2 Canadian Slalom Pairs Angelika Bahmann — Canoeing, Women's K1 Kayak Slalom Singles Klaus Köste — Gymnastics, Men's Long Horse Vault Karin Janz — Gymnastics, Women's Side Horse Vault Karin Janz — Gymnastics, Women's Asymmetrical Bars Siegfried Brietzke and Wolfgang Mager — Rowing, Men's Coxless Pairs Wolfgang Gunkel, Jörg Lucke, Klaus-Dieter Neubert — Rowing, Men's Coxed Pairs Dieter Schubert, Frank Forberger, Dieter Grahn and Frank Rühle — Rowing, Men's Coxless Fours Roland Matthes — Swimming, Men's 100m Backstroke Roland Matthes — Swimming, Men's 200m Backstroke Stefan Junge — Athletics, Men's High Jump Jörg Drehmel — Athletics, Men's triple jump Jochen Sachse — Athletics, Men's Hammer Throw Gunhild Hoffmeister — Athletics, Women's 1500 metres Bärbel Struppert, Christina Heinich, Evelin Kaufer, Renate Stecher — Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m Relay Margitta Gummel-Helmboldt — Athletics, Women's Shot Put Jacqueline Todten — Athletics, Women's Javelin Throw Petra Grabowski and Ilse Kaschube — Canoeing, Women's K2 500m Kayak Pairs Uwe Unterwalder, Thomas Huschke, Heinz Richter, Herbert Richter — Cycling, Men's 4000m Team Pursuit Jürgen Geschke and Werner Otto — Cycling, Men's 2000m Tandem Karin Janz — Gymnastics, Women's All-Around Individual Erika Zuchold — Gymnastics, Women's Side Horse Vault Erika Zuchold — Gymnastics, Women's Asymmetrical Bars Erika Zuchold, Richarda Schmeißer, Christine Schmitt, Irene Abel, Angelika Hellmann, Karin Janz — Gymnastics, Women's Team Combined Exercises Eckhard Martens, Dietrich Zander, Reinhard Gust, Rolf Jobst, Klaus-Dieter Ludwig — Rowing, Men's Coxed Fours Roland Matthes, Klaus Katzur, Hartmut Flöckner, Lutz Unger — Swimming, Men's 4 × 100 m Medley Relay Roswitha Beier — Swimming, Women's 100m Butterfly Kornelia Ender — Swimming, Women's 200m Individual Medley Gabriele Wetzko, Andrea Eife, Kornelia Ender, Elke Sehmisch — Swimming, Women's 4 × 100 m Freestyle Relay Christine Herbst, Renate Vogel, Roswitha Beier, Kornelia Ender — Swimming, Women's 4 × 100 m Medley Relay Rainer Tscharke, Wolfgang Webner, Wolfgang Weise, Siegfried Schneider, Arnold Schulz, Rudi Schumann, Jürgen Maune, Horst Peter, Eckehard Pietzsch, Horst Hagen, Wolfgang Löwe, Wolfgang Maibohm — Volleyball, Men's Team Competition Heinz-Helmut Wehling — Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman Featherweight Paul Borowski, Karl-Heinz Thun and Konrad Weichert — Sailing, Men's Dragon Class Hans-Georg Reimann — Athletics, Men's 20 km Walk Hartmut Briesenick — Athletics, Men's Shot Put Gunhild Hoffmeister — Athletics, Women's 800 metres Karin Balzer — Athletics, Women's 100m Hurdles Burglinde Pollak — Athletics, Women's Pentathlon Peter Tiepold — Boxing, Men's Light Middleweight Marina Janicke — Diving, Women's 3m Springboard Marina Janicke — Diving, Women's 10m Platform Harald Gimpel — Canoeing, Men's K1 Kayak Slalom Singles Jürgen Schütze — Cycling, Men's 1000m Time Trial Jürgen Paeke, Reinhard Rychly, Wolfgang Thüne, Matthias Brehme, Wolfgang Klotz, Klaus Köste — Gymnastics, Men's Team Combined Exercises 559.70 Karin Janz — Gymnastics, Women's Balance Beam Dietmar Hötger — Judo, Men's Half Middleweight Wolfgang Güldenpfennig — Rowing, Men's Single Sculls Joachim Böhmer and Hans-Ullrich Schmied — Rowing, Men's Double Sculls Manfred Schneider, Hartmut Schreiber, Dietmar Schwarz, Jörg Landvoigt, Heinrich Mederow, Manfred Schmorde, Hans-Joachim Borzym, Harold Dimke, Bernd Landvoigt — Rowing, Men's Rowing Eights Werner Lippoldt — Shooting, Men's Small-bore Rifle, Three Positions Michael Buchheim — Shooting, Men's Skeet Shooting Konrad Weise, Manfred Zapf, Joachim Streich, Eberhard Vogel, Siegmar Wätzlich, Ralf Schulenberg, Wolfgang Seguin, Jürgen Sparwasser, Hans-Jürgen Kreische, Lothar Kurbjuweit, Jürgen Pommerenke, Frank Ganzera, Reinhard Häfner, Harald Irmscher, Bernd Bransch, Jürgen Croy, Peter Ducke — Football, Men's Team Competition Lutz Unger, Peter Bruch, Wilfried Hartung, Roland Matthes — Swimming, Men's 4 × 100 m Freestyle Relay Gudrun Wegner — Swimming, Women's 400m Freestyle Stefan Grützner — Weightlifting, Men's Heavyweight Gerd Bonk — Weightlifting, Men's Super Heavyweight Men's 800 metres Dieter Fromm Heat — 1:46.9 Semifinals — 1:48.1 Final — 1:48.0 Men's 1500 metres Klaus-Peter Justus Heat — 3:40.4 Semifinals — 3:44.6 Men's 4 × 100 m Relay Manfred Kokot, Bernd Borth, Hans-Jörgen Bombach, Siegfried Schenke Heat — 39.17s Semifinals — 39.06s Final — 38.90s Men's High Jump Stefan Junge Qualifying Round — 2.15m Final — 2.21m Men's Light Middleweight Peter Tiepold → Bronze Medal First Round — Bye Second Round — Defeated Ion Györfi, 4:1 Third Round — Defeated Mikko Saarinen, 5:0 Quarterfinals — Defeated Emeterio Villanueva, 5:0 Semifinals — Lost to Wiesław Rudkowski, 1:4Men's Heavyweight Jürgen Fanghänel First Round — Defeated Atanas Suvandzhiev, KO-1 Quarterfinals — Lost to Ion Alexe, 0:5 Eleven cyclists represented East Germany in 1972.
Individual road raceKarl-Heinz Oberfranz — 30th place Wolfgang
Stanisława Walasiewicz known as Stefania Walasiewicz, Stanisława Walasiewiczówna and Stella Walsh, was a Polish track and field athlete, who became a women's Olympic champion in the 100 metres. She became an American citizen in 1947. Upon her death, it was discovered that Walasiewicz was intersex. Walasiewicz was born on 3 April 1911 in Congress Poland, her family emigrated to the United States. Her parents and Veronika Walasiewicz, settled in Cleveland, where her father found a job as a steel mill worker, her family called her Stasia, a common Polish diminutive of her Christian name, which gave birth to the American version of her name, Stella. Walasiewicz started her athletic career in a public school in Cleveland. In 1927, she qualified for a place on the American Olympic team started by the Cleveland Press newspaper. However, Walasiewicz was not an American citizen and could not obtain citizenship under the age of 21, so she could not compete; the success of Halina Konopacka, a Polish athlete who won gold in the discus throw at the 1928 Summer Olympics, inspired Walasiewicz to join the local branch of Sokół, a Polish sports and patriotic organization active among the Polish diaspora.
During the Pan-Slavic meeting of the Sokół movement in Poznań, she scored her first major international victories. She was asked to stay in Poland and join the Polish national athletic team, she continued to run in American challenges and games. Walasiewicz continued to compete as an amateur, while working as a clerk in Cleveland. In the period leading up to the 1932 Summer Olympics, she won American national championships in the 100-yard dash, 220 yard dash, long jump. For her part in interstate athletic championships, the city of Cleveland awarded her a car, she was offered American citizenship, just two days prior to her Oath of Citizenship, she changed her mind and instead adopted Polish citizenship, offered to her by the Polish consulate in New York. In 1930, she was chosen the most popular Polish athlete by readers of the Przegląd Sportowy daily. In the 1932 Summer Olympics, Walasiewicz represented Poland. In the 100 m dash, Walasiewicz equaled the current world record of 11.9 seconds and won the gold medal.
On the same day, she finished. Upon her return to Poland, she instantly became a well-known personality, she was welcomed by crowds in the port of Gdynia, a few days she was awarded the Golden Cross of Merit for her achievements. She was again chosen the most popular Polish person in sports, held that title for three years. In the spring of 1933, Walasiewicz appeared at the Championships of Warsaw, where she seized 9 gold medals in track and field, including 80 metres hurdling, 4 × 200 relay, long jump. On 17 September 1933, in Poznań, she beat two world records in one day: 7.4 seconds for the 60 m and 11.8 seconds for the 100 m. Her Olympic success won her a scholarship at the Warsaw Institute of Physical Education, where she met some of the most notable Polish athletes of the time, including Jadwiga Wajs, Feliksa Schabińska, Maria Kwaśniewska, Janusz Kusociński. In the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Walasiewicz attempted to defend her Olympic title for the 100 m dash, but Helen Stephens of the U.
S. beat her by.02 second. In hindsight, Stephens was accused of being male and was forced to submit to a genital inspection to confirm her gender. After the Olympic Games, Walasiewicz moved to the U. S. and resumed her amateur career. During and after World War II, she won American national championships in the 100 metres, the 200 metres, the discus throw, the long jump. In 1947, she accepted married boxer, Neil Olson. Although the marriage did not last long, she continued to use the name Stella Walsh Olson for the rest of her life, she won her last U. S. title at age forty, in 1951, she was inducted into the U. S. Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1975. After her retirement, she continued to be active in a variety of Polish sport associations in the U. S. where she helped young athletes. She funded a variety of awards for Polish sports people living in America. In 1974, Stella Walsh was inducted into the National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame. Stella Walsh was a contestant on the 16 June 1954 episode of the radio quiz program You Bet Your Life, hosted by Groucho Marx.
Walsh was killed during an armed robbery in a parking lot in Cleveland, on 4 December 1980. She was buying ribbons for a welcoming ceremony for visiting Polish basketball players. An autopsy showed that she had no uterus, an abnormal urethra, a non-functioning, underdeveloped penis, although some sources suggest she displayed female characteristics. Chromosome analysis revealed that most of her cells contained normal X and Y chromosomes but some were X0, resulting in XY gonadal dysgenesis; the controversy of her biological sex remains unresolved, the situation is further complicated by the fact that many earlier documents, including her birth record, state that she was female. There has been controversy over whether her records and achievements should be erased; the case of Stanisława Walasiewicz is regarded as one of the reasons why the IOC has dropped gender determi