James I of Scotland
James I, the youngest of three sons, was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond. His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died suspiciously while being detained by their uncle, Duke of Albany. Fears for James's safety grew through the winter of 1405/6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was forced to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth after his escort was attacked by supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas, he remained there until mid-March. On 22 March English pirates delivered the prince to Henry IV of England; the ailing Robert III died on 4 April and the 12-year-old James, now the uncrowned King of Scots, would not regain his freedom for another eighteen years. James was educated well at the English Court where he developed respect for English methods of governance and for Henry V; the Scottish king willingly, joined Henry in his military campaign in France during 1420 – 1421. His cousin, Murdoch Stewart, Albany's son, an English prisoner since 1402 was traded for Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland in 1416.
James had married Joan Beaufort, daughter of the Earl of Somerset in February 1424 just before his release in April. The King's re-entry into Scottish affairs was not altogether popular since he had fought on behalf of Henry V in France and at times against Scottish forces. Noble families were now faced with paying increased taxes to cover the ransom repayments but would have to provide family hostages as security. James, who excelled in sporting activities and appreciated literature and music held a strong desire to impose law and order on his subjects although he applied it selectively at times. To secure his position, James launched preemptive attacks on some of his nobles beginning in 1425 with his close kinsmen the Albany Stewarts resulting in the execution of Duke Murdoch and his sons. In 1428 James detained Lord of the Isles, while attending a parliament in Inverness. Archibald, 5th Earl of Douglas, was arrested in 1431, followed by George, Earl of March, in 1434; the plight of the ransom hostages held in England was ignored and the repayment money was diverted into the construction of Linlithgow Palace and other grandiose schemes.
In August 1436, James failed in his siege of the English-held Roxburgh Castle and faced an ineffective attempt by Sir Robert Graham to arrest him at a general council. James was assassinated at Perth on the night of 20/21 February 1437 in a failed coup by his uncle Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl. Queen Joan, although wounded, managed to evade the attackers and reached her son, now King James II, in Edinburgh Castle. James was born in late July 1394 at Dunfermline Abbey, 27 years after the marriage of his parents, Robert III and Annabella Drummond, it was at Dunfermline under his mother's care that James would have spent most of his early childhood. The prince was seven years old when his mother died in 1401 and a year his elder brother David, Duke of Rothesay, was murdered by their uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, after being held at Albany's Falkland Castle. Prince James, now heir to the throne, was the only impediment to the transfer of the royal line to the Albany Stewarts. In 1402 Albany and his close Black Douglas ally Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas were absolved of any involvement in Rothesay's death clearing the way for Albany's re-appointment as the king's lieutenant.
Albany rewarded Douglas for his support by allowing him to resume hostilities in England. The Albany and Douglas affinity received a serious reversal in September 1402 when their large army was defeated by the English at Homildon and numerous prominent nobles and their followers were captured; these included Douglas himself, Albany's son Murdoch, the earls of Moray and Orkney. That same year, as well as the death of Rothesay, Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross and Malcolm Drummond, lord of Mar had died; the void created by these events was filled by lesser men who had not been conspicuously politically active. In the years between 1402 and 1406, the northern earldoms of Ross and Mar were without adult leadership and with Murdoch Stewart, the Justiciar for the territory north of the Forth, a prisoner in England, Albany found himself reluctantly having to form an alliance with his brother Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Buchan's son called Alexander to hold back the ambitions of the Lord of the Isles.
Douglas's absence from his power base in the Lothians and the Scottish Marches encouraged King Robert's close allies Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney and Sir David Fleming of Biggar to take full advantage in becoming the principal political force in that region. In December 1404 the king granted the royal Stewart lands in the west, in Ayrshire and around the Firth of Clyde, to James in regality protecting them from outside interference and providing the prince with a territorial centre should the need arise. Yet, in 1405 James was under the protection and tutelage of Bishop Henry Wardlaw of St Andrews on the country's east coast. Douglas animosity was intensifying because of the activities of Orkney and Fleming who continued to expand their involvement in border politics and foreign relations with England. Although a decision to send the young prince to France and out of Albany's reach was taken in the winter of 1405–06, James's departure from Scotland was unplanned. In February 1406 Bishop Wardlaw released James to Orkney and Fleming who, with their large force of Lothian adherents, proceeded into hostile Douglas east Lothian.
James's custodians may have been giving a demonstration of royal approval to further their interests in Dougl
The Orkneyinga saga is a historical narrative of the history of the Orkney and Shetland islands and their relationship with other local polities Norway and Scotland. The saga has "no parallel in the social and literary record of Scotland" and is "the only medieval chronicle to have Orkney as the central place of action"; the main focus of the work is the line of jarls who ruled the Earldom of Orkney, which constituted the Norðreyjar or Northern Isles of both Orkney and Shetland and there are frequent references to both archipelagoes throughout. The narrative commences with a brief mythical ancestry tale and proceeds to outline the Norse take-over of the Norðreyjar by Harald Fairhair – the former event is not in doubt although the role of the latter King of Norway is no longer accepted by historians as a likelihood; the saga outlines, with varying degrees of detail, the lives and times of the many jarls who ruled the islands between the 9th and 13th centuries. The extent to which the earlier sections in particular can be considered genuine history rather than fiction have been much debated by scholars.
There are several recurring themes in the Orkneyinga saga, including strife between brothers, relationships between the jarls and the Norwegian crown, raiding in the Suðreyjar – the Hebrides. In part, the saga's purpose was to provide a history of the islands and enable its readers to "understand themselves through a knowledge of their origins" but where its historical veracity is lacking it provides modern scholars with insights into the motives of the writers and the politics of 13th century Orkney; this Norse saga was written around in the early thirteenth century by an unknown Icelandic author, associated with the cultural centre at Oddi. Orkneyinga saga belongs to the genre of "Kings’ Sagas" within Icelandic saga literature, a group of histories of the kings of Norway, the best known of, Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson. Indeed Sturluson used Orkneyinga saga as one of his sources for Heimskringla, compiled around 1230; as was the case with Icelandic language writing of this period, the aims of the saga were to provide a sense of social continuity through the telling of history combined with an entertaining narrative drive.
The tales are thought to have been compiled from a number of sources, combining family pedigrees, praise poetry and oral legends with historical facts. In the case of the Orkneyinga saga the document outlines the lives of the earls of Orkney and how they came about their earldom. Woolf suggests that the task that the Icelandic compiler was faced with was not dissimilar to trying to write a "history of the Second World War on the basis of Hollywood movies", he notes that a problem with medieval Icelandic historiography in general is the difficulty of fixing of a clear chronology based on stories created in a illiterate society in which "AD dating was unknown" at the time. As the narrative approaches the period closer to the time it was written down, historians have greater confidence in its accuracy. For example, there are significant family connections between Snorri Sturluson and Earl Harald Maddadsson and the original saga document was written down at about the time of Harald's death. Vigassun identifies several different components to the saga, which may have had different authors and date from different periods.
These are: Fundinn Noregr chapters 1–3 Iarla Sogur chapters 4–38 St Magnus saga chapters 39–55 Iarteina-bok chapter 60 The History of Earl Rognwald and Swain Asleifsson chapters 56–59 and 61–118. A Danish translation dating to 1570 indicates that the original version of the saga ended with the death of Sweyn Asleifsson, killed fighting in Dublin in 1171. Various additions were added circa 1234-5 when a grandson of Asleifsson and a lawmaker called Hrafn visited Iceland; the oldest complete text is found in the late 14th century Flateyjarbók but the first translation into English did not appear until 1873. The first three chapters of the saga are a brief folk legend that sets the scene for events, it commences with characters associated with the elements – Snaer, Logi and Frosti and gives a unique explanation for how Norway came to be named as such, involving Snaer's grandson Nór. There is a reference to claiming land by dragging a boat over a neck of land and the division of the land between Nór and his brother Gór, a recurring theme in the saga.
This legend gives the Orkney jarls an origin involving a giant and king called Fornjót who lived in the far north. This distinguishes them from the Norwegian kings as described in the Ynglingatal and may have been intended to give the jarls a more senior and more Nordic ancestry. Having dealt with the mythical ancestry of the earls, the saga moves on to topics that are intended as genuine history; the next few chapters deal with the creation of the Earldom of Orkney. The saga states that Rognvald Eysteinsson was made the Earl of Møre by the King of Norway, Harald Fairhair. Rognvald accompanied the king on a great military expedition. First the islands of Shetland and Orkney were cleared of vikings, raiding Norway and they continued on to Scotland and the Isle of Man. During this campaig
Book of Deer
The Book of Deer is a 10th-century Latin Gospel Book with early 12th-century additions in Latin, Old Irish and Scottish Gaelic. It is noted for containing the earliest surviving Gaelic writing from Scotland; the origin of the book is uncertain, but it is reasonable to assume that the manuscript was at Deer, Scotland when the marginalia were made. It may be the oldest surviving manuscript produced in Scotland, is notable for having originated in what is now considered a Lowland area; the manuscript belongs to the category of Irish pocket gospel books, which were produced for private use rather than for church services. While the manuscripts to which the Book of Deer is closest in character are all Irish, most scholars argue for a Scottish origin; the book has 86 folios. It is in a modern binding; the Book of Deer has been in the ownership of the Cambridge University Library since 1715, when the library of John Moore, Bishop of Ely was presented to the University of Cambridge by King George I. The Latin text contains the complete text of the Gospel of John, portions of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, a portion of an Office for the Visitation of the Sick, the Apostles' Creed.
It ends with a colophon in Old Irish. The Gospel texts are based on the Vulgate but contain some peculiarities unique to Irish Gospel books; the texts are written in an Irish minuscule text by a single scribe. Although the text and the script of the manuscript place it squarely in the tradition of the Irish Pocket Gospel, scholars have argued that the manuscript was produced in Scotland. There are seven Scottish Gaelic texts written in blank spaces surrounding the main items; these marginalia include an account of the founding of the monastery at Deer by St Columba and St Drostan, records of five land grants to the monastery, a record of an immunity from payment of certain dues granted to the monastery. There is a copy of a Latin deed granted to the monastery by David I of Scotland protecting the monastery from "all lay service and improper exaction"; the Gaelic texts were written by as many as five different hands. These represent the earliest surviving use of Gaelic in Scotland and are important for the light they shed on the development of Gaelic in Scotland.
The Book of Deer has a number of errors. In the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke, it records Seth as the first man and grandfather of Adam; the manuscript is illuminated. It has a well thought out illumination programme. There are four full page Evangelist portraits; each portrait faces a page of text surrounded by a border of interlace. Each of these text pages has a large decorated initial; the book opens with a full page miniature of the four evangelists and closes with two facing pages each with a full page miniature of the evangelists. The final text of John ends with a half page miniature of two men. There are small decorated initial letters throughout the text. There are ten pages, all in the final half of the book, with marginal drawings of men, animals, or simple doodles; the manuscript derives its name from the monastery of Deer, mentioned in the Gaelic texts and the Latin Charter of King David I. The foundation at Deer has left no other trace of its existence, although a Cistercian monastery, founded nearby in 1219, owned some of the lands mentioned in the Gaelic texts.
The manuscript came to Cambridge University Library in 1715 when the collection of John Moore, Bishop of Ely, was purchased by King George I and presented to the University. Prior to this is it is that the book was in the possession of Thomas Gale, the headmaster of St Paul's School, London, it is not known how the manuscript came to be in the library of Bishop Moore, but some suspect it may have been looted during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the late 13th century to early 14th century. MacBain, Alexander. "The Book of Deer." Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 11: 137-166. Available from the Internet Archive Stuart, John; the Book of Deer. Edinburgh: Spalding Club, 1869. Including translations by Whitley Stokes. Available from the Internet Archive Jackson, K. H.. The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer; the Osborn Bergin Memorial Lecture 1970. Cambridge, 1972. Edition and translation available from CELT Forsythe, Katherine. Studies on the Book of Deer. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2008.
ISBN 978-1-85182-569-1 Whole manuscript online, from Cambridge University Library Book of Deer homepage
Robert II of Scotland
Robert II reigned as King of Scotland from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce, was named heir to the throne but he died without heirs on 3 December 1318. Marjorie had died in 1317 in a riding accident and parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, in same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne under the guardianship of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol—assisted by the English and those Scottish nobles, disinherited by Robert I—invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333.
Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. David escaped to France in 1334 and parliament, still functioning, appointed Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Randolph was captured by the English in July 1335 and in the same year Robert submitted to Balliol bringing about the removal of his guardianship; the office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357. Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising five daughters, his subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two surviving daughters. Robert rebelled against the King in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. David died in 1371 and Robert succeeded him at the age of fifty-five.
The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. Robert ensured that Scotland was included in the Anglo-French truce of 1384 and, a factor in the coup in November when he lost control of the country first to his eldest son and from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert. King Robert was buried at Scone Abbey. Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died in 1317 following a riding accident, he had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, in Renfrew. In 1315 parliament removed Marjorie's right as heir to her father in favour of her uncle, Edward Bruce. Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318, resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor.
The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir. This reinstatement of his status was accompanied by the gift of lands in Argyll and the Lothians; the first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol. His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland; the Scottish leadership concluded that only war could release the country from the English king's continued weakening of Balliol's sovereignty and so finalised a treaty of reciprocal assistance with France in October 1295. The Scots forayed into England in March 1296—this incursion together with the French treaty angered the English king and provoked an invasion of Scotland taking Berwick on 30 March before defeating the Scots army at Dunbar on 27 April. John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner.
Despite this, resistance to the English led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray had emerged in the name of King John Balliol. On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself. David Bruce, aged five, became king on 7 June 1329 on the death of his father Robert. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327, the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer, who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. David's accession kindled the second independence war. In 1332 Edward Balliol, son of the deposed John Balliol, spearheaded an attack on the Bruce sovereignty with the tacit support of King Edward III of England and the explicit endorsement of'the disinherited'. Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated.
Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was taking refuge. Few other strongholds remain
William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale
Sir William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale was known as the Knight of Liddesdale and the Flower of Chivalry. He was a Scottish soldier active during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Douglas' father, James Douglas of Lothian, a minor landowner in the Lothians was a second cousin of the Good Sir James Douglas, a hero of the First War of Scottish Independence. At some point circa. 1323, Douglas succeeded to his small desmesnes. Circa. 1327 he became godfather to his third cousin William, son of Sir Archibald Douglas, nephew of the "Good Sir James". Douglas was to hold minor positions of state and is not much heard of until 1332. Robert the Bruce died in 1329 and "The Good Sir James" on Crusade in 1330, Bruce's son David II was a child. Edward III of England, son of Edward II, had just attained his majority and was known to resent his father's disgrace at the hands of the Scots, his own supposed humiliation when forced to sign the Treaty of Northampton in 1328, at just sixteen years old. A party known as the Disinherited lured Edward Baliol, son of former King John of Scotland from France in 1331, with the aim of restoring him to the throne and their privileges.
Throughout the winter and spring of 1332 the Disinherited led by a veteran campaigner Henry de Beaumont and Baliol, with tacit support, but outward neutrality from Edward III, were gathering supplies and men for the invasion of Scotland. The last of the old guard Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, Bruce's nephew died in July and the leadership crisis in Scotland made it ripe for the picking. In violation of the Treaty of Northampton, which forbade any military incursions across the Border, Baliol's forces set sail from the Yorkshire coast and landed at Kinghorn in Fife, marched to meet the forces of David Bruce; the Battle of Dupplin Moor, was a decisive defeat for the defenders and Baliol was crowned King of Scots on 24 September. Baliol had little support in his new kingdom, except in his ancestral lands in Galloway. Baliol and his army marched across the Lowlands, was being eroded by guerrilla tactics learnt only twenty years previously. Baliol was ambushed at the Battle of Annan on 16 December 1332.
Baliol's brother Henry is said to have died in the skirmish, it is the first time that William Douglas is recorded in battle, Baliol himself had to flee south ignominiously. In 1333, Edward dropped all pretence of neutrality, repudiated the Treaty of Northampton, attacked Scottish Berwick-upon-Tweed, Douglas' kinsman Sir Archibald Douglas, now Guardian of Scotland, rushed to meet the English host and battle commenced at Halidon Hill. A crushing defeat for the Scots, Sir Archibald was killed, the young Lord of Douglas also. Hordes of valuable hostages taken. Young King David II, Douglas' Godson William Douglas and his brother John Douglas escaped to France. However, Edward retreated south; the supporters of King David elected two new guardians of the realm, John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, Bruce's great-nephew and Robert Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and Bruce's grandson. In 1335 Edward decide to take matters into his own hands again and entered Scotland with a force large enough to occupy the whole south of the country, taking Edinburgh castle and rebuilding and refortifying it.
William Douglas had been captured earlier in 1333, at an action known as the Battle of Dornock, so escaped the carnage that had wiped out or captured the leading men of the nation at Halidon Hill. Upon his release in 1334, he started raiding Galloway under the command of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, capturing Guy II, Count of Namur at the Battle of Boroughmuir. After Randolph's capture and without his support Douglas started building his own power base. Douglas returned to his lands in Lothian and as he had a pitiful amount of tenantry to draw upon, he organised a company of men that would follow him based on his martial prowess. "The armed bands led by Douglas, his contemporary Alexander Ramsay and others lived'in poverty' and'like shadows', fighting a guerrilla war against the English.... Ramsay based his followers in a network of caves at Hawthorndean in Midlothian, while Douglas, operated from lairs in the Forest or the Pentland Hills, was wounded twice and risked capture ambushing larger English forces.
But these leaders engaging in small-scale warfare were the only active opponents of the English in the South." Historians and chroniclers would praise Douglas and his guerrillas as "schools of Knighthood", earning him the epithet Flower of Chivalry just as they had praised his relative the Good Sir James for his guerrilla tactics in the First War of Independence. As mentioned Douglas did not have a large tenantry base to work with himself, so the majority of the men that led his companies were bound by kinship, their adherents. In his native Lothian, Douglas' clear leadership won over local gentry and their followings, but throughout the rest of the south it was Douglas' military successes that won him great support, he became known as the "Flail of the English and Wall of the Scots". Douglas was starting to be viewed in much the same way as his illustrious cousin "The Good Sir James" had been a generation before. In September 1335, the rump of the Bruce party, gathered at Dumbarton Castle and re-elected as Guardian of the realm, Sir Andrew Murray, son of William Wallace's comrade and his namesake.
A month Murray's forces met with the English pro-Baliol forces under David de Strathbogie at Culblean, in Aberdeenshire. Murray's army divided into two with Douglas' leading the forward unit; when he saw Strathbogie arrayed for battle Douglas halted, as if hesitating in the face of the enemy's preparedne
Robert the Bruce
Robert I, popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence against England, he fought during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero. Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobility, his paternal fourth great-grandfather was King David I. Robert's grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause"; as Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family's claim to the Scottish throne and took part in William Wallace's revolt against Edward I of England. Appointed in 1298 as a Guardian of Scotland alongside his chief rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews, Robert resigned in 1300 due to his quarrels with Comyn and the imminent restoration of John Balliol to the Scottish throne.
After submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to "the king's peace", Robert inherited his family's claim to the Scottish throne upon his father's death. In February 1306, having wounded Comyn, rushed from the church where they had met and encountered his attendants outside, he told them what had happened and said, "I must be off, for I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn." "Doubt?" Roger de Kirkpatrick of Closeburn answered, "I mak sikker," and, rushing into the church, killed Comyn. For this Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope. Bruce moved to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Edward I's forces defeated Robert in battle, forcing him to flee into hiding before re-emerging in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, in 1309 held his first parliament. A series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland, at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Robert defeated a much larger English army under Edward II of England, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish kingdom.
The battle marked a significant turning point, with Robert's armies now free to launch devastating raids throughout northern England, while extending his war against the English to Ireland by sending an army to invade there and by appealing to the Irish to rise against Edward II's rule. Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, peace was concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.
Robert died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey and his internal organs embalmed and placed in St Serf’s Chapel, site of the medieval Cardross Parish church. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway. Several members of the Bruce family were called Robert, the future king was one of ten children, the eldest son, of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I, his mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne; the Bruces held substantial estates in Aberdeenshire, County Antrim, County Durham, Essex and Yorkshire.
Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known, his place of birth is less certain, although it is most to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother's earldom. However there are claims that he may have been born in Lochmaben in Dumfriesshire, or Writtle in Essex. Little is known of his youth, he was brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was an integral part of Galloway, though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking. Robert the Bruce would most have become trilingual at an early age, he would have been schooled to speak and write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family.
He would have spoken both the Gaeli
Malcolm III of Scotland
Malcolm III was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was nicknamed "Canmore". Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. Henry I of England and Eustace III of Boulogne were his sons-in-law, making him the maternal grandfather of Empress Matilda, William Adelin and Matilda of Boulogne. All three of them were prominent in English politics during the 12th century. Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained under Scandinavian rule following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria; these wars did not result in any significant advances southward. Malcolm's primary achievement was to continue a lineage that ruled Scotland for many years, although his role as founder of a dynasty has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David I and his descendants than with history.
Malcolm's second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotland's only royal saint. Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety. Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen. Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed in battle with the men of Moray, led by Macbeth, on 15 August 1040. Duncan was young at the time of his death, Malcolm and his brother Donalbane were children. Malcolm's family attempted to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.
Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor. Today's British Royal family can trace their family history back to Malcolm III via his daughter Matilda. According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, Duncan's kinsman by marriage. An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the king of the Cumbrians"; this Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury.
The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the Scottish king of the same name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf, it has been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde by a daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scotland. In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, crowned at Scone on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this. If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as king was to travel to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary.
If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, under Malcolm's control by 1070; the Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058; the Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II, king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Sa