Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e. V. Dortmund known as Borussia Dortmund, BVB, or Dortmund, is a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. Founded in 1909 by eighteen football players from Dortmund, the football team is part of a large membership-based sports club with more than 145,000 members, making BVB the second largest sports club by membership in Germany. Dortmund plays in the top tier of the German football league system. Borussia Dortmund have won eight German championships, four DFB-Pokals, five DFL-Supercups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Intercontinental Cup, their Cup Winners' Cup win in 1966 made them the first German club to win a European title. Since 1974, Dortmund have played their home games at Westfalenstadion, named after its home region of Westphalia; the stadium is the largest in Germany and Dortmund has the highest average attendance of any association football club in the world. Borussia Dortmund's colours are yellow, giving the club its nickname die Schwarzgelben.
Dortmund holds a long-standing rivalry with Ruhr neighbours Schalke 04, known as the Revierderby. In terms of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Dortmund is the second richest sports club in Germany and the 11th richest football team in the world; the club was founded on 19 December 1909 by a group of young men unhappy with the Catholic church-sponsored Trinity Youth, where they played football under the stern and unsympathetic eye of the local parish priest. Father Dewald was blocked at the door when he tried to break up the organising meeting being held in a room of the local pub, Zum Wildschütz; the founders were Franz and Paul Braun, Henry Cleve, Hans Debest, Paul Dziendzielle, Franz and Wilhelm Jacobi, Hans Kahn, Gustav Müller, Franz Risse, Fritz Schulte, Hans Siebold, August Tönnesmann and Robert Unger, Fritz Weber and Franz Wendt. The name Borussia is Latin for Prussia but was taken from Borussia beer from the nearby Borussia brewery in Dortmund; the team began playing in blue and white striped shirts with a red sash, black shorts.
In 1913, they donned the yellow stripes so familiar today. Over the next decades the club enjoyed only modest success playing in local leagues, they had a brush with bankruptcy in 1929 when an attempt to boost the club's fortunes by signing some paid professional footballers failed miserably and left the team deep in debt. They survived only through the generosity of a local supporter who covered the team's shortfall out of his own pocket; the 1930s saw the rise of the Third Reich, which restructured sports and football organisations throughout the nation to suit the regime's goals. Borussia's president was replaced when he refused to join the Nazi Party, a couple of members who surreptitiously used the club's offices to produce anti-Nazi pamphlets were executed in the last days of the war; the club did have greater success in the newly established Gauliga Westfalen, but would have to wait until after World War II to make a breakthrough. It was during this time that Borussia developed its intense rivalry with Schalke 04 of suburban Gelsenkirchen, the most successful side of the era.
Like every other organisation in Germany, Borussia was dissolved by the Allied occupation authorities after the war in an attempt to distance the country's institutions from its so-recent Nazi past. There was a short-lived attempt to merge the club with two others – Werksportgemeinschaft Hoesch and Freier Sportverein 98 – as Sportgemeinschaft Borussia von 1898, but it was as Ballspiel-Verein Borussia that they made their first appearance in the national league final in 1949, where they lost 2–3 to VfR Mannheim. Between 1946 and 1963, Borussia featured in the Oberliga West, a first division league which dominated German football through the late 1950s. In 1949, Borussia reached the final in Stuttgart against VfR Mannheim, which they lost 2–3 after extra time; the club claimed its first national title in 1956 with a 4–2 win against Karlsruher SC. One year Borussia defeated Hamburger SV 4–1 to win their second national title. After this coup, the three Alfredos were legends in Dortmund. In 1963, Borussia won the last edition of the German Football Championship to secure their third national title.
In 1962, the DFB met in Dortmund and voted to establish a professional football league in Germany, to begin play in August 1963 as the Bundesliga. Borussia Dortmund earned its place among the first sixteen clubs to play in the league by winning the last pre-Bundesliga national championship. Runners-up 1. FC Köln earned an automatic berth. Dortmund's Friedhelm Konietzka scored the first-ever Bundesliga goal a minute into the match, which they would lose 2–3 to Werder Bremen. In 1965, Dortmund captured its first DFB-Pokal. In 1966, Dortmund won the European Cup Winners' Cup 2–1 against Liverpool in extra time, with the goals coming from Sigfried Held and Reinhard Libuda. In the same year, the team surrendered a commanding position atop the Bundesliga by losing four of their last five league games and finishing second, three points behind champions 1860 München. Much of 1860 München's success came on the strength of the play of Konietzka transferred from Dortmund; the 1970s were characterised by financial problems, relegation from the Bundesliga in 1972, the opening of the Westfalenstadion, named after its home region Westphalia in 1974.
The club earned its return to Bundesliga in 1976. Dortmund continued to have financial problems through the 1980s. BVB avoided being relegated in 1986 by winning a third decisive playoff game against Fortuna Köln after finishing the
FIFA Club World Cup
The FIFA Club World Cup is an international men's association football competition organised by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The tournament assigns the world title; the competition was first contested in 2000 as the FIFA Club World Championship. It was not held between 2001 and 2004 due to a combination of factors, most the collapse of FIFA's marketing partner International Sport and Leisure. Since 2005, the competition has been held every year, has been hosted by Brazil, the United Arab Emirates and Morocco; the FIFA Club World Cup's prestige is perceived quite differently in different parts of the football world. The first FIFA Club World Championship took place in Brazil in 2000, it ran in parallel with the Intercontinental Cup, a competition played by representatives clubs of most developed continents in the football world, or the winners of the European Champions' Cup and the Copa Libertadores, first contested in 1960 and recognized in the aftermath by FIFA as a competition assignee of official world title.
In 2005, the Intercontinental Cup was merged with the FIFA Club World Championship, in 2006, the tournament was renamed as the FIFA Club World Cup. As required by the regulations, a representative from FIFA present the winner of the World Cup with the FIFA Club World Cup trophy and with a FIFA World Champions certificate; the current format of the tournament involves seven teams competing for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about two weeks. The host nation's national champions dispute a play-off against the Oceania champions, from which the winner joins the champions of Asia and North America at the quarter-finals; the quarter-final winners go on to face the European and South American champions, who enter at the semi-final stage, for a place in the final. Real Madrid hold the record for most victories, winning the competition four times. Corinthians' inaugural victory remains the best result from a host nation's national league champions. Teams from Spain have won the tournament the most for any nation.
The current champions are Spain's Real Madrid, who defeated Al-Ain 4–1 in the final of the 2018 edition, to win their fourth title in the competition and to become the first team to win it three years in a row and four times in total in the tournament's history. Although the first club tournament to be billed as the "Football World Championship" was held in 1887, in which Scottish Cup champions Hibernian defeated English FA Cup semi-finalists Preston North End, the first attempt at creating a global club football tournament, according to FIFA, was in 1909, 21 years before the first FIFA World Cup; the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy was held in Italy in 1909 and 1911, contested by English, Italian and Swiss clubs. It was won by English amateur site West Auckland on both occasions; the idea that FIFA should organise international club competitions dates from the beginning of the 1950s. In 1951, FIFA President Jules Rimet was asked about FIFA's involvement in the Copa Rio, stated that it was not under FIFA's jurisdiction since it was organised and sponsored by the Brazilian Football Confederation.
The competition was succeeded by another tournament, named Torneio Octogonal Rivadavia Corrêa Meyer, won by Vasco da Gama. This tournament had five Brazilian sides, three foreign clubs, losing half of its intercontinental aspect. In December 2007, FIFA turned down Palmeiras' request to recognise the tournament as a Club World Cup since the participants were limited to two continents. Although the competition was discontinued, it was held in high regard. FIFA board members Stanley Rous and Ottorino Barassi participated albeit not in their capacity as FIFA members, in the organisation of the competition in 1951. Rous' role was attributed to the negotiations with European clubs, whereas Barassi helped form the framework of the competition. Commenting on Juventus' acceptance to participate in the tournament, the Italian press stated that "an Italian club could not be missing in such an important and worldwide-reaching event"; because of the difficulty the CBF found in bringing European clubs to the competition, the O Estado de S. Paulo newspaper suggested that there should be FIFA involvement in the programming of international club competitions saying that, "ideally, international tournaments, here or abroad, should be played at times set by FIFA".
However, no response was received. The Pequeña Copa del Mundo was a tournament held in Venezuela between 1952 and 1957, with a two short revivals in 1963 and in 1965, it was played by eight participants, half from Europe and half from South America. After the late 1950s, the tournament lost status as the pedigree of its participants decreased; this competition, along with the creation of the European Cup and the Copa Libertadores, created the groundwork of the eventual Intercontinental Cup. The Tournoi de Paris was a competition meant to bring together the top teams from Europe and South America to determine a de facto "best club in the world".
Carlos Alberto Tevez is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Boca Juniors and the Argentina national team. His energy and goalscoring rate have made him an indispensable player for his club sides throughout his career, in the eyes of fellow players and media alike. Tevez began his career with Boca Juniors, winning the Copa Libertadores and Intercontinental Cup in 2003 before moving to Corinthians, where he won the Brasileiro. In 2006, he moved to West Ham United, helping the team remain in the Premier League in his only season. Tevez's prolonged transfers to West Ham and Manchester United were plagued by issues regarding third-party ownership by Media Sports Investment, their resulting sagas paved changes to both Premier League and FIFA regulations. Tevez transferred to Manchester United in 2007, in his two years there won several trophies, including two Premier League titles and the UEFA Champions League. In 2009, he joined Manchester City for £47 million, becoming the first player to move between the two rival clubs since Terry Cooke in 1999.
Despite missing four months of the 2011–12 season following a dispute, Tevez returned to help Manchester City win their first league title in 44 years. In 2013, he joined Juventus for £12 million, finishing as the team's top goalscorer and winning the Scudetto in his first season. After winning a domestic double and reaching the Champions League final in his second season, he returned to Boca Juniors in June 2015, where he won another domestic double, becoming the first footballer to win two domestic league and cup doubles in one calendar year. In December 2016, he joined Chinese club Shanghai Shenhua, in a deal which made him one of the highest-paid footballers in the world. Since his debut for Argentina in 2005, Tevez has over 75 caps. A gold medal winner at the 2004 Olympics, he played at two FIFA World Cups, a FIFA Confederations Cup and four Copa América tournaments. Tevez was born Carlos Alberto Martínez by his mother's surname in Ciudadela, Buenos Aires Province, raised in the neighbourhood of Ejército de Los Andes, better known as "Fuerte Apache".
It was from there he received the nickname of "El Apache". His biological parents were Fabiana "Trina" Martínez, he was adopted by her husband Segundo Raimundo Tévez. His adopted parents changed his surname to his adopted father's during a conflict between his junior club All Boys and Boca Juniors. Tevez has a distinctive burn scar, he was accidentally scalded with boiling water as a child, which caused third-degree burns and kept him hospitalised in intensive care for nearly two months. After joining Boca Juniors, Tevez refused an offer from the club to have them cosmetically improved, saying the scars were a part of who he was in the past and who he is today. At age 16, Tevez made his debut for Boca Juniors against Talleres de Córdoba in the Torneo Apertura of the 2001–02 Argentine Primera División, on 21 October 2001. Boca Juniors were crowned champions of the 2001 Copa Libertadores and faced Bayern Munich at the 2001 Intercontinental Cup on 27 November, where they lost 1–0, although Tevez was not included in the squad.
He went on to score 1 goal in 11 league appearances in the 2001–02 season. Boca had finished in first place of their 2002 Copa Libertadores group and had reached the quarter-finals, where they faced Paraguay's Club Olimpia on 8 May. Tevez scored after 18 minutes in the first-leg to give Boca Juniors a 1–0 lead, until Olimpia levelled the scores in the 67th minute when Boca defender Cristian Traverso scored an own goal. Boca lost the second-leg 1–0 in Asunción on 16 May. Boca finished three points behind Independiente to finish in second position during the Torneo Apertura. Boca Juniors finished four points behind River Plate to claim second position in the Torneo Clausura. Tevez scored 10 goals in 32 appearances for Boca during the 2002–03 season. During the 2002 Copa Sudamericana, Boca were eliminated 3–1 on aggregate by Gimnasia de La Plata in the first round. Boca participated at the 2003 Copa Libertadores and reached the final of the competition, where they faced Santos. Boca won 5–1 on aggregate, with Tevez scoring in the 3–1 away win in the second leg.
Tevez was voted as the tournament's best player. Tevez scored 12 goals in 23 appearances during the 2003–04 season. Boca were crowned champions of the Torneo Apertura, where Tevez finished as the Apertura's seventh top goalscorer with eight goals. Boca finished in second spot of the Torneo Clausura, four points behind River Plate. During the 2003 Copa Sudamericana, Boca Juniors reached the quarter-final stages where they were eliminated by Colombia's Atlético Nacional 5–1 on aggregate. During the 2003 Intercontinental Cup, who had just returned to the side from injury, entered the field in the 73rd minute for Guillermo Barros Schelotto, as Boca Juniors defeated Milan 3–1 on penalties to claim the Intercontinental Cup. Boca had reached the final of the 2004 Copa Sudamericana, where they beat Bolivia's Bolívar 2–1 on aggregate. Tevez scored in Boca's 2–0 second-leg win. Boca finished as runners-up of the 2004 Copa Libertadores. Tevez scored in both games of Boca's round of 16 wins against Peru's Club Sporting Cristal.
Tevez scored for Boca Juniors in their 2–1 second-leg loss to arch rivals River Plate, having drawn them level 2–2 on aggregate, which Boca went on to win 5–4 on penalties. Tevez was sent off for imitating a chicken when celebrating a goal against River Plate mocking the opposition crowd, with River called'Gallinas' by other fans for their habit choking late on. Boca played ag
Feyenoord Rotterdam is a Dutch professional football club based in Rotterdam, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed its name to SC Feijenoord in 1912, SC Feyenoord in 1974, Feyenoord Rotterdam in 1978, when SC Feyenoord became a separate amateur team. Since 1937, Feyenoord's home ground has been Stadion Feijenoord, nicknamed De Kuip. Feyenoord is one of the most successful clubs in the Netherlands, winning 15 Eredivisie titles, 13 KNVB Cups, 4 Johan Cruyff Shields. Internationally, it has won one European Cup, two UEFA Cups, one Intercontinental Cup; the club has played continuously in the top tier of the Dutch football system since gaining promotion to Eerste Klasse in 1921, more times than any other club in the country, including the likes of Ajax and PSV Eindhoven. Feyenoord is known as a people's club with a huge international support; the club's most successful period in history was the 1960s and'70s, when Coen Moulijn and Ove Kindvall led the club to six league titles, two European trophies, an Intercontinental Cup, thereby becoming the first Dutch club in history to win both the European Cup and the Intercontinental Cup.
In the 21st century, Feyenoord ended an 18-year league title drought in 2017 and won the 2002 UEFA Cup against Borussia Dortmund in its home stadium. Feyenoord has a longstanding rivalry with Ajax, a clash between two teams from the two biggest cities in the Netherlands, called De Klassieker; the club's anthem is "Hand in Hand". As of 2019, Feyenoord will become a multi-sports club; the football club Wilhelmina was founded in the pub De Vereeniging on 19 July 1908 and played in blue-sleeved red shirts and white shorts. Between 1908, 1910, 1911, 1912, the club underwent a series of changes of name and team colours, becoming Hillesluise Football Club in 1909, RVV Celeritas. Upon earning promotion to the National football association in 1912, the club renamed to SC Feijenoord, changed uniform once again, adopting the red and white shirts, black shorts and black socks that they still wear today. In 1918, Feijenoord were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football and moved to the ground Kromme Zandweg.
After 18 years, the formation of the club and a mere three years after they were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football Feijenoord earned their first honours by capturing the national league championship in 1924. The team enjoyed a string of successes in the latter half of the decade, taking divisional titles in 1926, 1927, 1928 and 1929, winning their second national championship in 1928. Feijenoord won their first Dutch Cup in 1930 by scoring the only goal in a derby final against Excelsior, they continued to dominate their division with three consecutive titles, but were winless in subsequent championship finals. Five years after their first cup win, Feijenoord took the prize for a second time in 1935, by beating Helmond Sport. Feijenoord started to attract more fans to their stadium at Kromme Zandweg, in 1933, they decided to build a new facility; the club moved to the Feijenoord Stadion in 1937, playing the first match there on 27 March against Beerschot. During this period Feijenoord won three consecutive division titles from 1936 to 1938, with their third and fourth national championships coming in 1936 and 1938.
During World War II, Feijenoord played their matches at Sparta Rotterdam's Kasteel, as the Nazis had occupied De Kuip. When Het Kasteel was unavailable due to clashes with Sparta fixtures, Feijenoord played at their former ground, the Kromme Zandweg. Feijenoord's again won a division title with a national championship in 1940, their fifth Dutch title. During the German occupation of the Netherlands, play continued in Dutch football leagues, though the 1945 championship was cancelled as the war came to its conclusion. During this period, Feijenoord's only trophy was a divisional championship in 1943. After the war, Feijenoord did not perform as well as they had in previous decades, not challenging in their division and so missing the national playoff rounds. On 30 June 1954, the chairmen of the three biggest Rotterdam teams organised a meeting in Utrecht, attended by several chairmen of other clubs and a delegation of the KNVB to discuss the start of professional football in the Netherlands; the professional era commenced with the first Eredivisie season in 1954/1955.
Feijenoord were one of the clubs participating in the inaugural Eredivisie and have never been relegated. One of the most memorable matches in these first years of professional football was the clash between Feijenoord and the Volewijckers at 2 April 1956, which Feijenoord won 11–4, with nine goals by Henk Schouten. Feijenoord would grow an intense rivalry with Ajax. Matches between the two clubs were dubbed as de Klassieker; the first memorable Klassieker from a Feijenoord point of view took place at 11 November 1956, when Daan den Bleijker scored four times to give Feijenoord a 7–3 win over their archrivals. Feijenoord claimed their first professional Eredivisie Championship and their sixth Dutch Championship in 1961. On the road to the title Ajax was beaten 9–5 in De Kuip, four of Feijenoord's goals were scored by Henk Schouten; the following season, they played their first European Cup match facing IFK Göteborg. The Swedes were beaten 8 -- 2 in Rotterdam. Feijenoord were eliminated by Tottenham Hotspur in the following round.
In 1962, Feijenoord defended their Dutch Championship title and rea
Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense
Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense known as Grêmio, is a Brazilian professional football club based in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The club plays in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the top tier of the Brazilian football league system, the Campeonato Gaúcho, Rio Grande do Sul's top state league; the club was founded in 1903. As of 2017, Grêmio was ranked number one in the CBF club rankings and is listed by Forbes as the third most valuable football club in the Americas with an estimated value of $295.5 million. Grêmio has won 37 Campeonato Gaúcho, 2 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 1 Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, 1 Supercopa do Brasil, 1 Copa Sul and 5 Copa do Brasil. Internationally, Grêmio has won 1 Intercontinental Cup, 3 Copa Libertadores de América, 2 Recopa Sudamericana and 1 Sanwa Bank Cup. Grêmio plays in black shorts and white socks. Grêmio has a fierce rivalry with Internacional, considered the most heated in Brazil and one of the most heated in the world. Matches between the two teams are known as Grenal.
On September 7, 1903, Brazil's first football team, Rio Grande, played an exhibition match in Porto Alegre. An entrepreneur from Sorocaba, São Paulo, named Cândido Dias was besotted with the sport and went to watch the match. During the match, the ball deflated; as the only owner of a football in Porto Alegre, he lent his ball to the players and the match resumed. After the match, he talked to the local players about. On September 15, 1903, 32 people, including Cândido Dias, met at Salão Grau, a local restaurant and founded "Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense". Most of the founding members were part of the city's German community. Carlos Luiz Bohrer was elected as first president; the club's first match took place on March 6, 1904, against Fuss Ball Porto Alegre, the first of two matches played that day. Grêmio won the first match 1–0; the name of the player who scored the club's first goal is lost to history. The trophy Grêmio won that the Wanderpreis, is still displayed at the club's museum. Within 5 months the club had inaugurated its first home.
On July 18, 1909, Grêmio beat Internacional 10–0 on the latter's debut game. Grêmio's goalkeeper Kallfelz left the field to chat with fans during the match. Now this victory is remembered with pride by Gremistas; the match was the starting point for a rivalry. Grêmio was one of the founding members of the Porto Alegre football league in 1910, in 1911 won the league for the first time. On August 25, 1912, in a city league match, Grêmio beat Sport Clube Nacional of Porto Alegre 23–0. Sisson scored 14 goals in the match to record Grêmio's biggest win. In 1918, Grêmio became a founding member of the Fundação Rio-Grandense de Desportes, a federation that organized the first state championships in Rio Grande do Sul; the first championship was scheduled for 1918, but the Spanish flu epidemic forced the event to be postponed until 1919. In 1921, a year after the arrival of legendary goalkeeper Eurico Lara, Grêmio won its first state championship. On July 7, 1911 Grêmio beat Uruguay's national team 2–1. In 1931, Grêmio became one of the first teams in Brazil to play matches at night after installing floodlights at Estádio Baixada.
On May 19, 1935, Grêmio became the first team from Rio Grande do Sul to beat a team from the state of São Paulo by defeating Santos 3–2. Grêmio was the first club outside Rio de Janeiro state to play at the Maracanã Stadium, defeating Flamengo 3–1 in 1950. During this period, Grêmio started to earn a reputation abroad. In 1932 it played its first international match in Rivera. In 1949, the match against Uruguay's Nacional ended in a 3–1 win for Grêmio and the players received a hero's welcome on their return to Porto Alegre. In that same year, Grêmio played for the first time in Central America. Between 1953–1954, Grêmio travelled to Mexico and Colombia, a tour dubbed "the conquest of the Americas". On February 25, 1959, Grêmio defeated Boca Juniors 4–1 in Buenos Aires, becoming the first foreign team to beat Boca at La Bombonera. In 1961, Grêmio went on its first European tour playing 24 games in 11 countries: France, Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Denmark and Russia; the Gremistas were growing in number.
1946 saw the first appearance of the club's motto "com o Grêmio onde o Grêmio estiver", written into Grêmio's official anthem. An anthem penned by Lupicinio Rodrigues, a samba-cancao composer who became one of the most famous and revered Grêmio fans; the anthem celebrates the Gremistas reputation for attending all Grêmio matches, regardless of the difficulties and obstacles they might have to overcome to see their club. In the late 1950s, Grêmio joined the Taça Brasil; the team reached the Taça Brasil semifinals in 1959, 1963 and 1967. In 1968, the team won its first international title in a friendly cup with teams from Brazil and Uruguay. In 1954, Grêmio inaugurated what was at the time the biggest private stadium in Brazil, the Olímpico Stadium. In 1971, the Taça Brasil championship was replaced by the Campeonato Brasileiro with the first goal scored in the Campeonato Brasileiro coming from Grêmio's Néstor Scotta, an Argentine, in a match against São Paulo at Estádio do Morumbi. Grêmio maintained a series of respectable results in Campeonato Brasileiro achieving a top half finish.
Grêmio's first dominant period in South American football
The J1 League is the top division of the Japan Professional Football League and the top professional association football J. League in Japan, it is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football. The J1 League is the first level of the Japanese association football league system; the second tier is represented by the J2 League. It is sponsored by Meiji Yasuda Life and thus known as the Meiji Yasuda J1 League; until the 2014 season it was named the J. League Division 1. Before the inception of the J. League, the highest level of club football was the Japan Soccer League, which consisted of amateur clubs. Despite being well-attended during the boom of the late 1960s and early 1970s, the JSL went into decline in the 1980s, in general line with the deteriorating situation worldwide. Fans were few, the grounds were not of the highest quality, the Japanese national team was not on a par with the Asian powerhouses. To raise the level of play domestically, to attempt to garner more fans, to strengthen the national team, the Japan Football Association decided to form a professional league.
The professional association football league, J. League was formed in 1992, with eight clubs drawn from the JSL First Division, one from the Second Division, the newly formed Shimizu S-Pulse. At the same time, JSL changed its name and became the former Japan Football League, a semi-professional league. Although the J. League did not launch until 1993, the Yamazaki Nabisco Cup competition was held between the ten clubs in 1992 to prepare for the inaugural season. J. League kicked off its first season with ten clubs in early 1993. Despite the success in the first three years, in early 1996 the league attendance declined rapidly. In 1997 the average attendance was 10,131, compared to more than 19,000 in 1994; the league's management realized that they were heading in the wrong direction. In order to solve the problem, the management came out with two solutions. First, they announced the J. League Hundred Year Vision, in which they aim to make 100 professional association football clubs in the nation of Japan by 2092, the hundredth season.
The league encouraged the clubs to promote football or non-football related sports and health activities, to acquire local sponsorships, to build good relationship with their hometowns at the grass-root level. The league believed that this will allow the clubs to bond with their respective cities and towns and get support from local government and citizens. In other words, clubs will be able to rely on the locals, rather than major national sponsors. Second, the infrastructure of the league was changed in 1999; the league acquired nine clubs from the semi-professional JFL and one club from J. League to create a two division system; the top flight became the J. League Division 1 with 16 clubs while J. League Division 2 was launched with ten clubs in 1999; the former second-tier Japan Football League now became the third-tier Japan Football League. Until 2004, the J1 season was divided into two. At the end of each full season, the champion from each half played a two-legged series to determine the overall season winner and runners-up.
Júbilo Iwata in 2002, Yokohama F. Marinos in 2003, won both "halves" of the respective seasons, thus eliminating the need for the playoff series; this was the part of the reason the league abolished the split-season system starting from 2005. Since the 2005 season, J. League Division 1 consisted of 18 clubs and the season format became more similar to European club football; the number of relegated clubs increased from 2 to 2.5, with the 3rd-to-last club going into the promotion/relegation playoffs with the third-placed J2 club. Since other than minor adjustments, the top flight has stayed consistent. Japanese teams did not treat the AFC Champions League that in the early years, in part due to the distances travelled and teams played. However, in the 2008 Champions League, three Japanese sides made the quarter-finals. However, in recent years, with the inclusion of the A-League in Eastern Asia, introduction to the Club World Cup, increased marketability in the Asian continent, both the league and the clubs paid more attention to Asian competition.
For example, Kawasaki Frontale built up a notable fan base in Hong Kong, owing to their participation in the Asian Champions League during the 2007 season. Continuous effort led to the success of Urawa Red Diamonds in 2007 and Gamba Osaka in 2008. Thanks to excellent league management and competitiveness in Asian competition, the AFC awarded J. League the highest league ranking and a total of four slots starting from the 2009 season; the league took this as an opportunity to sell TV broadcasting rights to foreign countries in Asia. Starting from the 2008 season, the Emperor's Cup Winner was allowed to participate in the upcoming Champions League season, rather than waiting a whole year. In order to fix this one-year lag issue, the 2007 Emperor's Cup winner, Kashima Antlers' turn was waived. Nonetheless, Kashima Antlers ended up participating in the 2009 ACL season by winning the J. League title in the 2008 season. Three major changes were seen starting in the 2009 season. First, starting that season, four clubs entered the AFC Champions League.
Secondly, the number of relegation slots increased to three. The AFC Player slot was implemented starting this season; each club will be allowed to have a total of four foreign players.
AS Monaco FC
Association sportive de Monaco football club referred to as AS Monaco or Monaco, is a Monégasque football club that competes in Ligue 1, the top tier of French football. Founded in 1924, the team plays; the club is captained by Radamel Falcao. Though based in Monaco, the club plays in the French football league system. Monaco is one of the most successful clubs in French football, having won eight league titles and five Coupe de France trophies; the club has competed in European football, were runners-up in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1992 and the UEFA Champions League in 2004. The club's traditional colours are red and white, the club is known as Les Rouges et Blancs. Monaco is a member of the European Club Association. In December 2011, two-thirds of the club was sold to an investment group led by Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev. With Rybolovlev's financial backing, the club returned to Ligue 1 and won the 2016–17 Ligue 1, their first league title in 17 years. AS Monaco FC was founded on 1 August 1919 as a unification of numerous local clubs based in France and the principality.
The multiple sports club of the Association Sportive de Monaco was founded on the 23rd August 1924. AS Monaco FC was absorbed by the latter and became the football section of the enlarged Monegasque sporting club; the club's early years were spent in the amateur regional divisions of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, rising between the leagues in the 1920s. In 1933, Monaco were invited by the French Football Federation to turn professional; the Monégasques' first year of second division football ended in failure, however, as they were relegated to the amateur leagues the following year. By 1948, Monaco returned to the French second division. In 1960, Monaco coach Lucien Leduc led the club to its first professional trophy, the Coupe de France, beating Saint-Étienne 4–2 in extra time; this initial success was bettered in the following year with the club winning the French Championship for the first time in its history, qualifying for the European Cup. Leduc subsequently led the club to its first League and Cup Double in 1963.
Upon Leduc's departure in 1963, Monaco endured a barren run, entrenched in the middle half of the league for the best part of the next decade and alternating between the first and second divisions after 1963. In 1975, Jean-Louis Campora, son of former president Charles Campora, became chairman of the club. In his second season, he brought back Leduc, who won the club promotion to the first division and won them the championship the following year in 1978. Leduc subsequently left the club again in 1979, to be succeeded by Lucien Muller and Gérard Banide, both of whom were unable to halt the club's decline; the early 1980s saw a steady stream of successes in national competitions. Monaco won a title every other year. In the 1985 -- 86 season, Monaco hammered Bordeaux 9 -- one of the biggest wins in club history. Disappointingly for Monaco fans, the club could not translate its domestic leadership into European success. Up to this point, Monaco had never passed the first round of any European competition.
Monaco lost to CSKA Sofia twice and Universitatea Craiova. In 1986, former Ajax manager Ștefan Kovács, who succeeded Rinus Michels and honed his Total Football ideals with the Dutch champions, came out of a three-year "retirement" to manage Monaco, but he could not bring them success. With the club facing a second barren spell, they signed Arsène Wenger, who had hitherto been unknown, managing Nancy without much success. Wenger's reign saw the club enjoy one of its most successful periods, with several inspired signings, including George Weah, Glenn Hoddle, Jürgen Klinsmann, Youri Djorkaeff. Youth team policies produced future World Cup winners Emmanuel Petit, Lilian Thuram and Thierry Henry. Under Wenger, they won the league in his first season in charge and the Coupe de France in 1991, with the club competing in the latter stages of the European Cup and challenging for the league title; the club could have had greater success in this period, as it emerged in 1993 that bitter rivals Marseille had indulged in match fixing and numerous improprieties, a view that Wenger had long held.
In 1994, after being blocked by the Monaco board from opening discussions with German powerhouse Bayern Munich for their vacant managerial post after being shortlisted for the role, Wenger was released from the club, several weeks after the post had been filled. After Wenger's departure, the club went on to record two further league championships. However, as the decade came to an end, rumours were surfacing that the club was facing numerous financial difficulties. In 2003, these financial problems came to a head. Despite finishing second in the league, the club was relegated to Ligue 2 by the French Professional League for amassing a €50 million debt. Whilst this was reduced on appeal to a ban on purchasing players, it was enough to force President Jean-Louis Campora, in charge for 28 years, to step aside, he was replaced by Pierre Svara, an administrator considered to be close to the principality's princely family but with no footballing experience. The following season saw remarkable success on the field, gi