GCR Class 11B
Although overshadowed by the and more famous steam locomotives that John G. Robinson would go on to design, the Great Central Railway Class 11B 4-4-0 Express Passenger engines were a successful class which totalled 40. Built from 1901–1903, in rebuilt form as 11D, some 11Bs would last in service until 1950. Railwaymen continued to refer to the class as "11B" after all were rebuilt to 11D. Being contemporary with and to some extent the 4-4-0 version of Robinson's much more numerous 0-6-0 goods class 9J, which were known as "Pom-Poms", the 11Bs acquired the nickname "Pom-Pom Bogies"; the London & North Eastern Railway classified the 11Bs, along with their 11C and 11D rebuilds, as Class D9. When John G. Robinson took up the reins at Gorton there was a serious and immediate shortage of suitable locomotives. Part of the requirement was for express passenger engines for the newly completed London Extension. Pollitt's locomotives of class 11 were performing satisfactorily but the piston-valved 11A 4-4-0s, intended for use on Marylebone expresses had been problematic.
There were some ordered 4-2-2'singles' being delivered, but Robinson decided that more powerful locomotives were required. The 11Bs therefore emerged as a robust and enlarged evolution of GCR Class 11, with the then-conventional slide valves. Gorton was busy at the time and the engines were needed urgently, so outside builders were used. Delivery was rapid and 25 were in service by May 1902, 30 by March 1903 and all 40 by June 1904; as intended the 11Bs displaced Pollitt's 11As on the London Extension services, with engines shedded at Leicester and Neasden. The 11Bs were displaced in their turn by the arrival of Robinson's "Atlantics", a process completed by the arrival of the "Director" 4-4-0s. 11Bs found uses on the older parts of the Great Central Railway network, based in Sheffield and Annesley, with others scattered elsewhere. By the Grouping, increasing numbers of the engines had been rebuilt with larger superheated boilers and piston valves becoming GCR Class 11D; the last conversion was completed in 1927.
On 23 December 1904, locomotive No. 1040 was hauling an express passenger train, derailed at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire due to excessive speed on a curve. Four people were killed; the performance of these engines was much overshadowed by Robinson engines such as classes 8B, 11E, 11F. They must have been at least reasonably satisfactory from the start to merit the additional order of 10 in 1904. Hancox records them capable of working nine bogie coaches. London Extension schedules from 1905, at which time the 11Bs were still working some of the best trains, needed average speeds of nearly 60 mph and to keep these times much faster running must have been required. With light loads this implies at the least a free-running locomotive, their long lives suggest trouble-free construction. However effective they were, Robinson identified a need for larger express passenger locomotives, with the 8B "Jersey Lilies" appearing in 1903 soon after the 11Bs were delivered. There were three distinct attempts to improve the 11Bs through rebuilding, creating GCR Class 11C and 11D.
Four of the class were given names, although speaking only one - 1014 - carried a name when still class 11B: The nature of these titles demonstrates the high status that the engines enjoyed at the time they were named. As built, all 40 had cylinders incorporating slide valves; these locomotives formed GCR Class 11B. The 11Bs were little changed from introduction until rebuilding as the superheated 11D starting with No. 1021 in 1913, except for two prior attempts to upgrade the class. The first was fitting of larger saturated boilers and modified pistons to Nos. 104 and 110 creating GCR Class 11C in 1907 without significant success. Two locomotives, nos. 104 and 110, were rebuilt in 1907 with larger boilers: these were 5 feet 0 inches diameter, with fireboxes 8 feet 6 inches long. No. 110 lost its large boiler in August 1918. The large boiler, removed was fitted to no. 113 in October 1918, given piston valves at the same time. Nos. 104 & 113 were rebuilt to class 11D in 1923. In 1909, no. 1026 was given a boiler of the same diameter as the 11C rebuilds, but with the same firebox length as the 11B class.
It received new cylinders, incorporating piston valves. This boiler was saturated, but from 1913 further boilers of this size, which incorporated superheaters, were fitted to the 11B class, each of, reclassified 11D. No. 1026 was so rebuilt in 1914, its previous boiler being transferred to no. 105. All the rebuilds were given piston valves at the same time as the large boilers, apart from five locomotives, which had received piston valves anything from two to six years beforehand. 105, which retained slide valves when first given a large boiler, receiving piston valves when fitted with a superheated boiler in 1923. The process of rebuilding to class 11D was completed in January 1927, by which time the GCR had become part of the LNER, which placed all 40 in class D9; the first D9 was withdrawn by the LNER in 1939 and 26 remained in service on nationalization of the railways in 194
GCR Class 11F
The Great Central Railway Class 11F or Improved Director Class is a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed by John G. Robinson for passenger work; the LNER classified them as Class D11 from 1923. They were based on the earlier GCR Class 11E "Director" class. There were two subclasses: D11/1 were the original GCR engines and D11/2 were those built in 1924 by the LNER to a reduced loading gauge with smaller boiler mountings for hauling passenger trains in Scotland; the 11F Class was used on passenger work on the GCR system, including fast expresses from Sheffield Victoria to London Marylebone. In their careers, they were used on short distance passenger trains. On lines of the Cheshire Lines Committee during the late 1940s and early 1950s, they hauled expresses between Manchester Central and Liverpool Central, their 6 ft 9 inches driving wheels made them fast locos, but unsuitable for hauling freight trains. The eleven original 11F locos were withdrawn during 1959 and 1960 as diesel multiple units took over operation of the shorter distance passenger trains.
The first member of the GCR Class 11F, No. 506 Butler-Henderson, was withdrawn from use by British Railways during 1960. It has been preserved as part of the UK National Collection and wears restored GCR colours. No. 506 is the only surviving GCR passenger locomotive. The locomotive operated passenger trains on the preserved Great Central Railway in Leicestershire during the late 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s but is now out of running order; the locomotive was placed on long term loan for static display at Barrow Hill Engine Shed, near Chesterfield, in 2005. According to the Great Central Railway Plc, it is scheduled to be exhibited at the proposed NRM-endorsed Leicester Railway Museum, along with LNER class V2 Green Arrow. Bachmann Branchline produce model of the D11 in other Great Central liveries, LNER liveries and British Railway liveries, including a NRM exclusive model of'Butler Henderson' Boddy, M. G.. A.. N. T.. B.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 3B: Tender Engines - Classes D1 to D12.
Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-46-0. LNER encyclopedia Railuk database D11/1 Railuk database D11/2 Great Central Railway page on 506
4-4-0 is a locomotive type with a classification that uses the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement and represents the arrangement: four leading wheels on two axles, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, a lack of trailing wheels. Due to the large number of the type that were produced and used in the United States, the 4-4-0 is most known as the American type, but the type subsequently became popular in the United Kingdom, where large numbers were produced; every major railroad that operated in North America in the first half of the 19th century owned and operated locomotives of this type. The first use of the name American to describe locomotives of this wheel arrangement was made by Railroad Gazette in April 1872. Prior to that, this wheel arrangement was known as a eight-wheeler; this locomotive type was so successful on railroads in the United States of America that many earlier 4-2-0 and 2-4-0 locomotives were rebuilt as 4-4-0s by the middle of the 19th century.
Several 4-4-0 tank locomotives were built, but the vast majority of locomotives of this wheel arrangement were tender engines. Five years after new locomotive construction had begun at the West Point Foundry in the United States with the 0-4-0 Best Friend of Charleston in 1831, the first 4-4-0 locomotive was designed by Henry R. Campbell, at the time the chief engineer for the Philadelphia and Norristown Railway. Campbell received a patent for the design in February 1836 and soon set to work building the first 4-4-0. At the time, Campbell's 4-4-0 was a giant among locomotives, its cylinders had a 14 inches bore with a 16 inches piston stroke, it boasted 54 inches diameter driving wheels, could maintain 90 pounds per square inch of steam pressure and weighed 12 short tons. Campbell's locomotive was estimated to be able to pull a train of 450 short tons at 15 miles per hour on level track, outperforming the strongest of Baldwin's 4-2-0s in tractive effort by about 63%. However, the frame and driving gear of his locomotive proved to be too rigid for the railroads of the time, which caused Campbell's prototype to be derailment-prone.
The most obvious cause was the lack of a weight equalizing system for the drivers. At about the same time as Campbell was building his 4-4-0, the company of Eastwick and Harrison was building its own version of the 4-4-0; this locomotive, named Hercules, was completed in 1837 for the Beaver Meadow Railroad. It was built with a leading bogie, separate from the locomotive frame, making it much more suitable for the tight curves and quick grade changes of early railroads; the Hercules suffered from poor tracking, corrected by giving it an effective springing system when returned to its builder for remodeling. Though the Hercules and its successors from Eastwick and Harrison proved the viability of the new wheel arrangement, the company remained the sole builders of this type of locomotive for another two years. Norris Locomotive Works built that company's first 4-4-0 in 1839, followed by Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the Locks and Canals Machine Shop and the Newcastle Manufacturing Company in 1840.
After Henry Campbell sued other manufacturers and railroads for infringing on his patent, Baldwin settled with him in 1845 by purchasing a license to build 4-4-0s. As the 1840s progressed, the design of the 4-4-0 changed little, but the dimensions of a typical example of this type increased; the boiler was lengthened, drivers grew in diameter and the firegrate was increased in area. Early 4-4-0s were short enough that it was most practical to connect the pistons to the rear drivers, but as the boiler was lengthened, the connecting rods were more connected to the front drivers. In the 1850s, locomotive manufacturers began extending the wheelbase of the leading bogie and the drivers as well as the tender bogies. By placing the axles farther apart, manufacturers were able to mount a wider boiler above the wheels that extended beyond the sides of the wheels; this gave newer locomotives increased heating and steaming capacity, which translated to higher tractive effort. It was in this decade that 4-4-0 locomotives had assumed the appearance for which they would be most recognized by railways and people around the world.
The design and subsequent improvements of the 4-4-0 configuration proved so successful that, by 1872, 60% of Baldwin's locomotive construction was of this type and it is estimated that 85% of all locomotives in operation in the United States were 4-4-0s. However, the 4-4-0 was soon supplanted by bigger designs, like the 2-6-0 and 2-8-0 though the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement was still favored for express services; the widespread adoption of the 4-6-0 and larger locomotives helped seal its fate as a product of the past. Although superseded in North American service by the early 20th century, Baldwin Locomotive Works produced two examples for the narrow gauge Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatán in early 1946 the last engines of this wheel arrangement intended for general use. A number of individual engines have been custom-built for Theme Parks in recent years, resembling early designs in appearance; the first British locomotives to use this wheel arrangement were the 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge 4-4-0 tank engine designs which appeared from 1849.
The first British tender locomotive class, although of limited success, was the broad gauge Waverley class of the Great Western Railway, designed by Daniel Gooch and built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1855. The first American-style British 4-4-0 tender locomotive on 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge, desi
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
GCR Class 9Q
The GCR Class 9Q, classified B7 by the LNER, was a class of 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives designed by John G. Robinson for fast goods, relief passenger and excursion services on the Great Central Railway, they were a smaller wheeled version of Robinson’s earlier Class 9P "Lord Faringdon" express passenger class. The GCR built two batches at Gorton locomotive works, during 1921 and 1922, they ordered batches from Vulcan Foundry and the Beyer and Company. Twenty eight locomotives had been delivered by Grouping in 1923; the GCR found that they were rather heavy on coal - this led to their nickname of "Black Pigs" - although not much worse than other 4 cylinder designs of the time. They were remarkably quick to say that they had only 5ft 8in wheels and pulled heavy expresses in the early period of their career; the London and North Eastern Railway ordered a fifth batch of ten locomotives from Gorton works and these were delivered between August 1923 and March 1924. The last batch had reduced boiler mountings and detail differences to the cab to conform to the new LNER loading gauge.
These were classified B7/2. The earlier batches were classified B7/1. Thirty-eight locomotives passed to British Railways in 1948; some locomotives surviving in 1949 were renumbered between 61702 and 61713 to make more room for Thompson Class B1 locomotives under construction. None have been preserved. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8
GCR Class 2
The GCR Class 2 was derived from a Kitson built/Thomas Parker designed prototype 4-4-0 locomotive No. 561, exhibited in Manchester in 1887. The design lead to the production of a series of express steam locomotives built between 1890 and 1894 for use on the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway the Great Central Railway; the last batch of six, built 1894, had larger bearings for the coupled wheels, coil springs for the driving axle and was classified 2A. When first built, the Class 2s were used on the MSLR main express trains, they hauled the Manchester to King's Cross expresses to and from Grantham. Early records suggest that they were economical locomotives during this period; these locomotives were superseded by the Pollitt D6 and Robinson D9 locomotives in 1895 and 1901 and were reduced to stopping and secondary services. They passed to the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923 and both classes were re-classified D7. During the early years of the LNER, the D7s qualified for the LNER's green passenger locomotive livery.
This led to the Immingham D7s acquiring the nickname of'Green Bogies' By this time, they were obsolete - withdrawals starting in 1926 and progressed the last D7 was withdrawn in 1939 with no preserved examples. A Project has now been launched to build a new member of this class to modern engineering standards for running on the Great Central Railway, it is be a semi-new build locomotive being erected at Ruddington on the GCR Northern section. The build, with a potential boiler, cylinder block and tender chassis found, the rest costing about £950,000. However, a review of the proposed boiler, needing some work to be usable. Has led the group to consider a new-build boiler at a cost of little more than the repair costs; the Bogie wheels are identical to those on the'Brighton Atlantic Project', however the Bluebell Railway have declined to release the pattern so the group will have to make a new one - other new-build projects based on Kitson design/manufacture may have useful parts. Design work is well advanced with over 300 drawings having been created and reviwed for manufacture.
New methodology is being considered for casting using'Polypatterns' created by 3D printing - a considerable cost saving. Investigations undertaken when creating the design for the new frames showed that these locomotives were structurally weak at the front end - photos show damage caused by'heavy shunts'; the majority of their service life, these engines would have spent coupled to their trains via the tender - for use on preserved lines, the locomotive needs to be able to run Smokebox to train. The GCR567 design team will utilise the Kitson & Co build for the frames - these engines being built with deeper frames but the GCR567 team still needs to address the weakness - by creating a new front Dragbox and Doubler plates - the latter will seen from the outside, however this and other modern updates to improve ease of maintenance, should not detract from the visual re-creation of this Victorian Locomotive. Steam locomotives of the 21st century Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 5B: Great Northern Railway and Great Central Railway.
Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-903485-86-9
The valve gear of a steam engine is the mechanism that operates the inlet and exhaust valves to admit steam into the cylinder and allow exhaust steam to escape at the correct points in the cycle. It can serve as a reversing gear, it is sometimes referred to as the "motion". In the simple case, this can be a simple task as in the internal combustion engine in which the valves always open and close at the same points; this is not the ideal arrangement for a steam engine, because greatest power is achieved by keeping the inlet valve open throughout the power stroke while peak efficiency is achieved by only having the inlet valve open for a short time and letting the steam expand in the cylinder. The point at which steam stops being admitted to the cylinder is known as the cutoff, the optimal position for this varies depending on the work being done and the tradeoff desired between power and efficiency. Steam engines are fitted with regulators to vary the restriction on steam flow, but controlling the power via the cutoff setting is preferable since it makes for more efficient use of boiler steam.
A further benefit may be obtained by admitting the steam to the cylinder before front or back dead centre. This advanced admission assists in cushioning the inertia of the motion at high speed. In the internal combustion engine, this task is performed by cams on a camshaft driving poppet valves, but this arrangement is not used with steam engines because achieving variable engine timing using cams is complicated. Instead, a system of eccentrics and levers is used to control a D slide valve or piston valve from the motion. Two simple harmonic motions with different fixed phase angles are added in varying proportions to provide an output motion, variable in phase and amplitude. A variety of such mechanisms have been devised with varying success. Both slide and piston valves have the limitation that intake and exhaust events are fixed in relation to each other and cannot be independently optimised. Lap is provided on steam edges of the valve, so that although the valve stroke reduces as cutoff is advanced, the valve is always opened to exhaust.
However, as cutoff is shortened, the exhaust events advance. The exhaust release point occurs earlier in the power stroke and compression earlier in the exhaust stroke. Early release wastes some energy in the steam, early closure wastes energy in compressing an otherwise unnecessarily large quantity of steam. Another effect of early cutoff is that the valve is moving quite at the cutoff point, this causes'wire drawing' of the steam, another wasteful thermodynamic effect visible on an indicator diagram; these inefficiencies drove the widespread experimentation in poppet valve gears for locomotives. Intake and exhaust poppet valves could be moved and controlled independently of each other, allowing for better control of the cycle. In the end, not a great number of locomotives were fitted with poppet valves, but they were common in steam cars and lorries, for example all Sentinel lorries and railcars used poppet valves. A late British design, the SR Leader class, used sleeve valves adapted from internal combustion engines, but this class was not a success.
In stationary steam engines, traction engines and marine engine practice, the shortcomings of valves and valve gears were among the factors that lead to compound expansion. In stationary engines trip valves were extensively used. Valve gear was a fertile field of invention, with several hundred variations devised over the years. However, only a small number of these saw any widespread use, they can be divided into those that drove the standard reciprocating valves, those used with poppet valves, stationary engine trip gears used with semi-rotary Corliss valves or drop valves. Slip-eccentric - This gear is now confined to model steam engines, low power hobby applications such as steam launch engines, ranging to a few horsepower; the eccentric is loose on the crankshaft but there are stops to limit its rotation relative to the crankshaft. Setting the eccentric to the forward running and reverse running positions can be accomplished manually by rotating the eccentric on a stopped engine, or for many engines by turning the engine in the desired rotation direction, where the eccentric positions itself automatically.
The engine is pushed forwards to put the eccentric in the forward gear position and backwards to put it in the backward gear position. There is no variable control of cutoff. On the London and North Western Railway, some of the three-cylinder compounds designed by Francis William Webb from 1889 used a slip eccentric to operate the valve of the single low-pressure cylinder; these included Greater Britain and John Hick classes. Gab or hook gear - used on earliest locomotives. Allowed reversing but no control of cutoff. One component of the motion comes from a eccentric; the other component comes from a separate source the crosshead. Walschaerts or Heusinger valve gear - most common valve gear on locomotives externally mounted. Deeley valve gear - fitted to several express locomotives on the Midland Railway; the combination levers were driven, as normal, from the crossheads. Each expansion link was driven from the crosshead on the opposite side of the engine. Young valve gear - used the piston rod motion on one side of the locomotive to drive the valve gear on the other side.
Similar to the Deeley gear, but with deta