SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mérindol massacre

For the French doctor, see Antoine Mérindol The Mérindol massacre took place in 1545, when Francis I of France ordered the Waldensians of the village of Mérindol to be punished for dissident religious activities. Provençal and Papal soldiers killed hundreds or thousands of Waldensian villagers. Outside the Piedmont of Italy, the Waldenses joined the local Protestant churches in Bohemia and Germany, they had regrouped in the Luberon and followed their religions in a concealed manner. As Lutherans started to penetrate their region, the Waldensians' activities came under scrutiny by the French government; the Waldensians became more militant, constructing fortified areas, as in Cabrières, or attacking an abbey. The Parlement of Provence issued the "Arrêt de Mérindol" on 18 November 1541; this was confirmed in 1545 by Francis I after a series of appeals failed. In April, Maynier raised an army of Provençal troops, who were joined by forces from the Papal Comtat Venaissin against the Waldensians of Mérindol and Cabrières.

The leaders in the 1545 massacres were Jean Maynier d'Oppède, First President of the parlement of Provence, Antoine Escalin des Aimars, returning from the Italian Wars with 2,000 veterans, the Bandes de Piémont. Escalin was on his way to fight against the English in the area of Boulogne after returning from an embassy to Constantinople, where he was French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. While in Marseilles in 1545, he was requested to assist Jean Maynier d'Oppède in the repression; these soldiers took the villages of Mérindol and Cabrières and devastated neighbouring Waldensian villages. Historians have estimated, they sent hundreds of men to forced labour in the French galleys. In total, they destroyed between 28 villages; the execution of one young man, a servant, might well have been the first example of execution by firing squad in Europe for causes of ideology. In the aftermath, both Francis I and Pope Paul III approved of the actions taken; when Henry II took the French throne, however, he promised to investigate the affair.

The Parliament of Paris tried the leaders of the attacks, but acquitted all but one. The massacres influenced the Waldensians to become more attached to the Calvinist churches

Nicky Megaloudis

Nicky Megaloudis is a retired American soccer defender who played professionally in the North American Soccer League and Major Indoor Soccer League. Megaloudis father, moved to the United States from Greece in the late 1940s, Megaloudis grew up on Long Island as part of an extensive soccer playing family. In 1975, uncle of Chris Megaloudis, graduated from Long Island City High School, he entered Long Island University where he played on the men's soccer team from 1975 to 1977. He was 1977 Honorable Mention All American. In 1978, Megaloudis turned professional with the Houston Hurricane of the North American Soccer League; that fall, the Houston Summit signed most of the Hurricane roster, including Megaloudis, for the Summit's upcoming Major Indoor Soccer League season. Megaloudis alternated between the two teams until the fall of 1980 when he moved to the New York Arrows, he remained with the Arrows until 1984 when he moved to the Las Vegas Americans for the 1984-1985 season. In 1997, Megaloudis coached the Florida Strikers of the USISL.

In the fall of 1997, he became an assistant coach with the Miami Fusion of Major League Soccer. He held that position until May 2000. In 2004, Megaloudis' daughter, Nicole Megaloudis, a freshman forward on the Virginia Commonwealth University women's soccer team, died in a single car accident on I-64 West in Goochland County, VA. Megaloudis and his wife, had divorced and Gail had married Thomas Rongen; as a result, D. C. United holds an annual Nicole Cup to raise money for college soccer scholarships. NASL/MISL

Bhambatha

Bambata, or Bhambatha kaMancinza known as Mbata Bhambatha, was a Zulu chief of the amaZondi clan in the Colony of Natal and son of Mancinza. He is famous for his role in an armed rebellion in 1906 when the poll tax was raised from a tax per hut to per head, increasing hardship during a severe economic depression. Bhambatha claims. Dinizulu disputed no convincing evidence for either story is available, it is unclear what year Bamatha was born due to no written records or birth certificates we estimate Bamatha was born in 1865 in Mpanza near the town of Greytown, Natal Colony. He was the son of Chief Macinza sometimes called Macinga of the abakwa Zondi chieftaincy, his mother, principal wife of Macinza, was the daughter of Chief Phakade of an important Zulu chieftaincy, the Cunu. Bhambatha is famous for being one of the 10,000 Zulu warriors to guard Shaka Zulus mother's grave for a year, he is said to have been a Zulu warrior under discipline. Bhambatha is famous for being one of the 10,000 Zulu warriors to guard Shaka Zulus mother's grave for a year, but he is better known for his role in an armed rebellion in 1906 when the poll tax was raised from a tax per hut to per head increasing hardship during a severe economic depression.

The Natal Police believed Bhambatha was going to resist the tax with force and sent about 150 men to arrest him. Instead the police were ambushed and four policemen killed. Thousands of colonial troops were sent after him, including cavalry and heavy artillery, leading to 3,500 dead; the British claim to have killed Bhambatha in the Battle of Mome Gorge while it is believed among the Zulu people that he fled and settled in Mozambique. He is credited as an inspiration to native South African resistance and as a precursor of the anti-apartheid movement